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Bhagavadgita : — 

Sanatsucatiya : — 

Anugita : — 


Index of Principal Matters 
Sanskrit Index 







Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the Trans- 
lations of the Sacred Books of the East . . . 443 




It has become quite a literary commonplace, that — to 
borrow the words of Professor Max Miiller in one of his 
recent lectures — history, in the ordinary sense of the word, 
is almost unknown in Indian literature *. And it is certainly 
a remarkable irony of fate, that we should be obliged to 
make this remark on the very threshold of an introduction 
to the Bhagavadgita ; for according to the eminent French 
philosopher, Cousin 2 , this great deficiency in Sanskrit litera- 
ture is due, in no inconsiderable measure, to the doctrines 
propounded in the Bhagavadgita itself. But however that 
may be, this much is certain, that the student of the Bha- 
gavadgita must, for the present, go without that reliable 
historical information touching the author of the work, the 
time at which it was composed, and even the place it 
occupies in literature, which one naturally desires, when 
entering upon the study of any work. More especially in 
an attempt like the present, intended as it mainly is for 
students of the history of religion, I should have been better 
pleased, if I could, in this Introduction, have concentrated 
to a focus, as it were, only those well ascertained historical 
results, on which there is something like a consensus of 
opinion among persons qualified to judge. But there is no 
exaggeration in saying, that it is almost impossible to lay 
down even a single proposition respecting any important 

1 Hibbcrt Lectures, p. 131. 

2 Lectures on the History of Modern Philosophy (translated by O. W. Wight), 
vol. i, pp. 49, 50. At p. 433 seq. of the second volume, M. Cousin gives a 
general view of the doctrine of the Gita. See also Mr. Maurice's and Ritter's 
Histories of Philosophy. 


matin connected with the BhagavadgiteL, about which any 
such consensus can be said to exist. The conclusions 
arrived at in tin's Introduction must, therefore, be distinctly 
understood to embody individual opinions only, and must 
be taken accordingly for what they are worth. 

The full name of the work is BhagavadgM. In common 
parlance, we often abbreviate the name into Gita, and in 
Sanskrit literature the name occurs in both forms. In the 
works of ^ankaraHrya, quotations from the Gita are 
introduced, sometimes with the words ' In the Gita,' or ' In 
the BhagavadgitaV and sometimes with words which may 
be rendered ' In the Gitas,' the plural form being used 1 . 
In the colophons to the MSS. of the work, the form current, 
apparently throughout India, is, ' In the Upanishads sung 
(Gitas) by the Deity/ wSankara/£arya, indeed, sometimes 
calls it the Ij-vara Gita 2 , which, I believe, is the specific title 
of a different work altogether. The signification, however, 
of the two names is identical, namely, the song sung by 
the Deity, or, as Wilkins translates it, the Divine Lay. 

This Divine Lay forms part of the Bhishma Parvan of the 
Mahabharata — one of the two well-known national epics of 
India. The Gita gives its name to a subdivision of the 
Bhishma Parvan, which is called the Bhagavadgita Parvan, 
and which includes, in addition to the eighteen chapters of 
which the Gita consists, twelve other chapters. Upon this 
the question has naturally arisen, Is the Giti a genuine 
portion of the Mahabharata, or is it a later addition ? The 
question is one of considerable difficulty. But I cannot 
help saying, that the manner in which it has been generally 
dealt with is not altogether satisfactory to my mind. Be- 
fore going any further into that question, however, it is 
desirable to state some of the facts on which the decision 
must be based. It appears, then, that the royal family 
of Hastinapura was divided into two branches ; the one 
called the Kauravas, and the other the PaWavas. The 

1 Ex. gr. .S'ariraka Bhashya, vol. ii, p. 840. It is also often cited as a Smr/ti, 
ibid. vol. i, p. 152. 

8 See inter alia .S'ariraka Bhashya, vol. i, p. 455, vol. ii, p. 687, and Cole- 
booke's Essays, vol. i, p. 355 (Madras) ; Lassen's edition of the Gita, XXXV. 



former wished to keep the latter out of the share of the 
kingdom claimed by them ; and so, after many attempts at 
an amicable arrangement had proved fruitless, it was deter- 
mined to decide the differences between the two parties by 
the arbitrament of arms. Each party accordingly collected 
its adherents, and the hostile armies met on the 'holy 
field of Kurukshetra,' mentioned in the opening lines of our 
poem. At this juncture, Krishna Dvaipayana, alias Vyasa, 
a relative of both parties and endowed with more than 
human powers, presents himself before Dhr/tarash/ra, the 
father of the Kauravas, who is stated to be altogether blind. 
Vyasa asks Dhr/tarash/ra whether it is his wish to look 
with his own eyes on the course of the battle ; and on 
Dhr/tarash/ra's expressing his reluctance, Vyasa deputes 
one Sa;/^aya to relate to Dhr/tarash/ra all the events of 
the battle, giving to Sa%-aya, by means of his own super- 
human powers, all necessary aids for performing the duty. 
Then the battle begins, and after a ten days' struggle, the 
first great general of the Kauravas, namely Bhishma, falls 1 . 
At this point Sa%aya comes up to Dhrztarash/ra, and 
announces to him the sad result, which is of course a great 
blow to his party. Dhr/tarash/ra then makes numerous 
enquiries of Sa?/^aya regarding the course of the conflict, 
all of which Sa;7^aya duly answers. And among his 
earliest answers is the account of the conversation between 
Krishna, and Ar^una at the commencement of the battle, 
which constitutes the Bhagavadgita. After relating to 
Dhr/tarash/ra that ' wonderful and holy dialogue,' and after 
giving an account of what occurred in the intervals of the 
conversation, Sa;7^aya proceeds to narrate the actual events 
of the battle. 

With this rough outline of the framework of the story 
before us, we are now in a position to consider the opposing 
arguments on the point above noted. Mr. Talboys Wheeler 
writes on that point as follows 2 : 'But there remains one 

1 The whole story is given in brief by the late Professor Goldstiicker in the 
Westminster Review, April 1868, p. 392 seq. See now his Literary Remains, II, 
104 seq. 

2 History of India, vol. i, p. 293. 



other anomalous characteristic of the history of the great 
war, as it is recorded in the Mahabharata, which cannot 
he passed over in silence ; and that is the extraordinary 
abruptness and infelicity with which Brahmanical discourses, 
such as essays on law, on morals, sermons on divine things, 
and even instruction in the so-called sciences are recklessly 
grafted upon the main narrative. . . . Krishna, and Ar^-una 
on the morning of the first day of the war, when both 
armies are drawn out in battle-array, and hostilities are 
about to begin, enter into a long and philosophical dialogue 
respecting the various forms of devotion which lead to the 
emancipation of the soul ; and it cannot be denied that, 
however incongruous and irrelevant such a dialogue must 
appear on the eve of battle, the discourse of Krzsh//a, 
whilst acting as the charioteer of Ar^-una, contains the 
essence of the most spiritual phases of Brahmanical 
teaching, and is expressed in language of such depth and 
sublimity, that it has become deservedly known as the 
Bhagavad-gita or Divine Song. . . . Indeed no effort has 
been spared by the Brahmanical compilers to convert the 
history of the great war into a vehicle for Brahmanical 
teaching ; and so skilfully are many of these interpolations 
interwoven with the story, that it is frequently impos- 
sible to narrate the one, without referring to the other, 
however irrelevant the matter may be to the main sub- 
ject in hand.' It appears to me, I own, very difficult to 
accept that as a satisfactory argument, amounting, as it 
does, to no more than this — that ' interpolations,' which must 
needs be referred to in narrating the main story even to 
make it intelligible, are nevertheless to be regarded ' as 
evidently the product of a Brahmanical age V and pre- 
sumably also a later age, because, forsooth, they are irrele- 
vant and incongruous according to the 'tastes and ideas 1 ' — 
not of the time, be it remembered, when the ' main story ' 
is supposed to have been written, but — of this enlightened 
nineteenth century. The support, too, which may be sup- 

1 History of India, vol. i, p. 288 ; and compare generally upon this point the 
remarks in Gladstone's Homer, especially vol. i, p. 70 seq. 



posed to be derived by this argument from the allegation 
that there has been an attempt to Brahmanize, so to say, the 
history of the great war, appears to me to be extremely 
weak, so far as the Gita is concerned. But that is a point 
which will have to be considered more at large in the sequel 1 
While, however, I am not prepared to admit the cogency 
Mr. Wheeler's arguments, I am not, on the other hand, tooo 
be understood as holding that the Gita must be accepted 
as a genuine part of the original Mahabharata. I own that 
my feeling on the subject is something akin to that of the 
great historian of Greece regarding the Homeric question, 
a feeling of painful diffidence regarding the soundness of 
any conclusion whatever. While it is impossible not to 
feel serious doubts about the critical condition of the 
Mahabharata generally ; while, indeed, we may be almost 
certain that the work has been tampered with from time to 
me 2 ; it is difficult to come to a satisfactory conclusin. 
regarding any particular given section of it. And it musf 
be remembered, also, that the alternatives for us to choose 
from in these cases are not only these two, that the section 
in question may be a genuine part of the work, or that it 
may be a later interpolation : but also this, as suggested 
recently, though not for the first time, by Mr. Freeman 3 
with reference to the Homeric question, that the section 
may have been in existence at the date of the original 
epos, and may have been worked by the author of the 
epos into his own production. For that absence of dread, 
' either of the law or sentiment of copyright,' which 
Mr. Freeman relies upon with regard to a primitive Greek 
poet, was by no means confined to the Greek people, but 
may be traced amongst us also. The commentator Madhu- 
sudana Sarasvati likens the Gita to those dialogues which 
occur in sundry Vedic works, particularly the Upanishads 4 . 
Possibly — I will not use a stronger word — possibly the Gita 

1 Infra, p. 21 scq. 

2 Compare the late Professor Goldstiicker's remarks in the Westminster 
Review for April 1868, p. 389. 3 Contemporary Review (February 1879.) 

4 Madhusudana mentions the dialogue between kanaka and Ya^wavalkya as 
a specific parallel. 



may have existed as such a dialogue before the Mahabha- 
rata, and may have been appropriated by the author of 
the Mahabharata to his own purposes 1 . But yet, upon the 
whole, having regard to the fact that those ideas of unity 
on which Mr. Wheeler and others set so much store are 
scarcely appropriate to our old literature; to the fact that 
tin- Gita fits pretty well into the setting given to it in the 
Bhishma rarvan ; to the fact that the feeling of Ar^una, 
which gives occasion to it, is not at all inconsistent, but is 
most consonant, with poetical justice; to the fact that there 
is not in the Gita, in my judgment, any trace of a sectarian 
or ' Brahmanizing ' spirit 2 , such as Mr. Wheeler and also 
the late Professor Goldstticker 3 hold to have animated the 
arrangers of the Mahabharata ; having regard, I say, to all 
these facts, I am prepared to adhere, I will not say without 
diffidence, to the theory of the genuineness of the Bha- 
gavadgita as a portion of the original Mahabharata. 

The next point to consider is as to the authorship of the 
Gita. The popular notion on this subject is pretty well 
known. The whole of the Mahabharata is, by our tradi- 
tions, attributed to Vyasa, whom we have already noticed 
as a relative of the Kauravas and PaWavas ; and therefore 
the Bhagavadgita, also, is naturally affiliated to the same 
author. The earliest written testimony to this authorship, 
that I can trace, is to be found in vSankaraMrya's commen- 
tary on the Gita 4 itself and on the Br/hadara//yakopani- 
shad 5 . To a certain extent, the mention of Vyasa in the 
body of the Gita would, from a historic standpoint, seem to 
militate against this tradition. But I have not seen in any 
of the commentaries to which I have had access, any con- 
sideration of this point, as there is of the mention in some 

1 See to this effect M. Fauriel, quoted in Grote's Greece, IT, 195 (Cabinet ed.) 

2 Compare also Weber's History of Indian Literature (English translation), 
p. 187. The instruction, however, as to 'the reverence due to the priesthood' 
from ' the military caste,' which is there spoken of, appears to me to be entirely 
absent from the Gita; see p. 21 seq. infrn. 

3 Westminster Review, April 1868, p. 388 seq. ; and Remains, I, 104, 105. 

4 P. 6 Calcutta ed., Samvat, 1927). 

1 P. 841 (Bibl. Indie, ed.) ; also Svetajvatara, p. 27S. 



Smrztis and Sutras of the names of those to whom those 
Smr/tis and Sutras are respectively ascribed 

We must now leave these preliminary questions, un- 
luckily in a state far from satisfactory, and proceed to 
that most important topic — the date when the Gita was 
composed, and the position it occupies in Sanskrit litera- 
ture. We have here to consider the external evidence 
bearing on these points, which is tantalizingly meagre ; and 
the internal evidence, which is, perhaps, somewhat more 
full. And taking first the internal evidence, the various 
items falling under that head may be marshalled into four 
groups. Firstly, we have to consider the general character 
of the Gita with reference to its mode of handling its 
subject. Secondly, there is the character of its style and 
language. Thirdly, we have to consider the nature of the 
versification of the Gita. And fourthly and lastly, we must 
take note of sundry points of detail, such as the attitude of 
the Gita towards the Vedas and towards caste, its allusions 
to other systems of speculation, and other matters of the 
like nature. On each of these groups, in the order here 
stated, we now proceed to make a few observations. 

And first about the manner in which the Gita deals with 
its subject. It appears to me, that the work bears on the 
face of it very plain marks indicating that it belongs to an 
age prior to the system-making age of Sanskrit philosophy. 
In 1875, I wrote as follows upon this point: 4 My view is, 
that in the Gita and the Upanishads, the philosophical part 
has not been consistently and fully worked out. We have 
there the results of free thought, exercised on different 
subjects of great moment, unfettered by the exigencies of 
any foregone conclusions, or of any fully developed theory. 
It is afterwards, it is at a later stage of philosophical 
progress, that system -making arises. In that stage some 
thinkers interpret whole works by the light of some par- 
ticular doctrines or expressions. And the result is the 
development of a whole multitude of philosophical sects, 
following the lead of those thinkers, and all professing to 

1 See, as to this, Colebrooke's Essays, vol. i, p. 328 (Madias). 



draw their doctrine from the Gita or the Upanishads, yet 
each differing remarkably from the other V Since this was 
written, Professor Max Miiller's Hibbcrt Lectures have 
been published. And I am happy to find, that as regards 
the Upanishads, his view coincides exactly with that which 
I have expressed in the words now quoted. Professor 
Max Miiller says: 'There is not what may be called 
a philosophical system in these Upanishads. They are 
in the true sense of the word guesses at truth, frequently 
contradicting each other, yet all tending in one direction 2 .' 
Further corroboration for the same view is also forthcoming. 
Professor Fitz-Edward Hall, in a passage which I had not 
noticed before, says 3 : * In the Upanishads, the Bhagavad- 
gita, and other ancient Hindu books, we encounter, in 
combination, the doctrines which, after having been 
subjected to modifications that rendered them as wholes 
irreconcileable, were distinguished, at an uncertain period, 
into what have for many ages been styled the Sankhya and 
the Vedanta.' We have thus very weighty authority for 
adhering to the view already expressed on this important 
topic. But as Professor Weber appears to have expressed 
an opinion 4 intended perhaps to throw some doubt on the 
correctness of that view, it is desirable to go a little more 
into detail to fortify it by actual reference to the contents 
of the Gita, the more especially as we can thus elucidate 
the true character of that work. Before doing so, however, 
it may be pointed out, that the proposition we have laid 
down is one, the test of which lies more in a comprehensive 
review of the whole of the Gita, than in the investigation of 
small details on which there is necessarily much room for 
difference of opinion. 

And first, let us compare that indisputably systematized 
work, the current Yoga-sutras 5 , with the Bhagavadgita on 

1 See the Introductory Essay to my Bhagavadgita, translated into English 
blank verse, p. lxvii. See also Goldstiicker's Remains, I, 48, 77; II, 10. 
3 P. 317 ; cf. also p. 338. 

3 Preface to Sankhya Sara, p. 7 (Bibl. Indie, ed.) 

4 History of Indian Literature, p. 28. 

5 Are we to infer from the circumstance mentioned in Weber's History of 



one or two topics, where they both travel over common 
ground. In the Gita, chapter VI, stanzas 33, 34 (p. 71), 
we have Argana, putting what is, in substance, a question 
to Krishna, as to how the mind, which is admittedly 'fickle, 
boisterous, strong, and obstinate,' is to be brought under 
control — such control having been declared by Krishna. 
to be necessary for attaining devotion (yoga) ? Krishna. 
answers by saying that the mind may be restrained by 
' practice (abhyasa) and indifference to worldly objects 
(vairagya).' He then goes on to say, that devotion cannot 
be attained without self-restraint, but that one who has 
self-restraint, and works to achieve devotion, may succeed 
in acquiring it. Here the subject drops. There is no 
further explanation of ' practice' or 'indifference to worldly 
objects,' no exposition of the mode in which they work, 
and so forth. Contrast now the Yoga-sutras. The topic 
is there discussed at the very outset of the work. As usual 
the author begins with ' Now therefore the Yoga is to be 
taught' He then explains Yoga by the well-known 
definition ' Yoga is the restraint of the movements of the 
mind.' And then after pointing out what the movements 
of the mind are, he proceeds : ' Their restraint is by means 
of practice and indifference to worldly objects 1 ,' — the very 
terms, be it remarked in passing, which are used in the 
Bhagavadgita. But having come thus far, the author of 
the Sutras does not drop the subject as the author of the 
Gita does. He goes on in this wise : ' Practice is the effort 
for keeping it steady.' ' And that becomes firmly grounded 
when resorted to for a long time, without interruption, and 
with correct conduct.' So far we have a discussion of the 
first requisite specified, namely, practice. Pata;^ali then 
goes on to his second requisite for mental restraint. ' In- 
difference to worldly objects is the consciousness of having 
subdued desires &c. (Vasikara sangna) which belongs to 
one having no longing for objects visible and those which 

Indian Literature (p. 223, note 235), that the author of these Sutras was older 
than Buddha ? 

1 Sutra 12, Abhyasa-vairagyabhyaw tannirodha//. 



are heard of (from S&stras &c, such as heaven and so 
forth ). He next proceeds to distinguish another and higher 
species of 'indifference,' and then he goes on to point out 
the results of that self- restraint which is to be acquired in 
the mode he has expounded. That is one instance. Now take 
another. In chapter VI, stanza 10 and following stanzas, 
the Gita sets forth elaborately the mode of practically 
achieving the mental abstraction called Yoga. It need not 
be reproduced here. The reader can readily find out how 
sundry directions arc there given for the purpose specified, 
but without any attempt at systematizing. Contrast the 
Yoga-sutras. In the Sadhanapada, the section treating of 
the acquisition of Yoga, Pata/^ali states in the twenty-ninth 
aphorism the well-known eight elements of Yoga. Then 
he subdivides these elements, and expatiates on each of 
them distinctly, defining them, indicating the mode of 
acquiring them, and hinting at the results which flow from 
them. ' That inordinate love of subdivision/ which Dr. F. E. 
Hall 1 has somewhere attributed to the Hindus, appears 
plainly in these aphorisms, while there is not a trace of it 
in the corresponding passage in the Bhagavadgita. In my 
opinion, therefore, these comparisons strongly corroborate 
the proposition we have laid down regarding the unsys- 
tematic, or rather non-systematic, character of the work. 
In the one we have definition, classification, division, and 
subdivision. In the other we have a set of practical 
directions, without any attempt to arrange them in any 
very scientific order. In the one you have a set of technical 
terms with specific significations. In the other no such 
precision is yet manifest. In one word, you have in the 
Gita the germs, and noteworthy germs too, of a system 2 , 
and you have most of the raw material of a system, but 
you have no system ready-made. 

Let us look at the matter now from a slightly different 
point of view. There are sundry words used in the Bhaga- 

1 In the Preface to his Sahkhya Sara, I think. 

3 This is all that we can infer from the few cases of division and classifica- 
tion which we do meet with in the Gita. A subject like that treated of in this 
work could not well be discussed without some classifications &c. 


vadgita, the significations of which are not quite identical 
throughout the work. Take, for instance, the word ' yoga,' 
which we have rendered 'devotion.' At Gita, chapter II, 
stanza 48 (p. 49), a definition is given of that word. In 
chapter VI, the signification it bears is entirely different. 
And again in chapter IX, stanza 5, there is still another 
sense in which the word is used *. The word ' Brahman ' 
too occurs in widely varying significations. And one of its 
meanings, indeed, is quite singular, namely, ' Nature ' (see 
chapter XIV, stanza 3). Similar observations, to a greater 
or less extent, apply to the words Buddhi, Atman, and Sva- 
bhava 2 . Now these are words which stand for ideas not 
unimportant in the philosophy of the Bhagavadgita. And 
the absence of scientific precision about their use appears to 
me to be some indication of that non-systematic character 
of which we have already spoken. 

There is one other line of argument, which leads, I think, 
to the same conclusion. There are several passages in the 
Gita which it is not very easy to reconcile with one another; 
and no attempt is made to harmonise them. Thus, for 
example, in stanza 16 of chapter VII, Krishna, divides his 
devotees into four classes, one of which consists of ' men of 
knowledge/ whom, Krishna, says, he considers 'as his own 
self.' It would probably be difficult to imagine any expres- 
sion which could indicate higher esteem. Yet in stanza 
46 of chapter VI, we have it laid down, that the devotee is 
superior not only to the mere performer of penances, but 
even to the men of knowledge. The commentators betray 
their gnostic bias by interpreting ' men of knowledge ' in 
this latter passage to mean those who have acquired erudi- 
tion in the 5astras and their significations. This is not an 
interpretation to be -necessarily rejected. But there is in it 
a certain twisting of words, which, under the circumstances 
here, I am not inclined to accept. And on the other hand, it 
must not be forgotten, that the implication fairly derivable 

1 In chapter X the word occurs in two different senses in the same stanza (st. 7). 

2 Compare the various passages, references to which are collected in the 
Sanskrit Index at the end of this volume. 

[8] B 

I 2 


from chapter [V, stanza 38 (pp. 62, 63), would seem to 
be rather that knowledge is superior to devotion — is the 
higher stage to be reached by means of devotion as the 
stepping-stone. In another passage again at Gita, chapter 
XII. stanza 12, concentration is preferred to knowledge, 
which also seems to me to be irreconcileable with chapter 
VII, stanza i 6, Take still another instance. At Gita, chapter 
V, stanza 15, it is said, that ' the Lord receives the sin or 
merit of none.' Yet at chapter V, stanza 29, and again at 
chapter IX, stanza 24, Krishna calls himself 'the Lord 
and enjoyer' of all sacrifices and penances. How, it may 
well be asked, can the Supreme Being 'enjoy' that which 
he docs not even 'receive?' Once more, at chapter X, 
stanza 29, Krishna declares that 'none is hateful to me, 
none dear.' And yet the remarkable verses at the close of 
chapter XII seem to stand in point-blank contradiction to 
that declaration. There through a most elaborate series of 
stanzas, the burden of Krzsrma's eloquent sermon is 'such a 
one is dear to me.' And again in those fine verses, where 
Krishna, winds up his Divine Lay, he similarly tells Ar^una, 
that he, Ar^una, is ' dear ' to Krishna. And Kr/sh;/a also 
speaks of that devotee as ' dear ' to him. who may publish 
the mystery of the Gita among those who reverence the 
Supreme Iking 1 . And yet again, how are we to reconcile 
the same passage about none being ' hateful or dear ' to 
IO-z'sh/^a, with his own words at chapter XVI, stanza 18 
and following stanzas? The language used in describing 
the 'demoniac' people there mentioned is not remarkable 
for sweetness towards them, while "Krishna, says positively, 
' I hurl down such people into demoniac wombs, whereby 
they go down into misery and the vilest condition.' These 
persons are scarcely characterised with accuracy ' as neither 
hateful nor dear' to Krishna. It seems to me, that all 
these are real inconsistencies in the Gita, not such, perhaps, 
as might not be explained away, but such, I think, as indi- 
cate a mind making guesses at truth, as Professor Max 

1 And see, too, chapter VII, stanza 17, where the man of knowledge is declared 

to be ' dear' to Kn'sh»a. 



Miiller puts it, rather than a mind elaborating a complete 
and organised system of philosophy. There is not even a 
trace of consciousness on the part of the author that these 
inconsistencies exist. And the contexts of the various 
passages indicate, in my judgment, that a half-truth is 
struck out here, and another half-truth there, with special 
reference to the special subject then under discussion ; but 
no attempt is made to organise the various half-truths, 
which are apparently incompatible, into a symmetrical 
whole, where the apparent inconsistencies might possibly 
vanish altogether in the higher synthesis. And having 
regard to these various points, and to the further point, that 
the sequence of ideas throughout the verses of the Gita is 
not always easily followed, we are. I think, safe in adhering 
to the opinion expressed above, that the Gita. is a non- 
systematic work, and in that respect belongs to the same 
class as the older Upanishads. 

We next come to the consideration of the style and 
language of the Bhagavadgita. And that, I think, furnishes 
a strong argument for the proposition, that it belongs to an 
age considerably prior to the epoch of the artificial depart- 
ment of Sanskrit literature — the epoch, namely, of the 
dramas and poems. In its general character, the style 
impresses me as quite archaic in its simplicity. Compounds, 
properly so called, are not numerous ; such as there are, are 
not long ones, and very rarely, if ever, present any puzzle 
in analysing. The contrast there presented with what is 
called the classical literature, as represented by Bana or 
Da/^in, or even Kalidasa, is not a little striking. In 
Kalidasa, doubtless, the love for compounds is pretty 
well subdued, though I think his works have a perceptibly 
larger proportion of them than the Gita. But after Kali- 
dasa the love for compounds goes through a remarkable 
development, till in later writings it may be said almost to 
have gone mad. Even in Bana and DaWin, Subandhu 
and Bhavabhuti, the plethora of compounds is often weari- 
some. And the same remark applies to many of the copper- 
plate and other inscriptions which have been recently 

B 2 

1 1 


deciphered, and some of which date from the early cen- 
turies of the Christian era. Take again the exuberance of 
figures and tropes which is so marked in the classical 
style. There is little or nothing of that in the Gita, where 
you have a plain and direct style of natural simplicity, and 
yet a style not by any means devoid of aesthetic merit 
like the style of the Sutra literature. There is also an 
almost complete absence of involved syntactical construc- 
tions ; no attempt to secure that jingle of like sounds, 
which seems to have proved a temptation too strong even 
for Kalidasa's muse entirely to resist. But on the contrary, 
we have those repetitions of words and phrases, which 
arc characteristic, and not only in Sanskrit, of the style of 
an archaic period 1 . Adverting specially to the language 
as distinguished from the style of the Gita, we find 
such words as Anta, Bhasha, Brahman, some of which 
are collected in the Sanskrit Index in this volume, which 
have gone out of use in the classical literature in 4:he 
significations they respectively bear in the Gita. The 
word ' ha,' which occurs once, is worthy of special note. It 
is the equivalent of 1 gha,' which occurs in the Vedic 
Sawhitas. In the form 'ha' it occurs in the Brahma^as. 
But it never occurs, I think, in what is properly called the 
classical literature. It is, indeed, found in the Purawas. 
But that is a class of works which occupies a very unique 
position. There is a good deal in the Pura/zas that, I think, 
must be admitted to be very ancient 2 ; while undoubtedly 
also there is a great deal in them that is very modern. It 
is, therefore, impossible to treat the use of ' ha ' in that class 
of works as negativing an inference of the antiquity of 
any book where the word occurs ; while its use in Vedic 
works and its total absence from modern works indicate such 

1 Compare Muir, Sanskrit Texts, vol. i, p. 5. See, too, Goldstiicker's Remains, 

2 This opinion, which I had expressed as long ago as 1874 in the Introduction 
to my edition of Bhartr/hari's .S'atakas, is, I find, also held by Dr. Biihler ; see 
his Introduction to Apastamba in this series, p. xx seq., note. Purawas are 
mentioned in the Sutta Nipata (p. 115), as to the date of which, see inter alia 
Swamy's Introduction, p. xvii. 



antiquity pretty strongly. We may, therefore, embody the 
result of this part of the discussion in the proposition, that 
the Gita is removed by a considerable linguistic and chro- 
nological distance from classical Sanskrit literature. And 
so far as it goes, this proposition agrees with the result of 
our investigation of the first branch of internal evidence. 

The next branch of that evidence brings us to the 
character of the versification of the Gita. Here, again, 
a survey of Sanskrit verse generally, and the verse of the 
Gita in particular, leads us to a conclusion regarding the 
position of the Gita in Sanskrit literature, which is in strict 
accord with the conclusions we have already drawn. In 
the verse of the Vedic Sawhitas, there is almost nothing 
like a rigidly fixed scheme of versification, no particular 
collocation of long and short syllables is absolutely neces- 
sary. If we attempt to chant them in the mode in which 
classical Sanskrit verse is chanted, we invariably come 
across lines where the chanting cannot be smooth. If we 
come next to the versification of the Upanishads, we observe 
some progress made towards such fixity of scheme as we 
have alluded to above. Though there are still numerous 
lines, which cannot be smoothly chanted, there are, on the 
other hand, a not altogether inconsiderable number which 
can be smoothly chanted. In the Bhagavadgita a still 
further advance, though a slight one, may, I think, be 
marked. A visibly larger proportion of the stanzas in the 
Gita. conform to the metrical schemes as laid down by the 
writers on prosody, though there are still sundry verses 
which do not so conform, and cannot, accordingly, be 
chanted in the regular way. Lastly, we come to the 
Kavyas and Na/akas — the classical literature. And here 
in practice we find everywhere a most inflexible rigidity 
of scheme, while the theory is laid down in a rule which 
says, that ' even masha may be changed to masha, but 
a break of metre should be avoided.' This survey of 
Sanskrit verse may, I think, be fairly treated as showing, 
that adhesion to the metrical schemes is one test of the 
chronological position of a work — the later the work, the 


more undeviating Is such adhesion. I need not stay here 
to point out, how this view receives corroboration from the 
rules given on this subject in the standard work of Piiigala 
on the AT/iandas Sastra. I will only conclude this point 
by saying, that the argument from the versification of the 
(iitd, so far as it goes, indicates its position as being prior 
to the classical literature, and nearly contemporaneous with 
the (Jpanishad literature. 

We now proceed to investigate the last group of facts 
falling under the head of internal evidence, as mentioned 
above. And first as regards the attitude of the Gita towards 
the Vedas. If we examine all the passages in the Gita, 
in which reference is made to the Vedas, the aggregate 
result appears to be, that the author of the Gita does not 
throw the Vedas entirely overboard. He feels and ex- 
presses reverence for them, only that reverence is of a 
somewhat special character. He says in effect, that the 
precepts of the Vedas are suitable to a certain class of 
people, of a certain intellectual and spiritual status, so to 
say. So far their authority is unimpeached. But if the 
unwise sticklers for the authority of the Vedas claim any- 
thing more for them than this, then the author of the Gita 
holds them to be wrong. He contends, on the contrary, 
that acting upon the ordinances of the Vedas is an obstacle 
to the attainment of the sum mum bonum 1 . Compare 
this with the doctrine of the Upanishads. The coincidence 
appears to me to be most noteworthy. In one of his recent 
lectures, Professor Max Muller uses the following eloquent 
language regarding the Upanishads 2 : ' Lastly come the 
Upanishads ; and what is their object ? To show the utter 
uselessness, nay, the mischievousness of all ritual per- 
formances (compare our Gita, pp. 47, 48, 84 s ) ; to condemn 
every sacrificial act which has for its motive a desire or 
hope of reward (comp. Gita, p. 119 4 ) ; to deny, if not the 
existence, at least the exceptional and exalted character 

1 Compare the passages collected under the word Vedas in our Index. 

2 Ilibbert Lectures, p. 340 seq. s II, 42-45; IX, 20, 21. 
4 XVII, 12. 



of the Devas (comp. Gita, pp. 76-84 x ); and to teach that 
there is no hope of salvation and deliverance except by 
the individual self recognising the true and universal self, 
and finding rest there, where alone rest can be found 2 ' 
(comp. our Gita Translation, pp. 78-83). 

The passages to which I have given references in brackets 
will show, that Professor Max Miiller's words might all 
be used with strict accuracy regarding the essential teaching 
of the Bhagavadgita. We have here, therefore, another 
strong circumstance in favour of grouping the Gita with 
the Upanishads. One more point is worthy of note. 
Wherever the Gita refers to the Vedas in the somewhat 
disparaging manner I have noted, no distinction is taken 
between the portion which relates to the ritual and the 
portion which relates to that higher science, viz. the science 
of the soul, which Sanatkumara speaks of in his famous 
dialogue with Narada 3 . At Gita, chapter II, stanza 45, 
Ar^una is told that the Vedas relate only to the effects of 
the three qualities, which effects Ar^una is instructed to 
overcome. At Gita, chapter VI, stanza 44, Ar^una is told 
that he who has acquired some little devotion, and then 
exerts himself for further progress, rises above the Divine 
word — the Vedas. And there are also one or two other 
passages of the like nature. They all treat the Vedas as 
concerned with ritual alone. They* make no reference to 
any portion of the Vedas dealing with the higher know- 
ledge. If the word Vedanta, at Gita, chapter XV, stanza 15 
(p. 113), signifies, as it seems to signify, this latter portion of 
the Vedas, then that is the only allusion to it. But, from all 
the passages in the Gita which refer to the Vedas, I am 
inclined to draw the inference, that the Upanishads of the 
Vedas were composed at a time not far removed from 
the time of the composition of the Gita, and that at that 
period the Upanishads had not yet risen to the position of 

1 VII, 21-23; IX, 23-24. 2 VIII, 14-16; IX, 29-33. 

3 See A'^andogya-upanishad, p. 473, or rather I ought to have referred to the 
Miwafoka-upanishad, where the superiority and inferiority is more distinctly 
stated in words, pp. 266, 267. 



high importance which they afterwards commanded. In 
the passage referred to at chapter XV, the word Vedantas 
probably signifies the Arawyakas, which may be regarded 
as marking the beginning of the epoch, which the compo- 
sition of the LJpanishads brought to its close. And it is 
to the close of this epoch, that I would assign the birth of 
the Gita, which is probably one of the youngest members 
of the group to which it belongs. 

It appears to me, that this conclusion is corroborated by 
the fact that a few stanzas in the Gita are identical with 
some stanzas in some of the Upanishads. With regard 
to the epic age of Greece, Mr. E. A. Freeman has said that, 
in carrying ourselves back to that age, 'we must cast aside 
all the notions with which we are familiar in our own age 
about property legal or moral in literary compositions. It 
is plain that there were phrases, epithets, whole lines, which 
w ere the common property of the whole epic school of 
poetry V It appears to me that we must accept this 
proposition as equally applicable to the early days of 
Sanskrit literature, having regard to the common passages 
which we meet with in sundry of the Vedic works, and also 
sometimes. I believe, in the different Pura/zas. If this view 
is correct, then the fact that the Gita contains some stanzas 
in the very words which we meet with in some of the 
Upanishads, indicates, to my mind, that the conclusion 
already drawn from other data about the position of the 
Gita with regard to the Upanishads, is not by any means 
unwarranted, but one to which the facts before us rather 
seem to point. 

And here we may proceed to draw attention to another 
fact connected with the relation of the Gita to the Vedas. 
In stanza 17 of the ninth chapter of the Gita, only Rik } 
Saman, and Ya^us are mentioned. The Atharva-veda is 
not referred to at all. This omission does certainly seem 
a very noteworthy one. For it is in a passage where the 
Supreme Being is identifying himself with everything, and 
where, therefore, the fourth Veda might fairly be expected 

1 Contemporary Review, February 1879. 



to be mentioned. I may add that in commenting on Sarika- 
ra£arya's remarks on this passage. Anandagiri (and Madhu- 
sudana Sarasvati also) seems evidently tohave been conscious 
of the possible force of this omission of the Atharva-veda. 
He accordingly says that by force of the word ' and ' in the 
verse in question, the Atharvangirasas, or Atharva-veda, 
must also be included. Are we at liberty to infer from this, 
that the Atharva-veda did not exist in the days when the 
Gita was composed ? The explanation ordinarily given for 
the omission of that Veda, where such omission occurs, 
namely, that it is not of any use in ordinary sacrificial 
matters, is one which can scarcely have any force in the 
present instance ; though it is adequate, perhaps, to ex- 
plain the words 1 those who know the three branches of 
knowledge,' which occur only a few lines after the verse 
now under consideration. The commentators render no 
further help than has been already stated. Upon the whole, 
however, while I am not yet quite prepared to say, that 
the priority of the Gita, even to the recognition of the 
Atharva-veda as a real Veda, may be fairly inferred from 
the passage in question, I think that the passage is note- 
worthy as pointing in that direction. But further data in 
explanation of the omission referred to must be awaited. 

If the conclusions here indicated about the relative posi- 
tions of the Gita and certain Vedic works are correct, we 
can fairly take the second century B.C. as a terminus before 
which the Gita must have been composed. For the Upani- 
shads are mentioned in the Mahabhashya of Pata%ali, 
which we are probably safe in assigning to the middle of 
that century. The epoch of the older Upanishads. there- 
fore, to which reference has been so frequently made here, 
may well be placed at some period prior to the beginning 
of the second century B. C. The Atharva-veda is likewise 
mentioned by Pata^ali 1 , and as 'ninefold,' too, be it remem- 
bered ; so that if we are entitled to draw the conclusion which 
has been mentioned above from chapter IX. stanza 1;, 
we come to the same period for the date of the Gita. 

1 See also Sutta Nipata, p. 1 15. 



Another point to note in tin's connexion is the refer- 
ence to the Sama-veda as the best of the Vedas (see p. 88). 
That Is a fact which seems to be capable of yielding 
some chronological information. For the estimation in 
which that Veda has been held appears to have varied at 
different times. Thus, in the Aitareya-brahma/^a the glory 
of the Saman is declared to be higher than that of the Rik. 
In the AV/andogya-upanishad 2 the Saman is said to be the 
essence of the Rik, which 5ankara interprets by saying that 
the Saman is more weighty. In the Pra^na-upanishad 3 , 
too, the implication of the passage V, 5 (in which the Saman 
is stated as the guide to the Brahmaloka, while the Ya^us 
is said to guide to the lunar world, and the Rik to the 
human world) is to the same effect. And we may also 
mention as on the same side the Nrisimha, Tapini-upani- 
shad and the Vedic passage cited in the commentary of 
Sankara on the closing sentence of the first kha//da of that 
Upanishad 4 . On the other side, we have the statement in 
Manu that the sound of the Sama-veda is unholy ; and the 
consequent direction that where the sound of it is heard, 
the Rik and Ya^us should not be recited 5 . We have also 
the passages from some of the Purawas noted by Dr. Muir 
in his excellent work, Original Sanskrit Texts, which 
point in the same direction G . And we have further the 
direction in the Apastamba Dharma-sutra, that the Saman 
hymns should not be recited where the other Vedas are 
being recited 7 , as well as the grouping of the sound of the 
Saman with various classes of objectionable and unholy 
noises, such as those of dogs and asses. It is pretty evident 
that the view of Apastamba is based on the same theory as 
that of Manu. Now in looking at the two classes of autho- 
rities thus marshalled, it is plain that the Gita ranges itself 
with those which are unquestionably the more ancient. 

1 Hang's edition, p. 68. 

2 Bibl. Ind. ed., p. 12. 3 Bibl. Ind. ed., p. 22' seq. 

1 Bibl. Tnd. ed., p. 11. 5 Chapter IV, stanzas 123, 124. 

6 Vol. Hi (and ed.), p. 11 seq. Cf. Goldstiicker's Remains, 1, 4, 28, 266; 11,67. 

7 Apastamba (Buhler's ed.) I, 3, 1 7, 18 (pp. 38, 39 in this series) ; see further on 
this point Mr. BurneH's Devatadhyaya-brahmawa, Introd., pp. viii, ix, and notes 


2 I 

And among the less ancient works, prior to which we may 
place the Gita on account of the facts now under considera- 
tion, are Manu and Apastamba. Now Manu's date is not 
ascertained, though, I believe, he is now generally considered 
to belong to about the second or third century B. C. 1 But 
Dr. Buhler, in the Preface to his Apastamba in the present 
series, has adduced good reasons for holding that Apa- 
stamba is prior to the third century B. C. 2 , and we therefore 
obtain that as a point of time prior to which the Gita must 
have been composed. 

The next important item of internal evidence which we 
have to note, is the view taken of caste in the Bhagavad- 
gita. Here, again, a comparison of the doctrine of the 
Gita with the conception of caste in Manu and Apastamba 
is interesting and instructive. The view of Manu has been 
already contrasted by me with the Gita in another place 3 . 
I do not propose to dwell on that point here, as the date of 
Manu is far from being satisfactorily ascertained. I prefer 
now to take up Apastamba only, whose date, as just now 
stated, is fairly well fixed by Dr. Buhler. The division of 
castes, then, is twice referred to in the Bhagavadgita. In 
the first passage (p. 59) it is stated that the division rests 
on differences of qualities and duties ; in the second (pp.126, 
127) the various duties are distinctly stated according to the 
differences of qualities. Now in the first place, noting as 
we pass along, that there is nothing in the Gita to indicate 
whether caste was hereditary, according to its view, whereas 
Apastamba distinctly states it to be such, let us compare 
the second passage of the Gita with the Sutras of Apa- 
stamba bearing on the point. The view enunciated in the 
Gita appears to me plainly to belong to an earlier age — 
to an age of considerably less advancement in social and 
religious development. In the Gita, for instance, the duties 
of a Brahma^a are said to be tranquillity, self-restraint, and 

1 Professor Tiele (History of Ancient Religions, p. 127) considers the 'main 
features ' of Manu to be ' pre-Buddhistic' 

2 P. xxxv. 

3 See the Introductory Essay to my Bhagavadgita in English verse, published 
in 1875, p. cxii. 


so forth. In Apastamba, they arc the famous six duties, 
namely, study, imparting instruction, sacrificing, officiating 
at others' sacrifices, making gifts, and receiving gifts; and 
three others, namely, inheritance, occupancy, and gleaning 
ears of corn, which, it may be remarked en passant, are 
not stated in Manu. The former seem to my mind to point 
to the age when the qualities which in early times gave the 
Brahmarcas their pre-eminence in Hindu society were still 
a living reality \ It will be noted, too, that there is nothing 
in that list of duties which has any necessary or natural 
connexion with any privilege as belonging to the caste. 
The Law lays down these duties, in the true sense of the 
word. In Apastamba, on the contrary, we see an advance 
towards the later view on both points. You have no 
reference to moral and religious qualities now. You have 
to do with ceremonies and acts. You have under the head 
1 duties ' not mere obligations, but rights. For the duty of 
receiving gifts is a right, and so is the duty of teaching 
others and officiating at others' sacrifices ; as we know not 
merely from the subsequent course of events, but also from 
a comparison of the duties of Brahma/zas on the one hand, 
and Kshatriyas, Vauyas, and .Sudras on the other, as laid 
down by Manu and Apastamba themselves. Apastamba's 
rules, therefore, appear to belong to the time when the 
Brahma/zas had long been an established power, and were 
assuming to themselves those valuable privileges which they 
have always claimed in later times. The rules of the Gita, 
on the other hand, point to a time considerably prior to 
this — to a time when the Brahma;/as were by their moral 
and intellectual qualities laying the foundation of that pre- 
eminence in Hindu society which afterwards enabled them 
to lord it over all castes. These observations mutatis 
mutandis apply to the rules regarding the other castes 
also. Here again, while the Gita still insists on the inner 
qualities, which properly constitute the military profession, 
for instance, the rules of Apastamba indicate the powerful 

1 The remarks in the text will show how little there is in the Gita of that 
' Brahmanizing ' which has been shortly noticed on a previous page. 



influence of the Brahmaz/as 1 . For, as stated before, offi- 
ciating at others' sacrifices, instructing others, and receiving 
presents, are here expressly prohibited to Kshatriyas as 
also to Vai^yas. The result of that is, that the Brahma//as 
become indispensable to the Kshatriyas and Vai.syas, for 
upon both the duty of study, of offering sacrifices, and 
making gifts and presents is inculcated. In his outline of 
the History of Ancient Religions, Professor Tiele, speaking 
of the 'increasing influence of the Brahmans,' writes as 
follows : ' Subject at first to the princes and nobles, and 
dependent on them, they began by insinuating themselves 
into their favour, and representing it as a religious duty 
to show protection and liberality towards them. Mean- 
while they endeavoured to make themselves indispensable 
to them, gradually acquired the sole right to conduct pub- 
lic worship, and made themselves masters of instruction V 
And after pointing out the high position thus achieved by 
the Brahmans, and the low position of the A"a//<^alas and 
others of the inferior castes, he adds : ' Such a position 
could not long be endured ; and this serves to explain not 
only the rise of Buddhism, but also its rapid diffusion, 
and the radical revolution which it brought about 3 .' To 
proceed, however, with our comparison of the Gita and 
Apastamba. The superiority distinctly claimed by the 
latter for the Brahma;/a is not quite clearly brought out in 
the Gita. ' Holy Brahmawas and devoted royal saints ' are 
bracketed together at p. 86 ; while the Kshatriyas are 
declared to have been the channel of communication 
between the Deity and mankind as regards the great 
doctrine of devotion propounded by the Bhagavadgita. 
That indicates a position for the Kshatriyas much more 
like what the Upanishads disclose 4 , than even that which 

1 As to the Kshatriyas the contrast with Manu's rules is even stronger than 
with Apastamba's. See our Introduction to the Gita in English verse, p. cxiii. 

2 P. 120. 3 Pp. 129, 130. 

4 See p. 58 infra; and compare with this Weber's remarks on one of the 
classes into which he divides the whole body of Upanishads, History of Indian 
Literature, p. 165. See also Muir, Sanskrit Texts, vol. i, p. 508 ; Max Miiller, 
Upanishads, vol. i, p. lxxv. 


Apastamba assigns to them. The fact is further note- 
worthy, that in the Gita each caste has its own entirely 
distinct set of duties. There is no overlapping, so to say. 
And that is a circumstance indicating a very early stage in 
the development of the institution 1 . Besides, as already 
indicated, the duties laid down by Apastamba and Manu 
as common to Kshatriyas and Vauyas are the very duties 
which make those castes dependent to a very great extent 
on the Brahma//as. Lastly, it is not altogether unworthy 
of note, that in the elaborate specification of the best of 
every species which we find in chapter X, the Brahma^a is 
not mentioned as the best of the castes, there is nothing 
to indicate the notion contained in the well-known later 
verse. 1 The Br&hma»a is the head of the castes.' On the 
contrary, the ruler of men is specified as the highest among 
men 2 , indicating, perhaps, a state of society such as that 
described at the beginning of the extract from Professor 
Tide's work quoted above. 

We come now to another point. What is the position of 
the Gita in regard to the great reform of cSakya Muni? 
The question is one of much interest, having regard parti- 
cularly to the remarkable coincidences between Buddhistic 
doctrines and the doctrines of the Gita, to which we have 
drawn attention in the foot-notes to our translation. But 
the materials for deciding the question are unhappily not 
forthcoming. Professor Wilson, indeed, thought that there 
was an allusion to Buddhism in the Gita 3 . But his idea 
was based on a confusion between the Buddhists and the 
A"arvakas or materialists 4 . Failing that allusion, we have 
nothing very tangible but the unsatisfactory ' negative argu- 
ment' based on mere non-mention of Buddhism in the 
Gita. That argument is not quite satisfactory to my own 
mind, although, as I have elsewhere pointed out 5 , some of 

1 Cf. Sutta Nipata, p. 32 ; and also Mr. Davids' note on that passage in his 
Buddhism, p. 131. 

2 P. 89 infra. 3 Essays on Sanskrit Literature, vol. iii, p. 150. 

4 See our remarks on this point in the Introductory Essay to our Gita in 
verse, p. ii seq. 

5 Introduction to Gita in English verse, p. v seq. 



the ground occupied by the Gita is common to it with 
Buddhism, and although various previous thinkers are 
alluded to directly or indirectly in the Gita. There is, 
however, one view of the facts of this question, which 
appears to me to corroborate the conclusion deducible by 
means of the negative argument here referred to. The 
main points on which Buddha's protest against Brahmanism 
rests, seem to be the true authority of the Vedas and the 
true view of the differences of caste. On most points of 
doctrinal speculation, Buddhism is still but one aspect of the 
older Brahmanism \ The various coincidences to which we 
have drawn attention show that, if there is need to show it. 
Well now, on both these points, the Gita, while it does not 
go the whole length which Buddha goes, itself embodies 
a protest against the views current about the time of its 
composition. The Gita does not, like Buddhism, absolutely 
reject the Vedas, but it shelves them. The Gita does not 
totally root out caste. It places caste on a less untenable 
basis. One of two hypotheses therefore presents itself as 
a rational theory of these facts. Either the Gita and 
Buddhism were alike the outward manifestation of one and 
the same spiritual upheaval which shook to its centre the 
current religion, the Gita being the earlier and less 
thorough-going form of it ; or Buddhism having already 
begun to tell on Brahmanism, the Gita was an attempt to 
bolster it up, so to say, at its least weak points, the weaker 
ones being altogether abandoned. I do not accept the 
latter alternative, because I cannot see any indication in 
the Gita of an attempt to compromise with a powerful 
attack on the old Hindu system ; while the fact that, 
though strictly orthodox, the author of the Gita still under- 
mines the authority, as unwisely venerated, of the Vedic 
revelation ; and the further fact, that in doing this, he is 
doing what others also had done before him or about his 
time ; go, in my opinion, a considerable way towards 

1 Cf. Max Miiller's Hibbert Lectures, p. 137; Weber's Indian Literature, 
pp. 288, 289; and Mr. Rhys Davids' excellent little volume on Buddhism, 
p. 151; and see also p. 83 of Mr. Davids' book. 



fortifying the results of the negative argument already set 
forth. To me Buddhism is perfectly intelligible as one 
outcome of that play of thought on high spiritual topics, 
which in its other, and as we may say, less thorough-going 
manifestations, we see in the Upanishads and the Gita 1 . 
But assume that Buddhism was a protest against 
Brahmanism prior to its purification and elevation by the 
theosophy of the Upanishads, and those remarkable 
productions of ancient Indian thought become difficult to 
account for. Let us compare our small modern events 
with those grand old occurrences. Suppose our ancestors 
to have been attached to the ceremonial law of the Vedas, 
as we are now attached to a lifeless ritualism, the 
Upanishads and the Gita. might be, in a way, comparable 
to movements like that of the late Raja Rammohun Roy. 
Standing, as far as possible, on the antique ways, they 
attempt, as Raja Rammohun attempted in these latter 
days, to bring into prominence and to elaborate the higher 
and nobler aspects of the old beliefs. Buddhism would be 
comparable to the further departure from old traditions 
which was led by Babu Keshub Chander Sen. The points 
of dissent in the olden times were pretty nearly the same 
as the points of dissent now. The ultimate motive power 
also was in both cases identical — a sense of dissatisfaction 
in its integrity with what had come down from old times 
encrusted with the corruptions of years. In this view the 
old system, the philosophy of the Upanishads and the 
Gita, and the philosophy of Buddha, constitute a regular 
intelligible progression. But suppose the turn events took 
was different, as is supposed by the alternative theory 
indicated above. Suppose Babu Keshub's movement was 
chronologically prior, and had begun to tell on orthodox 
society. Is it likely, that then one of the orthodox party 

1 Cf. Weber's History of Indian Literature, p. 285. In Mr. Davids' Buddhism, 
p. 94, we have a noteworthy extract from a standard Buddhistic vvork, touching 
the existence of the soul. Compare that with the corresponding doctrine in the 
Gita. It will be found that the two are at one in rejecting the identity of the 
soul with the senses &c. The Gita then goes on to admit a soul separate from 
these. Buddhism rejects that also, and sees nothing but the senses. 



would take up the position which Rammohun Roy took ? 
Would he still rely on old authorities, but with sundry 
qualifications, and yet earnestly assail the current forms of 
orthodoxy ? I do not think so. I think the true view to 
be, as already stated, very different. The Upanishads, 
with the Gita, and the precepts of Buddha appear to me to 
be the successive 1 embodiments of the spiritual thought of 
the age, as it became more and more dissatisfied with the 
system of mere ceremonial then dominant. 

There are several other points of much interest in the 
Bhagavadgita, such as the reference to the Sankhya and 
Yoga ; the place assigned to the Marga^irsha month ; the 
allusion to the doctrines of materialism ; the nearly entire 
coincidence between a stanza of the Gita and one in the 
Manu SmWti. But in the present state of our knowledge, 
I do not think that we can extract any historical results 
from any of them. Without dwelling on them any further 2 , 
therefore, I will only state it as my opinion, that the 
Sankhya and Yoga of the Gita are not identical with 
the systems known to us under those names, and that the 
Manu Smr/ti has probably borrowed from the Gita the 
stanza common to the two works. 

We now proceed to a discussion of some of the external 
evidence touching the age of the Bhagavadgita. It is, of 
course, unnecessary to consider any evidence of a date later 
than the eighth century A. C, that being the date generally 
received, though not on very strong grounds, as the date of 
5ankara£arya, the celebrated commentator of the Gita. 3 . 
For the period prior to that limit, the first testimony to 
consider is that of Ba/zabha//a, the author of the Kadam- 
bari. The date of Ba;/a is now fairly well settled as the 

1 The word Brahma-nirvawa, which occurs so often at the close of chapter V 
and also at chapter II, 72, seems to me to indicate that nirva//a had not yet 
become technically pinned down, so to say, to the meaning which Buddhism 
subsequently gave to it, as the name of what it deemed the summum bonum. 
Nirvana by itself occurs at VI, 15. 

2 See some further remarks on these points in my Introduction to the Gila 
in verse. 

3 Professor Tiele (History of Ancient Religions, p. 140) says 6ankara was born 
in 788 A.D. ; on the authority, I presume, of the Aryavidyasudh&kara, p. 226. 

[8] ' C 



middle of the seventh century A. C. The doubt which the 
late Dr. Bhau Dajl had east upon its correctness 1 , by 
impugning the received date of king Harshavardhana, 
appears to me to have been satisfactorily disposed of by 
the paper of my friend Professor R. G. Bha;/^arkar on the 
A Vilukya dates'-. In the Kadambari, then, we have 
testimony to the existence of the Bhagavadgita in the 
middle of the seventh century A. C. For in that work, 
which, as is well known, abounds with equivoques, we have 
a passage which compares the royal palace to the Maha- 
bharata, both being ' Anantagitakarwanananditanaram V 
which, as applied to the royal palace, means 'in which the 
people were delighted by hearing innumerable songs ; ' and 
as applied to the Mahabharata means 1 in which Argxma 
was delighted at hearing the Anantagita.' Anantagita is 
evidently only another name here for Bhagavadgita. The 
conclusion deducible from this fact is not merely that the 
Gita existed, but that it existed as a recognised portion of 
the Bharata, in the seventh century A. C. Now the Kadam- 
bari shows, in numerous passages, in what high esteem the 
Mahabharata was held in its days. The queen Vilasavati 
used to attend at those readings and expositions of the 
Mahabharata, which have continued down to our own 
times ; and it was even then regarded as a sacred work of 
extremely high authority, in the same way as it is now. 
It follows, therefore, that the Gita must have been several 
centuries old in the time of Ba/zabha//a. 

Prior in time to Bana is the Indian Shakespeare, Kalidasa, 
as he is referred to in Bawabha//a's Harsha^arita 4 , and also 
in a copperplate inscription of the early part of the seventh 
century, as a poet who had then already acquired a high 
reputation 5 . Unfortunately, it is not yet possible to fix 
exactly the date at which Kalidasa flourished. Still, 

1 Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. viii, p. 250 • 
and see, too, Indian Antiquary, vol. vi, p. 61 (Dr. Biihler). 

2 Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. xiv, 
p. 16 seq. 

3 P. 182 (Taranatha's ed.) 4 See F. E. Hall's Vasavadatta, p. 14 note. 
5 See Indian Antiquary, vol. v, p. 70. 



I think, we have pretty satisfactory evidence to show that 
the middle of the fifth century A. c. is the very latest date 
to which he can be referred. In a small tract (written by 
me in 1873), discussing Professor Weber's theory about the 
Ramayaz/a, I have pointed out 1 that the Pa^atantra quotes 
from Kalidasa a passage which there is good reason to 
believe formed part of the Pa?X£atantra when it was trans- 
lated for king Nushirvan of Persia about the beginning of 
the sixth century A. C. 2 Allowing for the time required to 
raise Kalidasa to the position of being cited as an authority, 
and for the time required for the spread of the fame of 
an Indian work to Persia in those early days, I think, that 
the middle of the fifth century is a date to which Kalidasa 
cannot well have been subsequent. Now in the works of 
Kalidasa we have some very remarkable allusions to the 
Bhagavadgita. It is not necessary to go through all these 
allusions. I will only mention the most remarkable, one 
from the Raghuva7//j-a, and one from the Kumarasambhava. 
In Raghu, canto X, stanza 67, the gods addressing Vishmi 
say : ' There is nothing for you to acquire which has not 
been acquired. The one motive in your birth and work is 
the good of the worlds.' The first sentence here reminds 
one at once of Gita, chapter III, stanza 22, the coincidence 
with which in sense as well as expression is very striking. 
The second sentence contains the words ' birth and work,' 
the precise words employed at Gita IV, 9 ; and the idea of 
i good of the worlds ' is identical with the idea expressed in 
Gita III, 20-24, the words only in which it is clothed being 
different. Couple this passage with the one from Kuma- 
rasambhava, canto VI, 67, where the seven Rishxs say to 
the Himalaya mountain, ' Well hast thou been called 
Vishnu in a firmly-fixed form.' The allusion there to the 
Gita, chapter X, stanza 25 (p. 89), is, I venture to think, 

1 'Was the Ramayawa copied from Homer?' See pp. 36-59. 

' l Cf. Colebrooke's Essays, vol. ii, p. 166 seq. It may be remarked that 
this argument is not affected by the attempt to distinguish the Kalidasa of the 
^Sakuntala from the Kalidasa of the Raghuva;/^a. Because the work cited in 
the Pa;7>£atantra is the Kumarasambhava, which indisputably belongs to the 
same author as the Raghuvawra. 

C 2 


unmistakable. The word 'firmly-fixed' is identical in 
both passages ; the idea is identical, and Mallinatha refers 
to the passage in the Gita as the authority which Kalidasa 
had in view . It follows, therefore, that the Gita must be 
prior to Kalidasa's time. It may be added, that Kalidasa 
in his Raghu XV, 67, cites Manu as an authority for 
the proposition that a king must protect all castes and 
all orders or dramas. Manu, therefore, must have lived 
considerably earlier than Kalidasa, and the Gita, as we 
have already argued, must be considerably earlier, not 
only than Manu, but also than his predecessor Apastamba. 
The Gita may, therefore, be safely said to belong to 
a period several centuries prior to the fifth century A. C. 

The next piece of external evidence is furnished by the 
Vedanta-sutras of Badarayaz/a. In several of those Sutras, 
references are made to certain Smrz'tis as authorities for the 
propositions laid down. Take, for instance, I, 2, 6, or I, 3, 
23, and many others. Now three of these Sutras are very 
useful for our present purpose. The first we have to con- 
sider is Sutra II, 3, 45. The commentators .SankaraZ'arya, 
Ramanu^a, Madhva, and Vallabha 1 are unanimous in un- 
derstanding the passage in Gita, chapter XV, stanza 7 
(p. 112), to be the one there referred to by the words of the 
Sutra, which are, ■ And it is said in a Smrzti.' Now a glance 
at the context of the Sutra will, I think, satisfy us that 
the commentators, who are unanimous though representing 
different and even conflicting schools of thought, are also 
quite right. Sutra 43, in the elliptical language charac- 
teristic of that branch of our literature, says, ' A part, from 
the statement of difference, and the reverse also ; some lay 
down that it is a fisherman or a cheat.' Sutra 44 runs 
thus. ' And also from the words of the Mantra.' And then 
comes Sutra 45 as set out above. It is plain, that the 
Sutra No. 45 indicates an authority for something not speci- 
fied, being regarded as part of some other thing also not 

1 I am indebted to Professor M. M. Kunte for a loan of VallabhaHrya's 
commentary on the Sutras noted in the text. I had not seen it 1875, when 
I last discussed this question. 



specified. Now the discussion in previous Sutras has been 
about the soul ; so we can have little difficulty in accepting 
the unanimous interpretation of the commentators, that the 
proposition here sought to be made out is that the indi- 
vidual soul is part of the Supreme Soul, which is the pro- 
position laid down in the Gita. in the passage referred to. 
The next Sutra to refer to is IV, 1,10. I shall not set forth 
the other relevant Sutras here as in the preceding case. 
I only state that the three commentators, vSankara, Ra- 
manu^a, and Madhva. agree that the Gita is here referred 
to, namely, chapter VI, stanza 11 seq. Vallabha, how- 
ever, I am bound to add, does not agree with this, as he 
interprets the Sutra in question and those which precede 
and follow as referring to an entirely different matter. If 
I may be permitted to say so, however, I consider his 
interpretation not so satisfactory as that of the three 
other and older commentators. Lastly, we come to Sutra 
IV, 2-19. On this, again, all the four commentators are 
unanimous, and they say that Gita, chapter VIII, stanza 
24 seq. (p. 80), is the authority referred to. And I think 
there can be very little doubt that they are right. These 
various pieces of evidence render it, I think, historically 
certain, that the Gita must be considerably prior to the 
Vedanta-sutras ; and that the word Brahma-sutras, which 
occurs at Gita, chapter XIII, stanza 4 (p. 102), is correctly 
interpreted by the commentators as not referring to the 
Vedanta-sutras, which are also called Brahma-sutras, but 
to a different subject altogether 1 . When were the Vedanta- 
sutras composed ? The question must at once be admitted 
to be a difficult one ; but I think the following considera- 
tions will show that the date of those Sutras must, at the 
latest, be considerably earlier than the period which we 
have already reached in this part of our investigation. We 
may take it as fairly well settled, that Bhataz Rumania, the 
celebrated commentator of the Piirva Mitna;//sa school, 
flourished not later than the end of the seventh century 

1 Cf. Weber's Indian Literature, p. 242. .See also Lassen's Preface to his 
edition of Schlegcl's Gita, XXXV. Ramann^a takes the other view. 


\. c. 1 A considerable time prior to him must be placed 
the great commentator on the Mima/z/sa-sutras, namely, 
Sabarasvamin. If we may judge from the style of his great 
commentary j he cannot have flourished much later than 
Pataflgali, who may now be taken as historically proved to 
have flourished about 140 B.C. 2 Now a considerable time 
must have intervened between vSabarasvamin and another 
commentator on the Purva Mimawsa, whom »Sabara 
quotes with the highly honorific title Bhagavan, the 
Venerable, namely, Upavarsha. Upavarsha appears from 
Sankara's statement to have commented on the Vedanta- 
sutras 8 . We have thus a long catena of works from the 
seventh century A. C, indicating a pretty high antiquity 
for the Vedanta-sutras, and therefore a higher one for the 
Bhagavadgita. The antiquity of the Vedanta-sutras follows 
also from the circumstance, which we have on the testimony 
of Ramanu^a, repeated by MadhavaMrya, that a commen- 
tary on the Sutras was written by Baudhayana^arya 4 , 
which commentary Ramanu^a says he followed. Baudha- 
yana's date is not accurately settled. But he appears to 
be older than Apastamba, whose date, as suggested by 
Dr. Bujiler, has already been mentioned 5 . The Vedanta- 
sutras, then, would appear to be at least as old as the fourth 
century B. c. ; if the information we have from Ramanu^a 
may be trusted. A third argument may be mentioned, 
bearing on the date of the Vedanta-sutras. In Sutra no 
of the third Pada of the fourth Adhyaya of Pacini's Sutras, 
a Para^arya is mentioned as the author of a Bhikshu-sutra. 
Who is this Para^arya, and what the Bhikshu-sutra? Un- 
luckily Pata%ali gives us no information on this head, nor 

1 See Burnell's Samavidhana-brahma//a, Introduction, p. vi note. 

2 The authorities are collected in our edition of Bhartr/hari (Bombay Series 
of Sanskrit Classics), Introd. p. xi note. See also Buhler's Apastamba in this 
series, Introd. p. xxviii. 

3 See Colebrooke's Essays, vol. i, p. 332. An Upavarsha is mentioned in 
the Kathasaritsagara as living in the time of king Nanda, and having Pacini, 
Katyayana, and Vya^i for his pupils. 

4 See the Ramanu^a Bhashya; and the Ramanu^a Dan-ana in Sarvadarrana- 

5 Apastamba, p. xvi. 



does the Ka^ika Vrztti. But a note of Professor Taranatha 
Tarkava^aspati, of Calcutta, says that PanLrarya is Vyasa, 
and the Bhikshu-sutra is the Vedanta-sutra l . If this is 
correct, the Vedanta-sutras go very far indeed into anti- 
quity. For Pacini can certainly not be assigned to a later 
date than the fourth century B. C, while that learned 
scholar, Professor Goldstiicker, on grounds of considerable 
strength, assigned him to a much earlier date 2 . The ques- 
tion thus comes to this, Is the remark of Professor Tara- 
natha, above set out, correct ? I find then, from enquiries 
made of my venerable and erudite friend Ya^ejvar Gastrin, 
the author of the Aryavidyasudhakara, that the note of 
Taranatha is based on the works of Bha//q^i Dikshita, 
Nago^i Bha//a, and ^//anendra Sarasvati, who all give the 
same interpretation of the Sutra in question. It is certainly 
unfortunate that we have no older authority on this point 
than Bha^o^i. The interpretation is in itself not impro- 
bable. Vyasa is certainly by the current tradition 3 called 
the author of the Vedanta-sutras, and also the son of 
Paraj-ara. Nor is Bhikshu-sutra a name too far removed in 
sense from Vedanta-sutra, though doubtless the former 
name is not now in use, at all events as applied to the Sutras 
attributed to Badaraya^a, and though, it must also be 
stated, a Bhikshu-sutra Bhashya Vartika is mentioned eo 
nomine by Professor Weber as actually in existence at the 
present day 4 . Taking all things together, therefore, we 
may provisionally understand the Bhikshu-sutra mentioned 
by Pacini to be identical with the Vedanta-sutras. But 
even apart from that identification, the other testimonies 
we have adduced prove, I think, the high antiquity of those 
Sutras, and consequently of the Bhagavadgita. 

We have thus examined, at what, considering the im- 
portance and difficulty of the subject, will not, I trust, be 
regarded as unreasonable length, some of the principal 
pieces of internal and external evidence touching the age 

1 See Siddhanta Kaumudi, vol. i, p. 592. 

2 See his Pacini ; and see also Biihler's Apastamba in this series, Introd. 
p. xxxii note. 3 The correctness of this tradition is very doubtful. 

! fndische Studicn I, 470. 



of the Bhagavadgita and its position in Sanskrit literature. 
Although, as stated at the very outset, the conclusions we 
have deduced in the course of that examination are not all 
such as at once to secure acceptance, I venture to think that 
we have now adequate grounds for saying, that the various 
and independent lines of investigation, which we have pur- 
sued, converge to this point, that the Gita, on numerous and 
essential topics, ranges itself as a member of the Upanishad 
group, so to say, in Sanskrit literature. Its philosophy, its 
mode of treating its subject, its style, its language, its ver- 
sification, its opinions on sundry subjects of the highest 
importance, all point to that one conclusion. We may also, 
I think, lay it down as more than probable, that the latest 
date at which the Gita. can have been composed, must be 
earlier than the third century B.C., though it is altogether 
impossible to say at present how much earlier. This pro- 
position, too. is supported by the cumulative strength of 
several independent lines of testimony. 

Before closing this Introduction, it is desirable to add 
a word concerning the text of the Bhagavadgita. The 
religious care with which that text has been preserved 
is very worthy of note. Schlegel and Lassen 1 have both 
declared it as their opinion, that we have the text now 
almost exactly in the condition in which it was when it left 
the hands of the author. There are very few real various 
readings, and some of the very few that exist are noted 
by the commentators. Considering that the Mahabharata 
must have been tampered with on numerous occasions, this 
preservation of the Gita is most interesting. It doubtless 
indicates that high veneration for it which is still felt, and 
has for long been felt, by the Hindus, and which is em- 
bodied in the expression used in the colophons of the 
MSS. describing the Gita as the 'Upanishad sung by 
God V In view of the facts and deductions set forth in 

1 See the latter's edition of the Gita, Preface, p. xxvii. 

2 In the edition of the Gita published in Bombay in Saka 1782, there is 
a stanza which says that the Upanishads are the cows, Krishna, the milkman, 
Ai£una the calf, and the milk is the nectar-like Gita, which indicates the tradi- 



this essay, that expression existing as, I believe, it does, 
almost universally in Indian MSS. of the Gita, is not 
altogether devoid of historical value. 

Schlegel draws attention to one other circumstance re- 
garding the text of the Gita, which is also highly interesting, 
namely, that the number of the stanzas is exactly 700. 
Schlegel concludes that the author must have fixed on 
that number deliberately, in order to prevent, as far as he 
could, all subsequent interpolations \ This is certainly not 
unlikely ; and if the aim of the author was such as Schlegel 
suggests, it has assuredly been thoroughly successful. In 
the chapter of the Mahabharata immediately succeeding 
the eighteenth chapter of the Gita, the extent of the work 
in j-lokas is distinctly stated. The verses in which this 
is stated do not exist in the Gau^/a or Bengal recension, 
and are doubtless not genuine. But, nevertheless, they 
are interesting, and I shall reproduce them here. * Kejava 
spoke 620 ^lokas, Ar^una fifty-seven, Sa«g*aya sixty-seven, 
and Dhr/tarash/ra one ^loka ; such is the extent of the 
Gita.' It is very difficult to account for these figures. 
According to them, the total number of verses in the Gita 
would be 745, whereas the number in the current MSS., 
and even in the Mahabharata itself, is, as already stated, 
only 700 2 . I cannot suggest any explanation whatever of 
this discrepancy. 

In conclusion, a few words may be added regarding the 
general principles followed in the translation contained in 
this volume. My aim has been to make that translation 
as close and literal a rendering as possible of the Gita, as 
interpreted by the commentators Sankara^arya, 5ridhara- 
svamin, and Madhusudana Sarasvati. Reference has also 
been frequently made to the commentary of Ramanu^a- 
/'arya, and also to that of Nilaka«/^a, which latter forms part 
of the author's general commentary on the Mahabharata. 

tional view of the Gita — a view in consonance with that which we have been 
led to by the facts and arguments contained in this Introduction. 

1 P. xl (Lassen's ed.) 

2 ^Sahkara's commentary states in so many words that the Gita he used 
contained only 700 j-lokas. 


In some places these commentators differ among them- 
selves, and then I have made my own choice. The foot-notes 
are mainly intended to make clear that which necessarily 
remains obscure in a literal translation. Some of the notes, 
however, also point out the parallelisms existing between 
the Cot. i and other works, principally the Upanishads and 
the Buddhistic Dhammapada and Sutta Nipata. Of the 
latter I have not been able to procure the original Pali ; 
I have only used Sir M. C. Swamy's translation. But I may 
here note, that there are some verses, especially in the Salla 
Sutta (see pp. 124-127 of Sir M. C. Swamy's book), the 
similarity of which, in doctrine and expression, to some 
of the verses of the Gita is particularly striking. The 
analogies between the Gita and the Upanishads have been 
made the basis of certain conclusions in this Introduction. 
Those between the Gita and these Buddhistic works are at 
present, to my mind, only interesting ; I am unable yet to 
say whether they may legitimately be made the premises 
for any historical deductions. 

There are two indexes : the first a general index of 
matters, the second containing the principal words in the 
Gita. which may prove useful or interesting for philological, 
historical, or other kindred purposes. 


Chapter I. 

Dhmarash/ra said : 

What did my (people) and the Pa;/^avas do, 
O Sa/^aya ! when they assembled together on the 
holy field of Kurukshetra, desirous to do battle ? 

Sa;^aya said : 

Seeing the army of the Pa^avas drawn up in 
battle-array 1 , the prince Duryodhana approached 
his preceptor, and spoke (these) words : ' O pre- 
ceptor ! observe this grand army of the sons of 
Fandu, drawn up in battle-array by your talented 
pupil, the son of Drupada. In it are heroes 
(bearing) large bows, the equals of Bhima and 
Ar^una in battle — (namely), Yuyudhana, Vira/a, 
and Drupada, the master of a great car 2 , and 
Dhr/sh/aketu, iTekitana, and the valiant king of 
Ka^i, Purufit and Kuntibhq£"a, and that eminent 
man 6aibya ; the heroic Yudhamanyu, the valiant 
Uttamau^as, the son of Subhadra, and the sons of 

1 Several of these modes of array are described in Manu VII, 187, 
like a staff, like a wain, like a boar, &c. That of the PaWavas, here 
referred to, appears to have been like the thunderbolt, as to which 
see Manu VII, 191. 

2 This is a literal rendering ; the technical meaning is ' a warrior 
proficient in military science, who single-handed can fight a thou- 
sand archers/ 



Draupadi — all masters of great cars. And now, 

0 best of ]>rahma//as! learn who are most dis- 
tinguished among us, and are leaders of my army. 

1 will name them to you, in order that you may 
know them well. Yourself, and Bhishma, and Kar«a, 
and K;/pa the victor of (many) battles; A^vattha- 
man, and Yikan/a, and also the son of Somadatta, 
ami man)- other brave men, who have given up 
their lives for me, who fight with various weapons, 
(and are) all dexterous in battle. Thus our army 
which is protected by Bhishma is unlimited ; while 
this army of theirs which is protected by Bhima is 
very limited. And therefore do ye all, occupying 
respectively the positions 1 assigned to you, protect 
Bhishma 2 only.' 

Hi en his powerful grandsire, Bhishma, the oldest 
of the Kauravas, roaring aloud like a lion, blew his 
conch, (thereby) affording delight to Duryodhana. 
And then all at once, conchs, and kettledrums, and 
tabors, and trumpets were played upon ; and there 
was a tumultuous din. Then, too, Madhava and the 
son of Fandu (Ar^una), seated in a grand chariot to 
which white steeds were yoked, blew their heavenly 
conchs. Hr/shike5a 3 blew the Pa//£a^anya 4 , and 
Dhana7^aya the Devaclatta, and Bhima, (the doer) of 
fearful deeds, blew the great conch Pau/^ra. King 
Yuclhish///ira, the son of Kunti 5 , blew the Anan- 

1 The original word means, according to iSridhara, ' the ways of 
entrance into a Vyuha or phalanx.' 

Who, as generalissimo, remained in the centre of the army. 

8 Literally, according to the commentators, 'lord of the senses of 

4 Schlegel renders the names of these conchs by Gigantea, 
Theodotes, Arundinea, Triumphatrix, Dulcisona, and Gemmiflorea 
respectively. 5 So called, par excellence, apparently. 



tavi^aya, and Nakula and Sahadeva (respectively) 
the Sughosha and Mawipushpaka. And the king 
of Ka^i, too, who has an excellent bow, and .Sikha/^- 
^in, the master of a great car, and Dhr/sh/adyumna, 
Vira/a, and the unconquered Satyaki, and Drupada, 
and the sons of Draupadl, and the son of Subhadra, 
of mighty arms, blew conchs severally from all sides, 
O king of the earth ! That tumultuous din rent 
the hearts of all (the people) of Dh/Ytarash/ra's 
(party), causing reverberations throughout heaven 
and earth. Then seeing (the people of) Dh/'z- 
tarash/ra's party regularly marshalled, the son of 
Faudu, whose standard is the ape, raised his bow 
after the discharge of missiles had commenced, and 
O king of the earth ! spake these words to Hr/shi- 
kesa : ' O undegraded one ! station my chariot 
between the two armies, while I observe those, 
who stand here desirous to engage in battle, and 
with whom, in the labours of this struggle, I must 
do battle. I will observe those who are assembled 
here and who are about to engage in battle, wishing 
to do service in battle 2 to the evil-minded son of 

Sa/z^aya said : 
Thus addressed by Gu^akem 3 , O descendant of 
Bharata 4 ! Hrzshike^a stationed that excellent cha- 
riot between the two armies, in front of Bhishma 

1 I.e. to join in the fight. 

2 In the original, several derivatives from the root yudh, mean- 
ing ' to fight,' occur with the same frequency as ' battle ' here. 

3 Generally interpreted ' lord of sleep/ i.e. not indolent. Nila- 
kawMa also suggests, that it may mean ' of thick hair.' 

4 The son of Dushyanta and £akuntala, after whom India is called 
4 Bharatavarsha/ and from whom both Paz^/avas and Kauravas 
were descended. 

40 bhagavadgJtA. 

and Dro;/a and of all the kings of the earth, and 
said : ' O son of lV/tha ! look at these assembled 
Kauravas.' There the son of Pmha saw in both 
armies, fathers and grandfathers, preceptors, ma- 
ternal uncles, brothers, sons l , grandsons, companions, 
fathers-in-law, as well as friends. And seeing all 
those kinsmen standing (there), the son of Kunti 
was overcome by excessive pity, and spake thus 

Ar^una said : 
Seeing these kinsmen, O Krishna ! standing (here) 
anxious to engage in battle, my limbs droop down; 
my mouth is quite dried up ; a tremor comes over 
my body ; and my hairs stand on end ; the Ga/z^iva 
(bow) slips from my hand ; my skin burns intensely. 
I am unable, too, to stand up ; my mind whirls 
round, as it were ; O Ke^ava ! I see adverse omens 2 ; 
and I do not perceive any good (likely to accrue) 
after killing (my) kinsmen in the battle. I do not 
wish for victory, O Krz'sh/za ! nor sovereignty, nor 
pleasures : what is sovereignty to us, O Govinda ! 
w T hat enjoyments, and even life ? Even those, for 
whose sake we desire sovereignty, enjoyments, and 
pleasures, are standing here for battle, abandoning 
life and wealth — preceptors, fathers, sons as well as 
grandfathers, maternal uncles, fathers-in-law, grand- 
sons, brothers-in-law, as also (other) relatives. These 
I do not wish to kill, though they kill (me),0 destroyer 
of Madhu 3 ! even for the sake of sovereignty over 

1 The words in this list include all standing in similar relation- 
ships to those directly signified. 

2 Such as the appearance of vultures, cars moving without horses, 
&c, mentioned in the Bhishma Parvan II, 17. Cf. SuttaNipata, 
p. too. 3 A demon of this name. 



the three worlds, how much less then for this earth 
(alone) ? What joy shall be ours, O Ganardana ! 
after killing Dhrztarash/ra's sons ? Killing these 
felons 1 we shall only incur sin. Therefore it is not 
proper for us to kill our own kinsmen, the sons of 
Dhr/tarash/ra. For how, O Madhava ! shall we be 
happy after killing our own relatives ? Although 
they have their consciences corrupted by avarice, 
they do not see the evils flowing from the extinction 
of a family, and the sin in treachery to friends ; still, 
O Ganardana ! should not we, who do see the evils 
flowing from the extinction of a family, learn to 
refrain from that sin ? On the extinction of a family, 
the eternal rites of families are destroyed 2 . Those 
rites being destroyed, impiety predominates over the 
whole family :{ . In consequence of the predominance 
of impiety, O "Krishna. ! the women of the family 
become corrupt 4 ; and the women becoming corrupt, 
O descendant of Vrishni ! intermingling of castes 
results ; that intermingling necessarily leads the 
family and the destroyers of the family to hell ; for 
when the ceremonies of (offering) the balls of food 
and water (to them) fail 5 , their ancestors fall down 
(to hell). By these transgressions of the destroyers 
of families, which occasion interminglings of castes, 
the eternal rites of castes and rites of families are 

1 Six classes are mentioned : an incendiary ; one who administers 
poison ; one who assaults another— weapon in hand ; one who 
destroys property ; one who robs another of his wife : or his fields. 

2 1.e.there being none to attend to the 'rites/ women being ineligible. 

3 I.e. the surviving members. 

4 I.e. either by the mere fact of relationship to such men, or by 
following their bad example. 

:i There being no qualified person to perform them ; 4 their 
ancestors ' — that is to say, of the ' destroyers of families.' 


subverted. And O Ganirdana! we have heard 
that nun whose family-rites are subverted, must 
necessarily live in hell. Alas! we are engaged in 
committing a heinous sin, seeing that we are making 
efforts for killing our own kinsmen out of greed of 
the pleasures of sovereignty. If the sons of Dhrz'ta- 
rashfra, weapon in hand, were to kill me in battle, 
me being weaponless and not defending (myself), 
that would be better for me. 

Sa;2^aya said : 
Having spoken thus, Ar<nina cast aside his bow 
together with the arrows, on the battle-field, and 
sat down in (his) chariot, with a mind agitated by 

Chapter II. 

Sa;^aya said : 

To him, w T ho was thus overcome with pity, and 
dejected, and whose eyes were full of tears and 
turbid, the destroyer of Madhu spoke these words. 

The Deity said : 
How (comes it that) this delusion, O Ar^una! 
which is discarded by the good, which excludes from 
heaven, and occasions infamy, has overtaken you 
in this (place of) peril ? Be not effeminate, O son 
of Pr/tha ! it is not worthy of you. Cast off this 
base weakness of heart, and arise, O terror of 
(your) foes ! 

Ar^una said : 
How, O destroyer of Madhu! shall I encounter 
with arrows in the battle Bhishma and Dro^a — 
both, O destroyer of enemies ! entitled to reverence ? 



Without killing (my) preceptors — (men) of great 
glory — it is better to live even on alms in this 
world. But if killing them, though they are avari- 
cious of worldly goods, I should only enjoy blood- 
tainted enjoyments. Nor do we know which of 
the two is better for us— whether that we should 
vanquish them, or that they should vanquish us. 
Even those, whom having killed, we do not wish 
to live — even those sons of Dhrztarash/ra stand 
(arrayed) against us. With a heart contaminated 
by the taint of helplessness *, with a mind con- 
founded about my duty, I ask you. Tell me what 
is assuredly good for me. I am your disciple ; 
instruct me, who have thrown myself on your 
(indulgence). For I do not perceive what is to 
dispel that grief which will dry up my organs 2 after 
I shall have obtained a prosperous kingdom on earth 
without a foe, or even the sovereignty of the gods ? \ 

Sa^aya said : 
Having spoken thus to Hrzshikesa, O terror of 
(your) foes ! Gu^akesa said to Govinda, ' I shall not 
engage in battle ; ' and verily remained silent. To 
him thus desponding between the two armies, O 
descendant of Bharata ! Hrzshikeya spoke these 
words with a slight smile. 

The Deity said : 
You have grieved for those who deserve no grief, 

1 The commentators say that ' heart ' here signifies the dis- 
positions which are stated in chapter XVIII infra, p. 126. The 
feeling of ' helplessness ' is incompatible with what is there stated 
as the proper disposition for a Kshatriya. 

2 I.e. by the heat of vexation ; the meaning is, 1 which will cause 
constant vexation of spirit/ 

3 I.e. if the means employed are the sinful acts referred to. 

[8] D 



and you speak words of wisdom 1 . Learned men 
grieve not for the living nor the dead. Never did 
I not exist, nor you, nor these rulers of men ; nor 
will any one of us ever hereafter cease to be. As 
in this body, infancy and youth and old age (come) 
to the embodied (self) 2 , so does the acquisition of 
another body ; a sensible man is not deceived about 
that. The contacts of the senses 3 , O son of Kunti ! 
which produce cold and heat, pleasure and pain, are 
not permanent, they are for ever coming and going. 
Bear them, O descendant of Bharata ! For, O chief 
of men ! that sensible man whom they 4 afflict not, 
(pain and pleasure being alike to him), he merits 
immortality. There is no existence for that which 
is unreal ; there is no non-existence for that which is 
real. And the (correct) conclusion about both 5 is 
perceived by those who perceive the truth. Know 
that to be indestructible which pervades all this ; 
the destruction of that inexhaustible (principle) none 
can bring about. These bodies appertaining to the 
embodied (self) which is eternal, indestructible, and 
indefinable, are declared G to be perishable ; therefore 
do engage in battle, O descendant of Bharata ! He 
who thinks one to be the killer and he who thinks 

1 Scil. regarding family-rites, &c., for, says Nilakaw/^a, they indi- 
cate knowledge of soul as distinct from body. 

2 A common word in the Gita, that which presides over each 
individual body. 

? ' Scil. with external objects. 4 I.e. the ' contacts.' 

The sense is this — there are two things apparently, the soul 
which is indestructible, and the feelings of pain &c. which ' come 
and go.' The true philosopher knows that the former ^nly is real 
and exists ; and that the latter is unreal and non-existent. He 
therefore does not mind the latter. 

e Scil. by those who are possessed of true knowledge. 



one to be killed, both know nothing. He kills not, 
is not killed *. He is not born, nor does he ever 
die, nor, having existed, does he exist no more. 
Unborn, everlasting, unchangeable, and very ancient, 
he is not killed when the body is killed 2 . O son of 
Pr/tha ! how can that man who knows the self thus 
to be indestructible, everlasting, unborn, and im- 
perishable, kill any one, or cause any one to be 
killed ? As a man, casting off old clothes, puts 
on others and new ones, so the embodied (self), 
casting oft* old bodies, o'oes to others and new ones. 
Weapons do not divide the self (into pieces) ; fire 
does not burn it ; waters do not moisten it ; the 
wind does not dry it up. It is not divisible ; it is 
not combustible ; it is not to be moistened ; it is 
not to be dried up. It is everlasting, all-pervading, 
stable, firm, and eternal 3 . It is said to be un- 
perceived, to be unthinkable, to be unchangeable. 
Therefore knowing it to be such, you ought not to 
grieve. But even if you think that the self is con- 
stantly born, and constantly dies, still, O you of 
mighty arms ! you ought not to grieve thus. For 
to one that is born, death is certain ; and to one 
that dies, birth is certain 4 . Therefore about (this) 

1 Cf. KaMa-upanishad, p. 104. 2 Ka//;a-upanishad, pp. 103, 104. 

3 1 Eternal.' Nilaka;////a explains this by ' unlimited by time, 
place,' &c. -Sahkara and others as 1 uncreated,' 1 without cause.' 
Stable = not assuming new forms; firm = not abandoning the original 
form. (6'ridhara.) The latter signifies a slight change ; the former 
a total change. 

4 Cf. the following from the Sutta Nipala (Sir M. C. Swamy's 
translation), pp. 124, 125 : 'There is, indeed, no means by which 
those born could be prevented from dying.' 1 Even thus the world 
is afflicted with death and decay ; therefore wise men, knowing the 
course of things in the world, do not give way to grief.' 

D 2 

4 6 


unavoidable thing-, you ought not to grieve. The 
source of things, O descendant of Bharata ! is un- 
perceived ; their middle state is perceived ; and their 
end again is unperceived. What (occasion is there 
for any) lamentation regarding them 1 ? One looks 
upon it - as a wonder ; another similarly speaks of 
it as a wonder ; another too hears of it as a wonder ; 
and even after having heard of it, no one does 
really know it :5 . This embodied (self), O descendant 
of Bharata ! within every one's body is ever in- 
destructible. Therefore you ought not to grieve 
for any being. Having regard to your own duty 
also, you ought not to falter, for there is nothing 
better for a Kshatriya 4 than a righteous battle. 
Happy those Kshatriyas, O son of Prztha I who 
can find such a battle (to fight) — come of itself 5 — 
an open door to heaven ! But if you will not fight 
this righteous battle, then you will have abandoned 
your own duty and your fame, and you will incur 
sin. All beings, too, will tell of your everlasting 
infamy ; and to one who has been honoured, infamy 
is (a) greater (evil) than death. (Warriors who are) 
masters of great cars will think that you abstained 
from the battle through fear, and having been highly 
thought of by them, you will fall down to littleness. 
Your enemies, too, decrying your power, will speak 
much about you that should not be spoken. And 
what, indeed, more lamentable than that ? Killed, 

1 Cf. Sutta Nipata, p. 125. * In vain do you grieve, not knowing 
well the two ends of him whose manner either of coming or going 
you know not.' 

2 I. e. the self spoken of above. 

ri KaMa-upanishad, p. 96. 4 One of the warrior caste. 
Without any effort, that is to say, of one's own. 



you will obtain heaven ; victorious, you will enjoy 
the earth. Therefore arise, O son of Kunti ! re- 
solved to (engage in) battle. Looking on pleasure 
and pain, on gain and loss, on victory and defeat 
as the same, prepare for battle, and thus you will 
not incur sin. The knowledge here declared to you 
is that relating to the Sankhya 1 . Now hear that 
relating to the Yoga. Possessed of this knowledge, 
O son of Prztha ! you will cast off the bonds of 
action. In this (path to final emancipation) nothing 
that is commenced becomes abortive ; no obstacles 
exist ; and even a little of this (form of) piety pro- 
tects one from great danger 2 . There is here : \ 
O descendant of Kuru ! but one state of mind con- 
sisting in firm understanding. But the states of 
mind of those who have no firm understanding are 
manifold and endless. The state of mind which 
consists in firm understanding regarding steady con- 
templation 4 does not belong to those, O son of 
Pn'tha ! who are strongly attached to (worldly) 
pleasures and power, and whose minds are drawn 
away by that flowery talk which is full of (the 
ordinances of) specific acts for the attainment of 
(those) pleasures and (that) power, and which pro- 
mises birth as the fruit of acts 5 — (that flowery 

1 Sahkhya is explained in different modes by the different com- 
mentators, but the meaning here seems to be, that the doctrine 
stated is the doctrine of true knowledge and of emancipation by 
means of it. See infra, p. 52. 

2 Viz. this mortal mundane life. 

3 I. e. for those who enter on this ' path/ 

4 I.e. of the supreme Being; Yoga meaning really the dedication 
of all acts to that Being. 

5 See Sutta Nipata, p. 4. 



talk) which those unwise ones utter, who are ena- 
moured of Yeclic words, who say there is nothing 
else, who are full of desires, and whose goal is 
heaven The Vedas (merely) relate to the effects 
of the three qualities 2 ; do you, O Ar^una! rise 
above those effects of the three qualities, and be 
free from the pairs of opposites :! , always preserve 
courage 4 , be free from anxiety for new acquisitions 
or protection of old acquisitions, and be self-con- 
trolled 5 . To the instructed Brahma/za, there is in 
all the Vedas as much utility as in a reservoir of 
water into which waters flow from all sides 6 . Your 
business is with action alone ; not by any means 
with fruit. Let not the fruit of action be your 
motive (to action). Let not your attachment be 
(fixed) on inaction 7 . Having recourse to devotion, 
O Dhana;7faya ! perform actions, casting off (all) 
attachment, and being equable in success or ill- 
success ; (such) equability is called devotion. Action, 

1 This is a merely temporary good, and not therefore deserving 
to be aspired to before final emancipation. 

2 I. e. the whole course of worldly affairs. As to qualities, see 
chapter XIV. 

3 Heat and cold, pain and pleasure, and so forth. Cf. Manu I, 26. 
1 Cf. Sutta Nipata, p. 17 and other places. 

5 Keeping the mind from worldly objects. 

r> The meaning here is not easily apprehended. I suggest the 
following explanation : — Having said that the Vedas are concerned 
with actions for special benefits, K/7'sh/za compares them to a 
reservoir which provides water for various special purposes, 
drinking, bathing, &c. The Vedas similarly prescribe particular rites 
and ceremonies for going to heaven, or destroying an enemy, &c. 
But, says Kn'shwa, man's duty is merely to perform the actions 
prescribed for him, and not entertain desires for the special benefits 
named. The stanza occurs in the Sanatsu^atiya, too. 

7 Doing nothing at all. 



O Dhana%"aya ! is far inferior to the devotion of 
the mind. In that devotion seek shelter. Wretched 
are those whose motive (to action) is the fruit (of 
action). He who has obtained devotion in this 
world casts off both merit and sin x . Therefore 
apply yourself to devotion ; devotion in (all) actions 
is wisdom. The wise who have obtained devotion 
cast off the fruit of action ; and released from the 
shackles of (repeated) births 2 , repair to that seat 
where there is no unhappiness 3 . When your mind 
shall have crossed beyond the taint of delusion, then 
will you become indifferent to all that you have 
heard or will hear 4 . When your mind, that was 
confounded by what you have heard 5 , will stand 
firm and steady in contemplation 6 , then will you 
acquire devotion. 

Ar^una said : 
What are the characteristics, O Ke^ava ! of one 
whose mind is steady, and who is intent on con- 
templation ? How should one of a steady mind 
speak, how sit, how move ? 

The Deity said : 
When a man, O son of Pr/tha ! abandons all the 
desires of his heart, and is pleased in his self only 

1 Merit merely leads to heaven, as to which see note on last 
page. Cf. Sutta Nipata, pp. 4, 136, 145 note. 

2 Sutta Nipata, pp. 3-7, &c. 

3 Sutta Nipata, p. 21. 

4 This, according to Anandagiri, means all writings other than 
those on the science of the soul. 

5 I.e. about the means for the acquisition of various desired 

6 I. e. of the soul (.Sahkara), of the supreme Being (Sridhara). 
Substantially they both mean the same thing. 



and by his self 1 , he is then called of a steady mind. 
He whose heart is not agitated in the midst of 
calamities, who has no longing for pleasures, and 
from whom (the feelings of) affection, fear, and 
wrath - have departed, is called a sage of a steady 
mind. I lis mind is steady, who, being without 
attachments anywhere, feels no exultation and no 
aversion on encountering the various agreeable and 
disagreeable :] (things of this world). A mans mind 
is steady, when he withdraws his senses from (all) 
objects of sense, as the tortoise (withdraws) its 
limbs from all sides. Objects of sense withdraw 
themselves from a person who is abstinent ; not so 
the taste (for those objects). But even the taste 
departs from him, when he has seen the Supreme 4 . 
The boisterous senses, O son of Kunti ! carry away 
by force the mind even of a wise man, who exerts 
himself (for final emancipation). Restraining them 
all, a man should remain engaged in devotion, 
making me his only resort. For his mind is steady 
whose senses are under his control. The man who 
ponders over objects of sense forms an attachment 
to them ; from (that) attachment is produced desire ; 
and from desire anger is produced 5 ; from anger 
results want of discrimination 6 ; from want of dis- 

1 I. e. pleased, without regard to external objects, by self-con- 
templation alone. 

2 Cf. Sutta Nipata, p. 3. 

3 The word jubhanibha in this sense also occurs in the Dhamma- 
pada, stanza 78, and in the Maitn-upanishad, p. 34. 

4 See on this, Wilson's Essays on Sanskrit Literature, vol. iii, 
p. 130. 

5 I.e. when the desire is frustrated. 

* I.e. between right and wrong. Confusion of memory=for- 
getfulness of Sastras and rules prescribed in them. 



crimination, confusion of the memory ; from con- 
fusion of the memory, loss of reason ; and in 
consequence of loss of reason he is utterly ruined. 
But the self-restrained man who moves among 1 
objects with senses under the control of his own 
self, and free from affection and aversion, obtains 
tranquillity 2 . When there is tranquillity, all his 
miseries are destroyed, for the mind of him whose 
heart is tranquil soon becomes steady. He who 
is not self-restrained has no steadiness of mind ; 
nor has he who is not self-restrained perseverance 3 
in the pursuit of self-knowledge ; there is no tran- 
quillity for him who does not persevere in the 
pursuit of self-knowledge ; and whence can there be 
happiness for one who is not tranquil ? For the 
heart which follows the rambling senses leads away 
his judgment, as the wind leads a boat astray upon 
the waters. Therefore, O you of mighty arms ! 
his mind is steady whose senses are restrained on 
all sides from objects of sense. The self-restrained 
man is awake, when it is night for all beings ; and 
when all beings are awake, that is the night of the 
right-seeing sage 4 . He into whom all objects of 
desire enter, as waters enter the ocean, which, 
(though) replenished, (still) keeps its position un- 
moved, — he only obtains tranquillity ; not he who 
desires (those) objects of desire. The man who, 

1 Cf. Sutta Nipata, p. 45. 

2 Cf. Maitri-upanishad, p. 134, where the commentator explains 
it to mean freedom from desires. 

3 For a somewhat similar use of the word bhavana in this sense, 
comp. Dhammapada, stanza 301. 

4 Spiritual matters are dark as night to the common run of men, 
while they are wide awake in all worldly pursuits. With the sage 
the case is exactly the reverse. 



casting off all desires, lives free from attachments, 
who is free from egoism and from (the feeling 
that this or that is) mine 2 , obtains tranquillity. This, 
O son of lV/tha ! is the Brahmic 3 state ; attaining 
to this, one is never deluded ; and remaining in it 
in (one's) last moments, one attains (brahma-nirva/za) 
the Brahmic bliss 4 . 

Chapter III. 
Ar^una said : 
If, O C7anardana ! devotion is deemed by you 
to be superior to action, then why, O Kesava ! 
do you prompt me to (this) fearful action ? You 
seem, indeed, to confuse my mind by equivocal 
words. Therefore, declare one thing determinately, 
by which I may attain the highest good. 

The Deity said : 

0 sinless one ! I have already declared, that in 
this world there is a twofold path 5 — that of the 
Saiikhyas by devotion in the shape of (true) know- 
ledge ; and that of the Yogins by devotion in the 
shape of action. A man does not attain freedom 
from action 0 merely by not engaging in action ; nor 
does he attain perfection 7 by mere 8 renunciation. 
For nobody ever remains even for an instant without 

1 Either pride or, better, the false notion mentioned infra, p. 55. 

2 An almost identical expression occurs in the Dhammapada, 
stanza 367, and Maitri-upanishad, p. 37. 

1 The state of identification of oneself with the Brahman, which 
results from a correct knowledge of the Brahman. 

4 Infra, p. 66. 5 Supra, p. 47. 

fi I. e. according to -Sarikara, identification of oneself with 
Brahman. 7 Final emancipation. 

8 I. e. not coupled with knowledge and purity of heart. 



performing some action ; since the qualities of nature 
constrain everybody, not having free-will (in the 
matter), to some action 1 . The deluded man who, 
restraining the organs of action 2 , continues to think 
in his mind about objects of sense, is called a 
hypocrite. But he, O Ar^una ! who restraining his 
senses by his mind • 0> , and being free from attach- 
ments, engages in devotion (in the shape) of action, 
with the organs of action, is far superior. Do you 
perform prescribed action, for action is better than 
inaction, and the support of your body, too, cannot 
be accomplished with inaction. This world is fet- 
tered by all action other than action for the purpose 
of the sacrifice 4 . Therefore, O son of Kunti ! do 
you, casting off attachment, perform action for that 
purpose. The Creator, having in olden times created 
men together with the sacrifice, said : ' Propagate 
with this. May it be the giver to you of the things 
you desire. Please the gods with this, and may 
those gods please you. Pleasing each other, you 
will attain the highest good. For pleased with the 
sacrifices, the gods will give you the enjoyments 
you desire. And he who enjoys himself without 
giving them what they have given, is, indeed, a thief.' 
The good, who eat the leavings of a sacrifice, are 
released from all sins. But the unrighteous ones, 
who prepare food for themselves only, incur sin 6 . 

1 Cf. infra, pp. 1 21-128. 2 Hands, feet, &c. 

:) By means of true discrimination keeping the senses from 
attachments to worldly objects, which lead to sin and evil. 

4 Cf. infra, pp. 60, 61. Probably the 'sacrifices' spoken of in 
that passage must be taken to be the same as those referred to 
in the Creator's injunction mentioned in this passage. 

5 Cf. Maitri-upanishad, p. 143. 



From food are born (all) creatures; from rain is the 
production of food; rain is produced by sacrifices ; 
sacrifices arc the result of action ; know that action 
has its source in the Vedas ; the Vedas come from 
the Indestructible. Therefore the all-comprehending 
Vedas are always concerned with sacrifices 1 . He 
who in this world does not turn round the wheel 
revolving thus, is of sinful life, indulging his senses, 
and, O son of Prztha ! he lives in vain. But the 
man who is attached to his self only, who is con- 
tented in his self, and is pleased with his self 2 , has 
nothing to do. He has no interest at all in what 
is done, and none whatever in what is not done, in 
this world 3 ; nor is any interest of his dependent 
on any being. Therefore 4 always perform action, 
which must be performed, without attachment. For 
a man, performing action without attachment, attains 
the Supreme. By action alone, did Cranaka and the 
rest work for perfection 5 . And having regard also 
to the keeping of people (to their duties) you should 
perform action. Whatever a great man does, that 
other men also do. And people follow whatever he 
receives as authority. There is nothing, O son of 
Prztha ! for me to do in (all) the three worlds, 

1 The commentators explain this to mean that though the 
Vedas elucidate all matters, their principal subject is the sacrifice. 

2 The distinctions here are rather nice, — an ordinary man is 
' attached ' to worldly objects, is ' contented ' with goods &c, and 
is ' pleased ' with special gains. 

: No good or evil accrues to him from anything he does or 
omits to do. 

1 Sridhara says that Argoina is here told to perform action, as 
freedom from it is only for the man of true knowledge, which 
Ar^una is not as yet. 

5 I. e. final emancipation ; cf. p. 59 infra, and Ij-opanishad, p. 6. 



nothing to acquire which has not been acquired. 
Still I do engage in action. For should I at any 
time not engage without sloth in action, men 
would follow in my path from all sides, O son of 
Pntha ! If I did not perform actions, these worlds 
would be destroyed, I should be the cause of caste- 
interminglings ; and I should be ruining these people. 
As the ignorant act, O descendant of Bharata ! with 
attachment to action, so should a wise man act 
without attachment, wishing to keep the people (to 
their duties). A wise man should not shake the 
convictions of the ignorant who are attached to 
action, but acting with devotion (himself) should 
make them apply themselves to all action. He 
whose mind is deluded by egoism thinks himself 
the doer of the actions, which, in every way, are 
done by the qualities of nature x : But he, O you 
of mighty arms ! who knows the truth about the 
difference from qualities and the difference from 
actions 2 , forms no attachments, believing that quali- 
ties deal with qualities 3 . But those who are deluded 
by the qualities of nature form attachments to the 
actions of the qualities 4 . A man of perfect knowledge 
should not shake these men of imperfect know- 
ledge (in their convictions). Dedicating all actions 
to me with a mind knowing the relation of the 
supreme and individual self, engage in battle without 

1 The active principle is nature, the aggregate of the three 
qualities ; the soul is only the looker-on; cf. inter alia, p. 104 infra. 

2 Scil. the difference of the soul from the collection of qualities, 
viz. the body, senses, &c, and from the actions of which they are 
the author. 

3 Qualities (i. e. senses) deal with qualities, i. e. objects of sense. 

4 I. e. all mundane affairs. 


I > 1 1 A C. A V A D G l T A . 

desire, without (any feeling that this or that is) mine, 
and without an)' mental trouble \ Even those 
men who always act on this opinion of mine, full 
of faith, and without carping, are released from all 
actions. But those who carp at my opinion and do 
not act upon it, know them to be devoid of dis- 
crimination, deluded as regards all knowledge 2 , and 
ruined. Even a man of knowledge acts consonantly 
to his own nature 3 . All beings follow nature. What 
will restraint effect ? Every sense has its affections 
and aversions towards its objects fixed. One should 
not become subject to them, for they are one's 
opponents 4 . One's own duty, though defective, is 
better than another's duty well performed. Death 
in (performing) one's own duty is preferable ; the 
(performance of the) duty of others is dangerous. 

A retina said : 

But by whom, O descendant of Vrzshni ! is man 
impelled, even though unwilling, and, as it were, 
constrained by force, to commit sin ? 

1 About the consequences of your actions. 

2 Of actions, or of the Brahman in its various forms. 

3 Which is the result of the virtues and vices of a preceding 
life. The sequence of ideas here is as follows : — The true view 
stated here about the ' difference from qualities and actions ' is 
disregarded by some, owing to their ' nature ' as now explained. 
Then the question is, If nature is so potent, what is the good of 
the *Sastras ? The answer is, Nature only acts through our likes 
and dislikes. Withstand them and then you can follow the *Sastras. 
It is under the influence of these likes and dislikes, that some may 
say, we shall practise duties prescribed for others (our own being 
bad ones) as they are equally prescribed by the -Sastras. That, as 
stated in the last sentence here, is wrong. 

4 Cf. Sutta Nipata, p. ioi, as to 'likings and dislikings.' 



The Deity said : 

It is desire, it is wrath 1 , born from the quality of 
passion ; it is very ravenous, very sinful. Know that 
that is the foe in this world. As fire is enveloped 
by smoke, a mirror by dust, the foetus by the 
womb, so is this 2 enveloped by desire. Knowledge, 
O son of Kunti ! is enveloped by this constant foe 
of the man of knowledge, in the shape of desire, 
which is like a fire 3 and insatiable. The senses, the 
mind, and the understanding are said to be its seat 4 ; 
with these it deludes the embodied (self) after en- 
veloping knowledge. Therefore, O chief of the 
descendants of Bharata ! first restrain your senses, 
then cast off this sinful thing which destroys know- 
ledge and experience 5 . It has been said 6 , Great 
are the senses, greater than the senses is the mind, 
greater than the mind is the understanding. What 
is greater than the understanding is that 7 . Thus 
knowing that which is higher than the understanding, 
and restraining (your)self by (your)self, O you of 

1 Vide p. 50 supra. 

2 I.e. knowledge, mentioned in the next sentence, for which 
construction p. 71 and p. 98 may be compared. 

3 Which becomes more powerful the more it is fed. 

4 The mind is that which ponders over things as such or such ; 
the understanding is that which finally determines (cf. Lewes' 
History of Philosophy, II, 463-465). These and the senses are 
the ' seat ' of desire, because the perception of an object by the 
sense, the pondering over it by the mind, and the determination 
about it by the understanding are the preliminaries to the 
awakening of the desire ; supra, p. 50. 

5 Knowledge is from books or teachers, experience is the result 
of personal perception. 

c Ka/Z/opanishad, p. 114 ; and see also pp. 148, 149. 
7 I. e. the supreme Being, as in Ka/7/opanishad. 



mighty arms! destroy this unmanageable enemy in 
the shape oi desire. 

Chapter IV. 

The Deity said : 
This everlasting 1 (system of) devotion I declared 
to the sun, the sun declared it to Manu 2 , and Manu 
communicated it to Ikshvaku. Coming thus by steps, 
it became known to royal sages. But, O terror of 
(your) foes ! that devotion was lost to the world by 
long (lapse) of time. That same primeval devotion 
I have declared to you to-day, seeing that you are 
my devotee and friend, for it is the highest mystery. 

Ar^una said : 
Later is your birth ; the birth of the sun is prior. 
How then shall I understand that you declared (this) 
first ? 

The Deity said : 
I have passed through many births, O Ar^una ! 
and you also. I know them all, but you, O terror 
of (your) foes ! do not know them. Even though 
I am unborn and inexhaustible in (my) essence, 
even though I am lord of all beings, still I take up 
the control of my own nature 3 , and am born by 

1 Because its fruit is imperishable, viz. final emancipation. 

2 In the A^andogya-upanishad, Manu is the channel of com- 
munication for some doctrine taught by Pra^apati, which Manu 
teaches the 'people/ interpreted by -Sankara to mean Ikshvaku, &c. 
(p. 1 78 ; see too p. 625). 

3 Nature is what goes to the formation of the material form in 
which he is born; the 'power' includes knowledge, omnipotence, 
Sec. It is delusive because he is still really ' unborn.' 



means of my delusive power. Whensoever, O de- 
scendant of Bharata ! piety languishes, and impiety 
is in the ascendant, I create myself. I am born age 
after age, for the protection of the good, for the 
destruction of evil-doers, and the establishment of 
piety. Whoever truly knows thus my divine birth 
and work, casts off (this) body and is not born again. 
He comes to me, O Ar^una ! Many from whom 
affection, fear 1 , and wrath have departed, who are 
full of me, who depend on me, and who are purified 
by the penance of knowledge 2 , have come into my 
essence. I serve men in the way in which they 
approach me :} . In every way, O son of Pr/tha ! 
men follow in my path 4 . Desiring the success of 
actions 5 , men in this world worship the divinities, 
for in this world of mortals, the success produced 
by action is soon obtained. The fourfold division 
of castes was created by me according to the ap- 
portionment of qualities and duties. But though 
I am its author, know me to be inexhaustible, and 
not the author. Actions defile me not. I have no 
attachment to the fruit of actions. He who knows 
me thus is not tied down by actions. Knowing 
this, the men of old who wished for final emancipa- 
tion, performed action. Therefore do you, too, 
perform action as was done by men of old in olden 
times. Even sages are confused as to what is 

1 Cf. Sutta Nipata, p. 73. 2 Cf. infra, p. 61. 

3 I.e. I give to each worshipper what is proper for him. 

4 The original words used here occur before in a different sense 
(see p. 55). Here the meaning is that to whomsoever directly ad- 
dressed, all worship is worship of me (see p. 84). In the whole 
passage, Kr/sh«a says that the Deity is not chargeable with partiality 
on account of the variety of human qualities and states, 

5 Such as acquisition of sons, cattle, &c. 

[8] E 


action, what inaction. Therefore I will speak to 
you about action, and learning that, you will be freed 
from (this world of) evil. One must possess know- 
ledge about action ; one must also possess knowledge 
about prohibited action ; and again one must possess 
knowledge about inaction. The truth regarding 
action is abstruse. He is wise among men, he is 
possessed of devotion, and performs all actions \ 
who sees inaction in action, and action in inaction.. 
The wise call him learned, whose acts are all free 
from desires and fancies, and whose actions are 
burnt down by the fire of knowledge. Forsaking 
all attachment to the fruit of action, always con- 
tented, dependent on none, he does nothing at all, 
though he engages in action. Devoid of expecta- 
tions, restraining the mind and the self, and casting 
off all belongings 2 , he incurs no sin, performing 
actions merely for the sake of the body 3 . Satisfied 
with earnings coming spontaneously 4 , rising above 
the pairs of opposites, free from all animosity, and 
equable on success or ill-success, he is not fettered 
down, even though he performs (actions). The acts 
of one who is devoid of attachment, who is free 5 , 
whose mind is fixed on knowledge, and who performs 
action for (the purpose of) the sacrifice 6 are all 

1 Devoted though performing all actions. 

2 'Appropriating nothing,' at Sutta Nipata, p. ioi, seems to be 
the same idea. ' Self just before this means senses. 

3 Preferably, perhaps, ' with the body only.' But Sahkara 
rejects this. 

4 Cf. infra, p. ioi ; and Sutta Nipata, p. 12. 

5 The commentators vary in their interpretations of this word 
(mukta), but the common point appears to be ' free from attachment 
10 worldly concerns.' Cf. Sutta Nipata, p. 8. 

6 Sacrifice here apparently means every act for the attainment of 



destroyed. Brahman is the oblation ; with Brahman 
(as a sacrificial instrument) it is offered up ; Brahman 
is in the fire ; and by Brahman it is thrown ; and 
Brahman, too, is the goal to which he proceeds who 
meditates on Brahman in the action l . Some de- 
votees perform the sacrifice to the gods, some offer 
up the sacrifice by the sacrifice itself in the fire 
of Brahman 2 . Others offer up the senses, such as 
the sense of hearing and others, in the fires of 
restraint 3 ; others offer up the objects of sense, such 
as sound and so forth, into the fires of the senses 4 . 
Some again offer up all the operations of the senses 
and the operations of the life-breaths into the fire of 
devotion by self-restraint 5 , kindled by knowledge. 
Others perform the sacrifice of wealth, the sacrifice 
of penance, the sacrifice of concentration of mind, 
the sacrifice of Vedic study G , and of knowledge, and 
others are ascetics of rigid vows. Some offer up 
the upward life-breath into the downward life-breath, 
and the downward life-breath into the upper life- 
breath, and stopping up the motions of the upward 
and downward life-breaths, devote themselves to the 
restraint of the life-breaths 7 . Others, who (take) 

the supreme; cf. supra, p. 53. In Ajvalayana Gr/hya-sutra I, 1, 5, 
a text is cited meaning 1 salutation verily is a sacrifice/ 

1 This thorough identification with the Brahman explains why 
the action is ' destroyed ' and does not ' fetter ' the doer. 

2 I. e. all acts, religious and other, offered up to the Brahman in 
the mode above stated. 

3 Practise ' yoga ' and other like exercises. 

4 Remaining unattached to sensuous enjoyments. 

5 Stopping the bodily operations mentioned, and engaging in 

6 This is called Brahmaya^wa, Ajvalayana Gr/hya-sutra III, 1, 3. 

7 Maitri-upanishad, p. 129. 

E 2 


BH AG A V AD G 1 T A . 

limited food, offer up the life-breaths into the life- 
breaths. All of these, conversant with the sacrifice, 
have their sins destroyed by the sacrifice. Those 
who eat the nectar-like leavings of the sacrifice 
repair to the eternal Brahman l . This world is 
not for those who perform no sacrifice, whence 
(then) the other, O best of the Kauravas ! Thus 
sacrifices of various sorts are laid down in the 
Vedas. Know them all to be produced from action 2 , 
and knowing this you will be released (from the 
fetters of this world). The sacrifice of knowledge, 
O terror of (your) foes ! is superior to the sacrifice 
of wealth, for action, O son of Pmha ! is wholly 
and entirely comprehended in knowledge. That 3 
you should learn by salutation, question, and service 4 . 
The men of knowledge who perceive the truth will 
teach knowledge to you. Having learnt that, O son 
of Paz/dai ! you will not again fall thus into delusion ; 
and by means of it, you will see all beings, without 
exception, first in yourself, and then in me 5 . Even 
if you are the most sinful of all sinful men, you 
will cross over all trespasses by means of the 
boat of knowledge alone. As a fire well kindled, 
O Ar^una ! reduces fuel to ashes, so the fire of 
knowledge reduces all actions to ashes 6 . For there 
is in this world no means of sanctification like know- 
ledge 7 , and that one perfected by devotion finds 

1 Supra, p. 53. 

2 Operations of mind, senses, &c. ; cf. supra, p. 54. 
8 I. e. knowledge. 

4 Addressed to men of knowledge. Cf. Mu;^akopanishad, p. 282. 

5 The essential unity of the supreme and individual soul and the 
whole universe. Cf. bopanishad, pp. 13, 14. 

0 Supra, p. 60. 7 Sutta Nipata, p. 48. 



within one's self in time. He who has faith, whose 
senses are restrained, and who is assiduous, obtains 
knowledge 1 . Obtaining knowledge, he acquires, 
without delay, the highest tranquillity. He who is 
ignorant and devoid of faith, and whose self is full 
of misgivings, is ruined. Not this world, not the 
next, nor happiness, is for him whose self is full 
of misgivings. Actions, O Dhana%aya ! do not 
fetter one who is self-possessed 2 , who has renounced 
action by devotion, and who has destroyed mis- 
givings by knowledge. Therefore, O descendant 
of Bharata ! destroy, with the sword of knowledge, 
these misgivings of yours which fill your mind, and 
which are produced from ignorance. Engage in 
devotion. Arise ! 

Chapter V. 
Arfuna said : 

0 Krishna ! you praise renunciation of actions 
and also the pursuit (of them). Tell me determinately 
which one of these two is superior. 

The Deity said : 
Renunciation and pursuit of action are both 
instruments of happiness. But of the two, pursuit 
of action is superior to renunciation of action. He 
should be understood to be always an ascetic 3 , 
who has no aversion and no desire. For, O you 
of mighty arms ! he who is free from the pairs of 
opposites is easily released from (all) bonds. Children 
— not wise men — talk of saiikhya and yoga as dis- 

1 Sutta Nipata, p. 49. 2 Cautious, free from heedlessness. 
3 L e. one who has performed ' renunciation.' 

6 4 

BH AG A V A DG t TA . 

tinct One who pursues either well obtains the fruit 
of both. The seat which the sankhyas obtain is 
reached by the yogas 1 also. He sees (truly), who 
sees the sahkhya and yoga as one. Renunciation, 
( ) you of mighty arms ! is difficult to reach without 
devotion ; the sage possessed of devotion attains 
Brahman 2 without delay. He who is possessed of 
devotion, whose self is pure, who has restrained 
his self 3 , and who has controlled his senses, and 
who identifies his self with every being, is not 
tainted though he performs (actions). The man of 
devotion, who knows the truth, thinks he does 
nothing at all, when he sees 4 , hears, touches, 
smells, eats, moves, sleeps, breathes, talks, throws 
out 5 , takes, opens or closes the eyelids ; he holds 
that the senses deal with the objects of the senses. 
He who, casting off (all) attachment, performs actions 
dedicating them to Brahman, is not tainted by sin, 
as the lotus-leaf 6 (is not tainted) by water. De- 
votees, casting off attachment, perform actions for 
attaining purity of self, with the body, the mind, the 
understanding, or even the senses 7 — (all) free (from 

1 Those who follow the yoga { path.' The form is noteworthy, 

2 I. e. * attains true renunciation,' says .Sarikara ; «Srfdhara says, 
' attains Brahman, after becoming a " renouncer." ' 

3 Here self is explained as body ; in the line which goes before 
it is explained as heart. 

4 These are the various operations of the organs of perception, 
action, &c. 

Excretions, &c. 

6 A very common simile. Cf. inter alia ^andogya-upanishad, 
p. 276 ; Sutta Nipata, pp. 107-134 ; and Davids' Buddhism, p. 158 

7 Body = bathing, &c. ; mind = meditation, &c. ; understandings 
ascertainment of truth; senses =hearing and celebrating God's name. 



egoistic notions). He who is possessed of devotion, 
abandoning- the fruit of actions, attains the highest 
tranquillity. He who is without devotion, and 
attached to the fruit (of action), is tied down by 
(reason of his) acting in consequence of (some) 
desire. The self-restrained, embodied (self) lies at 
ease within the city of nine portals \ renouncing all 
actions by the mind, not doing nor causing (any- 
thing) to be done. The Lord is not the cause of 
actions, or of the capacity of performing actions 
amongst men, or of the connexion of action and 
fruit. But nature only works. The Lord receives 
no one's sin, nor merit either. Knowledge is 
enveloped by ignorance, hence all creatures are 
deluded 2 . But to those who have destroyed that 
ignorance by knowledge of the self, (such) know- 
ledge, like the sun, shows forth that supreme 
(principle). And those whose mind is (centred) on 
it, whose (very) self it is, who are thoroughly 
devoted to it, and whose final goal it is, go 
never to return, having their sins destroyed by 
knowledge. The wise look upon a Brahma/za 
possessed of learning and humility, on a cow, an 
elephant, a dog, and a 6Vapaka, as alike 3 . Even 
here, those have conquered the material world, 
whose mind rests in equability 4 ; since Brahman is 
free from defects and equable, therefore they rest in 

1 Cf. Prajnopanishad, p. 202 ; -SVetajvatara, p. 332 ; Sutta Nipata, 
p. 52. The Ka//zopanishad has eleven portals (p. 132). The nine 
are the eyes, nostrils, ears, mouth, and the two for excretions. 

2 As regards the Lord's relation to man's merit or sin. 

3 As manifestations of Brahman, though of different qualities and 
classes. As to -SVapaka, a very low caste, see Sutta Nipata, p. 36. 

4 As stated in the preceding words. 



Brahman. He who knows Brahman, whose mind 
is steady, who is not deluded, and who rests in 
Brahman, does not exult on finding anything agree- 
able, nor does he grieve on finding anything disagree- 
able '. One whose self is not attached to external 
objects, obtains the happiness that is in (one's) self ; 
and by means of concentration of mind, joining one's 
self (with the Brahman), one obtains indestructible 
happiness. For the enjoyments born of contact (be- 
tween senses and their objects) are, indeed, sources 
of misery ; they have a beginning as well as an end 2 . 
O son of Kunti ! a wise man feels no pleasure 
in them. He who even in this world, before his 
release from the body, is able to bear the agitations 
produced from desire and wrath, is a devoted man, 
he is a happy man. The devotee whose happiness 
is within (himself), w 7 hose recreation is within (him- 
self), and whose light (of knowledge) also is within 
(himself), becoming (one with) the Brahman 3 , obtains 
the Brahmic bliss 4 . The sages whose sins have 
perished, whose misgivings are destroyed, who are 
self-restrained, and who are intent on the welfare 
of all beings 5 , obtain the Brahmic bliss. To the 
ascetics, who are free from desire and wrath G , and 
w T hose minds are restrained, and who have know- 
ledge of the self, the Brahmic bliss is on both sides 
(of death). The sage who excludes (from his mind) 

1 KaMopanishad, p. 100. 2 Cf. supra, p. 44. 

3 He is one with the Brahman as he is intent exclusively on the 

4 The bliss of assimilation with the Brahman, or, as Ramanu^a 
puts it, the bliss of direct knowledge of the self. 

0 Sutta Nipata, p. 39 ; also Davids' Buddhism, p. 109. 
f ' Cf. Sutta Nipata, p. 3. 



external objects, (concentrates) the visual power 
between the brows \ and making the upward and 
downward life-breaths even, confines their move- 
ments within the nose, who restrains senses, mind, 
and understanding 2 , whose highest goal is final 
emancipation, from whom desire, fear, and wrath 
have departed, is, indeed, for ever released (from 
birth and death). He knowing me to be the enjoyer 
of all sacrifices and penances, the great Lord of all 
worlds, and the friend of all beings, attains tran- 

Chapter VI. 
The Deity said : 
He who, regardless of the fruit of actions, per- 
forms the actions which ought to be performed, is 
the devotee and renouncer ; not he who discards the 
(sacred) fires 3 , nor he who performs no acts. Know, 
O son of Pandu ! that what is called renunciation is 
devotion ; for nobody becomes a devotee who has 
not renounced (all) fancies 4 . To the sage who wishes 
to rise to devotion, action is said to be a means, and 
to him, when he has risen to devotion, tranquillity 5 
is said to be a means. When one does not attach 
oneself to objects of sense, nor to action, renouncing 
all fancies, then one is said to have risen to devotion. 
(A man) should elevate his self by his self 6 ; he should 
not debase his self, for even (a man's) own self is his 

1 Cf. infra, p. 78. 2 P. 57 and Ka///opanishad, p. 157. 

3 Which are required for ordinary religious rites. 

4 Which are the cause of desires ; see supra, p. 50. 

5 Abandonment of distracting actions; means scil. to perfect 
knowledge, says -Sridhara. 

c I. e. by means of a mind possessed of true discrimination. 



Friend, (a man's) own self is also his enemy \ To 
him who has subjugated his self by his self 2 , his 
sell is a friend ; but to him who has not restrained 
his self, his own self behaves inimically, like an 
enemy. The self of one who has subjugated his self 
and is tranquil, is absolutely concentrated (on itself), 
in the midst of cold and heat, pleasure and pain, as 
well as honour and dishonour. The devotee whose 
self is contented with knowledge and experience ? \ 
who is unmoved 4 , who has restrained his senses, and 
to whom a sod, a stone, and gold are alike, is said 
to be devoted. And he is esteemed highest, who 
thinks alike r ' about well-wishers, friends, and enemies, 
and those who are indifferent, and those who take 
part with both sides, and those who are objects of 
hatred, and relatives, as well as about the good and 
the sinful. A devotee should constantly devote his 
self to abstraction, remaining in a secret place G . 
alone, with his mind and self 7 restrained, without 
expectations, and without belongings. Fixing his 
seat firmly in a clean 8 place, not too high nor too 
low, and covered over with a sheet of cloth, a deer- 
skin, and (blades of) Kiua (grass), — and there seated 
on (that) seat, fixing his mind exclusively on one 

1 Self is here explained as mind, the unsteadiness of which 
prevents the acquisition of devotion, p. 71. 

2 This means restraining senses by mind. See Maitn-upa- 
nishad, p. 180. 

3 Supra, p. 57. 4 By any of the vexations of the world. 
5 I.e. is free from affection or aversion towards them. 

r ' ' Release from society ' is insisted on at Sutta Nipata, p. 55. 

7 Self is here explained as senses ; in the previous clause as mind. 

8 This requisite is prescribed by many authorities. Cf. A r Mn- 
dogya-upanishad, p. 626; Maitn, p. 156; *SVeta.rvatara, pp. 318,319; 
and A^valayana (Gnhya-sutra) III, 2, 2, for Vedic study too. 


6 9 

point, with the workings of the minds and senses 
restrained, he should practise devotion for purity of 
self. Holding his body, head, and neck even and 
unmoved, (remaining) steady, looking at the tip of 
his own nose and not looking about in (all) 
directions, with a tranquil self, devoid of fear, and 
adhering to the rules of Brahma/^arins 2 , he should 
restrain his mind, and (concentrate it) on me, and 
sit down engaged in devotion, regarding me as his 
final goal. Thus constantly devoting his self to 
abstraction, a devotee whose mind is restrained, 
attains that tranquillity which culminates in final 
emancipation, and assimilation with me. Devotion 
is not his, O A retina ! who eats too much, nor his 
who eats not at all ; not his who is addicted to too 
much sleep, nor his who is (ever) awake. That 
devotion which destroys (all) misery is his, who 
takes due food and exercise 3 , who toils duly in all 
works, and who sleeps and awakes (in) due (time) 4 . 
When (a man's) mind well restrained becomes steady 
upon the self alone, then he being indifferent to all 
objects of desire, is said to be devoted. As a light 
standing in a windless (place) flickers not, that is 
declared to be the parallel for a devotee, whose mind 
is restrained, and who devotes his self to abstraction. 
That (mental condition), in which the mind restrained 
by practice of abstraction, ceases to work ; in which 

1 Cf. Kumarasambhava, Canto III, 47. This is done in order to 
prevent the sight from rambling — a total closing of the eyes being 
objectionable as leading to sleep. 

2 See these in Apastamba (p. 7 in this series) ; and cf. Sutla 
Nipata, pp. 159,160; and Max Muller's Hibbert Lectures, p. 158. 

;i Cf. Sutta Nipata, pp. 28, 95. 

4 Buddhism shows similar injunctions. Cf. Sutta Nipata, pp. 21, 
28, 95 ; and Dhammapada, stanza 8. 


too, one seeing the self by the self 1 , is pleased in 
the self; in winch one experiences that infinite happi- 
ness which transcends the senses, and which can be 
grasped by the understanding only ; and adhering to 
which, one never swerves from the truth; acquiring 
which, one thinks no other acquisition higher than it ; 
and adhering to which, one is not shaken off even by 
great misery ; that should be understood to be called 
devotion in which there is a severance of all con- 
nexion with pain. That devotion should be practised 
with steadiness and with an undesponding heart. 
Abandoning, without exception, all desires 2 , which 
are produced from fancies, and restraining the whole 
group of the senses on all sides by the mind only 3 , 
one should by slow steps become quiescent 4 , with 
a firm resolve coupled with courage 5 ; and fixing 
the mind upon the self, should think of nothing. 
Wherever the active and unsteady mind breaks 
forth 6 , there one should ever restrain it, and fix it 
steadily on the self alone. The highest happiness 
comes to such a devotee, whose mind is fully 
tranquil, in whom the quality of passion has been 
suppressed, who is free from sin, and who is become 
(one with) the Brahman. Thus constantly devoting 
his self to abstraction, a devotee, freed from sin, 
easily obtains that supreme happiness — contact with 
the Brahman 7 . He who has devoted his self to ab- 
straction, by devotion, looking alike on everything, 

1 Sees the highest principle by a mind purified by abstraction. 

2 Cf. SuttaNipata, p. 62. 3 Cf. supra, p. 53. 

4 I. e. cease to think of objects of sense. Cf. supra, p. 69. 

5 I.e. an undespairing and firm resolution that devotion will be 
achieved ultimately. 

c Cf. Sutta Nipata, p. 106. 7 Assimilation with the Brahman. 



sees the self abiding in ail beings, and all beings in 
the self 1 . To him who sees me in everything, and 
everything in me, I am never lost, and he is not 
lost to me 2 . The devotee who worships me abiding 
in all beings, holding that all is one 3 , lives in me, 
however he may be living 4 . That devotee, O 
Ar^una ! is deemed to be the best, who looks alike 
on pleasure or pain, whatever it may be, in all 
(creatures), comparing all with his own (pleasure 
or pain) 5 . 

Ar^una said : 
I cannot see, O destroyer of Madhu ! (how) 
the sustained existence (is to be secured) of this 
devotion by means of equanimity which you have 
declared — in consequence of fickleness. For, O 
Kr£sh//a ! the mind is fickle, boisterous 6 , strong, and 
obstinate ; and I think that to restrain it is as 
difficult as (to restrain) the wind. 

The Deity said : 
Doubtless, O you of mighty arms! the mind is 
difficult to restrain, and fickle 7 . Still, O son of 
Kunti ! it may be restrained by constant practice and 
by indifference (to worldly objects). It is my belief, 
that devotion is hard to obtain for one who does not 
restrain his self. But by one who is self-restrained 

1 Realises the essential unity of everything. 

2 He has access to me, and I am kind to him. 

3 Cf. Ifopanishad, p. 13. 

4 'Even abandoning all action,' says Sridhara; and cf. infra, p. 105. 

5 Who believes that pleasure and pain are as much liked or 
disliked by others as by himself, and puts himself in fact in the 
place of others. 

G Troublesome to the body, senses, &c. 
7 Cf. Dhammapada, stanza 33 seq. 



and assiduous, it can be obtained through (proper) 

Ar^una said : 
What is the end of him, O Krishna. ! who does 
not attain the consummation of his devotion, being 
not assiduous l , and having- a mind shaken off from 
devotion, (though) full of faith ? Does he, fallen 
from both (paths) 2 , go to ruin like a broken cloudy 
being, O you of mighty arms ! without support, and 
deluded on the path (leading) to the Brahman ? Be 
pleased, O Krishna. ! to entirely destroy this doubt of 
mine, for none else than you can destroy this doubt. 

The Deity said : 

0 son of Pr/tha ! neither in this world nor the 
next, is ruin for him ; for, O dear friend ! none who 
performs good (deeds) comes to an evil end. He 
who is fallen from devotion attains the worlds of 
those who perform meritorious acts, dwells (there) for 
many a year, and is afterwards born into a family 
of holy and illustrious 3 men. Or he is even born 
into a family of talented devotees ; for such a birth as 
that in this world is more difficult to obtain. There 
he comes into contact with the knowledge which 
belonged to him in his former body, and then again, 
O descendant of Kuru ! he works for perfection 4 . 
For even though reluctant 5 , he is led away by the 

1 Cf. p. 73 infra. 

2 The path to heaven, and that to final emancipation. 

3 ' Kings or emperors/ says Madhusudana. 

4 I. e. final emancipation. 

5 ' As Ar^-una himself/ says Madhusudana, ' receives instruction 
in knowledge, though he comes to the battle-field without any such 
object; hence it was said before, "nothing is here abortive."' 
See p. 47. 



self-same former practice, and although he only 
wishes to learn devotion, he rises above the (fruits 
of action laid down in the) divine word. But the 
devotee working with great efforts \ and cleared of 
his sins, attains perfection after many births, and 
then reaches the supreme goal. The devotee is 
esteemed higher than the performers of penances, 
higher even than the men of knowledge, and the 
devotee is higher than the men of action ; therefore, 
O Arg una ! become a devotee. And even among 
all devotees, he who, being full of faith, worships 
me, with his inmost self intent on me, is esteemed 
by me to be the most devoted. 

Chapter VII. 
The Deity said : 

0 son of Pntha ! now hear how you can without 
doubt know me fully, fixing your mind on me, and 
resting in me, and practising devotion. I will now 
tell you exhaustively about knowledge together with 
experience ; that being known, there is nothing 
further left in this world to know. Among thou- 
sands of men, only some 2 work for perfection 3 ; 
and even of those who have reached perfection, 
and who are assiduous, only some know me truly. 
Earth, water, fire, air, space, mind, understanding, 

1 As distinguished from the others who work half-heartedly, so 
to say. See p. 72. 

2 ' Some one ' in the original. 

3 I. e. knowledge of the self. -Sahkara says, as to the next clause, 
that those even who work for final emancipation must be deemed 
to have 1 reached perfection.' 

7 1 bhagavadgItA. 

and egoism thus is my nature divided eightfold. 
But this is a lower (form of my) nature. Know 
(tli at tli ere is) another (form of my) nature, and 
higher than this, which is animate, O you of mighty 
arms ! and by which this universe is upheld. Know 
that all things have these (for their) source 2 . I am 
the producer and the destroyer of the whole universe. 
There is nothing else, O DhanazZfaya ! higher than 
myself; all this is woven upon me, like numbers of 
pearls upon a thread 5 . I am the taste in water, O 
son of Kunti ! I am the light of the sun and moon. 
I am ' Om 4 ' in all the Vedas, sound 5 in space, and 
manliness in human beings ; I am the fragrant smell 
in the earth, refulgence in the fire ; I am life in all 
beings, and penance G in those who perform penance. 
Know me, O son of Prz'tha ! to be the eternal seed 
of all beings ; I am the discernment of the discerning 
ones, and I the glory of the glorious 7 . I am also 
the strength, unaccompanied by fondness or desire 8 , 
of the strong. And, O chief of the descendants of 
Bharata ! I am love unopposed to piety 9 among all 

1 This accords with the Sankhya philosophy. See chapter I, 
sutra 6 1 of the current aphorisms. 

2 Cf. infra, p. 105. 3 Cf. Mu//^akopanishad, p. 298. 

4 Infra, p. 79. Cf. Goldstucker's Remains, I, 14, 122; Yoga- 
sutras I, 27. 

5 I. e. the occult essence which underlies all these and the other 
qualities of the various things mentioned. 

6 I.e. power to bear the pairs of opposites. 

7 Glory here seems to mean dignity, greatness. 

8 Desire is the wish to obtain new things ; fondness is the 
anxiety to retain what has been obtained. The strength here 
spoken of, therefore, is that which is applied to the periormance 
of one's own duties only. 

9 I. e. indulged within the bounds allowed by the rules of the 
Sastras, namely, for the procreation of sons &c. only, 



beings. And all entities which are of the quality of 
goodness, and those which are of the quality of 
passion and of darkness, know that they are, indeed, 
all from me ; I am not in them, but they are in me \ 
The whole universe deluded by these three states of 
mind, developed from the qualities, does not know 
me, who am beyond them and inexhaustible ; for 
this delusion of mine, developed from the qualities, 
is divine and difficult to transcend. Those who resort 
to me alone cross beyond this delusion. Wicked 
men, doers of evil (acts), who are deluded, who 
are deprived of their knowledge by (this) delusion, 
and who incline to the demoniac state of mind 2 , do 
not resort to me. But, O Ar^una ! doers of good 
(acts) of four classes worship me : one who is dis- 
tressed, one who is seeking after knowledge, one who 
wants wealth, and one, O chief of the descendants of 
Bharata ! who is possessed of knowledge. Of these, 
he who is possessed of knowledge, who is always 
devoted, and whose worship is (addressed) to one 
(Being) only, is esteemed highest. For to the man 
of knowledge I am dear above all things, and he is 
dear to me. All these are noble. But the man 
possessed of knowledge is deemed by me to be my 
own self. For he with (his) self devoted to abstrac- 
tion, has taken to me as the goal than which there is 
nothing higher. At the end of many lives, the man 
possessed of knowledge approaches me, (believing) 
that Vasudeva is everything. Such a high-souled 
man is very hard to find. Those who are deprived 
of knowledge by various desires approach other 

1 They do not dominate over me, I rule them. 

2 Infra, p. 115. 



divinities, observing various regulations 1 , and con- 
trolled by their own natures 2 . Whichever form (of 
deity) any worshipper wishes to worship with faith, 
to that form I render his faith steady, Possessed of 
that faith, he seeks to propitiate (the deity in) that 
(form), and obtains from it those beneficial things 
which he desires, (though they are) really given by me. 
But the fruit thus (obtained) by them, who have little 
judgment, is perishable. Those who worship the 
divinities go to the divinities 3 , and my worshippers, 
too, go to me. The undiscerning ones, not knowing 
my transcendent and inexhaustible essence, than 
which there is nothing higher, think me, who am un- 
perceived, to have become perceptible 4 . Surrounded 
by the delusion of my mystic power 5 , I am not 
manifest to all. This deluded world knows not me 
unborn and inexhaustible. I know, O Ar^una ! the 
things which have been, those which are, and those 
which are to be. But me nobody knows. All beings, 
O terror of (your) foes ! are deluded at the time of 
birth, by the delusion, O descendant of Bharata ! 
caused by the pairs of opposites arising from desire 
and aversion. But the men of meritorious actions, 
whose sins have terminated, worship me, being 
released from the delusion (caused) by the pairs of 

1 Fasts and so forth. 

2 Which are the result of the actions done in previous lives. 

3 And the divinities are not eternal, so the fruit obtained is 

4 The ignorant do not know the real divinity of Vishwu, thinking 
him to be no higher than as he is seen in the human form. This 
gives them an inadequate notion of the purity and eternity of the 
happiness to be obtained by worshipping him ; cf. infra, p. 83. 

5 The veil surrounding me is created by my mysterious power, 
and that everybody cannot pierce through; cf. Ka/^a, p. 117. 



opposites, and being firm in their beliefs \ Those 
who, resting on me, work for release from old age 
and death 2 , know the Brahman 3 , the whole Adhya- 
tma, and all action. And those who know me with 
the Adhibhuta, the Adhidaiva, and the Adhiya^7/a, 
having minds devoted to abstraction, know me at 
the time of departure (from this world). 

Chapter VIII. 

Arfuna said : 

What is that Brahman, what the Adhyatma, and 
what, O best of beings ! is action ? And what is 
called the Adhibhuta ? And who is the Adhiya^a, 
and how in this body, O destroyer of Madhu ? 
And how, too, are you to be known at the time of 
departure (from this world) by those who restrain 
their selfs ? 

The Deity said : 
The Brahman is the supreme, the indestructible. 
Its manifestation (as an individual self) is called the 
Adhyatma. The offering (of an oblation to any 
divinity), which is the cause of the production and 
development of all things, is named action. The 
Adhibhuta is all perishable things. The Adhidai- 
vata is the (primal) being. And the Adhiya^a, O 
best of embodied (beings) ! is I myself in this body 4 . 

1 Concerning the supreme principle and the mode of wor- 
shipping it. 

2 Cf. infra, p. 109. 3 See the next chapter. 

4 Adhyatma where it occurs before (e. g. p. 55) has been ren- 
dered 'the relation between the supreme and individual soul/ As to 

F 2 



And he who leaves this body and departs (from this 
world) remembering me in (his) last moments, comes 
into my essence. There is no doubt of that. Also 
whichever form 1 (of deity) he remembers when he 
finally leaves this body, to that he goes, O son of 
Kunti ! having been used to ponder on it. Therefore, 
at all times remember me, and engage in battle. Fixing 
your mind and understanding on me, you will come to 
me, there is no doubt. He who thinks of the supreme 
divine Being, Osonof Prz'tha! with a mind not (running) 
to other (objects), and possessed of abstraction in the 
shape of continuous meditation (about the supreme), 
goes to him. He who, possessed of reverence (for 
the supreme Being) with a steady mind, and with 
the power of devotion, properly concentrates the 
life-breath between the brows 2 , and meditates on 
the ancient Seer, the ruler, more minute than the 
minutest atom 3 , the supporter of all, who is of an 
unthinkable form, whose brilliance is like that of the 
sun, and who is beyond all darkness 4 , he attains 
to that transcendent and divine Being. I 5 will tell 
you briefly about the seat, which those who know 
the Vedas declare to be indestructible ; which is 
entered by ascetics from whom all desires have 
departed ; and wishing for which, people pursue the 

action, cf. pp. 53, 54. Adhibhuta is apparently the whole inanimate 
creation, and Adhidaivata is the being supposed to dwell in the 
sun. Adhiya^wa is Kn'shwa. Cf. too pp. 113, 114. 

1 Some commentators say 'whatever thing' generally. The 
1 form ' remembered in one's last moments would be that which 
had been most often meditated on during life. 

2 Cf. supra, p. 67. 3 KaMa, p. 105 ; -SVetawatara, p. 333. 
4 Cf. -SVeta\rvatara-upanishad, p. 327. 

'' Ka/^opanishad, p. 102. 



mode of life of Brahma/£arins \ He who Reaves the 
body and departs (from this world), stopping up all 
passages 2 , and confining the mind within the heart 3 , 
placing the life-breath in the head, and adhering 
to uninterrupted meditation 4 , repeating the single 
syllable ' Om,' (signifying) the eternal Brahman 5 , and 
meditating on me, he reaches the highest goal. 
To the devotee who constantly practises abstraction, 
O son of Prztha ! and who with a mind not (turned) 
to anything else, is ever and constantly meditating 
on me, I am easy of access. The high-souled ones, 
who achieve the highest perfection, attaining to me, 
do not again come to life, which is transient, a 
home of woes °. All worlds, O Ar^una ! up to the 
world of Brahman, are (destined) to return 7 . But, 
O son of Kunti ! after attaining to me, there is no 
birth again. Those who know a day of Brahman 
to end after one thousand ages, and the night to 
terminate after one thousand ages, are the persons 

1 As to Brahma/J'arins, see supra, p. 69. 

2 'The senses,' say the commentators. Might it not refer to the 
'nine portals' at p. 65 supra? See also, however, p. 108. 

3 I. e. thinking of nothing, making the mind cease to work. 
Cf. Maitri-upanishad, p. 179. 

4 Cf. Maitri-upanishad, p. 130, uninterrupted, like 'oil when 
poured out,' says the commentator. 

5 Cf. A^andogya-upanishad, p. 151; Mandukya, pp. 330-388 
(Om is all — past, present, and future); Nnsiwha Tapini, pp. no, 
117, 171 ; Maitri, p. 140; Pra^na, p. 220. On the opening passage 
of the A7/andogya, »Sankara says, 'Om is the closest designation of 
the supreme Being. He is pleased when it is pronounced, as people 
are at the mention of a favourite name.' See also Max Miiller, 
Hibbert Lectures, p. 84; Goldstiicker's Remains, I, 122. 

6 See infra, p. 86 ; and cf. Sutta Nipata, p. 125. 

7 They are only temporary, not the everlasting seats of the 



who know day and night \ On the advent of day, 
all perceptible things arc produced from the unper- 
ceived ; and on the advent of night they dissolve in 
that same (principle) called the unperceived. This 
same assemblage of entities, being produced again and 
again, dissolves on the advent of night, and, O son 
of lV/tha ! issues forth on the advent of day, without 
a will of its own 2 . But there is another entity, 
unperceived and eternal, and distinct from this un- 
perceived (principle), which is not destroyed when 
all entities are destroyed. It is called the unper- 
ceived, the indestructible ; they call it the highest 
goal. Attaining to it, none returns 3 . That is my 
supreme abode. That supreme Being, O son of 
Prztha ! he in whom all these entities dwell 4 , and 
by whom all this is permeated, is to be attained to 
by reverence not (directed) to another. I will state 
the times, O descendant of Bharata ! at which 
devotees departing (from this world) go, never to 
return, or to return. The fire, the flame 5 , the day, 

1 Cf. Manu I, 73. -Sankara says, that this explains why the 
abodes of Brahma and others are said to be not lasting. They 
are limited by time. As to ages, -Sndhara says, a human year 
is a day and night of the gods. Twelve thousand years made 
of such days and nights make up the four ages: one thousand 
such ' quaternions of ages ' make up a day, and another thousand 
a night of Brahma. Of such days and nights Brahma has a 
hundred years to live. At the close of his life, the universe is 

2 Cf. p. 82 infra; also Manu-smr/ti I, 52 ; and Kalidasa's Ku- 
marasambhava II, 8. 

3 Cf. KaMopanishad, p. 149 ; and also p. 112 infra. 

4 I. e. by whom, as the cause of them, all these entities are sup- 
ported ; cf. p. 82 infra. 

5 .S'ridhara understands ' the time when,' in the sentence pre- 
ceding this, to mean 1 the path indicated by a deity presiding over 



the bright fortnight, the six months of the northern 
solstice, departing (from the world) in these, those 
who know the Brahman go to the Brahman. Smoke, 
night, the dark fortnight, the six months of the 
southern solstice, (dying) in these, the devotee goes 
to the lunar light and returns 1 . These two paths, 
bright and dark, are deemed to be eternal in this 
world 2 . By the one, (a man) goes never to return, 
by the other he comes back. Knowing these two 
paths, O son of Pntha ! no devotee is deluded 3 . 
Therefore at all times be possessed of devotion, O 
A retina ! A devotee knowing all this 4 , obtains all 
the holy fruit which is prescribed for (study of) the 
Vedas, for sacrifices, and also for penances and gifts, 
and he attains to the highest and primeval seat. 

Chapter IX. 

Now I will speak to you, who are not given to 
carping, of that most mysterious knowledge, accom- 
panied by experience, by knowing which you will 
be released from evil. It is the chief among the 
sciences, the chief among the mysteries. It is the 
best means of sanctification. It is imperishable, not 

time, by which;' and the fire-flame as included in this, though 
having no connexion with time. *Sarikara agrees, though he also 
suggests that fire means a deity presiding over time. I own I have 
no clear notion of the meaning of these verses. Cf. .AfMndogya, 
p. 342; B/Vhad-ara^yaka-upanishad, p. 1057 seq. 

1 Cf. Prajna-upanishad, p. 64 ; and -Sariraka Bhashya, p. 747 seq. 

2 I. e. for those who are fitted for knowledge or action. 

3 I. e. does not desire heaven, but devotes himself to the supreme 
Being, seeing that heavenly bliss is only temporary. 

4 All that is stated in this chapter. 



opposed to the sacred law. It is to be apprehended 
directly \ and is easy to practise. O terror of your 
Iocs! those men who have no faith in this holy 
doctrine, return to the path of this mortal world, 
without attaining to me. This whole universe is 
pervaded by me in an unperceived form. All entities 
live in me, but I do not live in them 2 . Nor yet 
do all entities live in me. See my divine power. 
Supporting all entities and producing all entities, 
my self Jives not in (those) entities. As the great 
and ubiquitous atmosphere always remains in space, 
know that similarly all entities live in me 3 . At the 
expiration of a Kalpa, O son of Kunti ! all entities 
enter my nature ; and at the beginning of a Kalpa, 
I again bring them forth. Taking the control of 
my own nature 4 , I bring forth again and again this 
whole collection of entities, without a will of its 
own 5 , by the power of nature. But, O Ar^una ! 
these actions do not fetter 6 me, who remain like 
one unconcerned, and who am unattached to those 
actions. Nature gives birth to movables and im- 
movables through me, the supervisor, and by reason 
of that 7 , O son of Kunti ! the universe revolves. 
Deluded people of vain hopes, vain acts, vain know- 

1 I. e. by immediate consciousness, not mediately ; 'not opposed 
to the sacred law,' i.e. like the .Syena sacrifice for destroying a foe. 

2 Because he is untainted by anything. And therefore also the 
entities do not live in him, as said in the next sentence. See p. 8o 


As space is untainted and unaffected by the air which remains 
in it, so am I by the entities. 

4 Supra, p. 58. Nature = the unperceived principle. 

5 Cf. p. 80 supra. 

I am not affected by the differences in the conditions of these 
entities. 7 Viz. the supervision, 



ledge 1 , whose minds are disordered, and who are 
inclined to the delusive nature of Asuras and Ra- 
kshasas, not knowing my highest nature as great 
lord of all entities, disregard me as I have assumed 
a human body 2 . But the high-souled ones, O son 
of Pmha ! who are inclined to the godlike nature, 
knowing me as the inexhaustible source of (all) enti- 
ties, worship me with minds not (turned) elsewhere. 
Constantly glorifying me, and exerting themselves 3 , 
firm in their vows 4 , and saluting me with reverence, 
they worship me, being always devoted. And others 
again, offering up the sacrifice of knowledge, worship 
me as one, as distinct, and as all-pervading in nume- 
rous forms 6 . I am the Kratu G , I am the Ya^a, 
I am the Svadha, I the product of the herbs. I am 
the sacred verse. I too am the sacrificial butter, 
and I the fire, I the offering 7 . I am the father of this 
universe, the mother, the creator, the grandsire, the 
thing to be known, the means of sanctification, 
the syllable Om 8 , the Rik, Saman, and Ya^us also ; 
the goal, the sustainer, the lord, the supervisor, the 

1 Hope, viz. that some other deity will give them what they 
want ; acts, vain as not offered to the supreme : knowledge, vain 
as abounding in foolish doubts, &c. 

2 Cf. p. 76 supra. 

3 For a knowledge of the supreme, or for the means of such 

4 Vows = veracity, harmlessness, &c. 

5 Sacrifice of knowledge, viz. the knowledge that Vasudeva is all; 
as one=believing that all is one ; as distinct = believing that sun, 
moon, &c. are different manifestations of ' me/ 

6 Kratu is a Vedic sacrifice ; Yagna, a sacrifice laid down in 
Smrztis. Svadha = offering to the manes; 'product of the herbs ' = 
food prepared from vegetables, or medicine. 

7 Cf. p. 61 supra. 8 P. 79 supra. 



residence the asylum, the friend, the source, and 
that in which it merges, the support, the receptacle, 
and the inexhaustible seed. I cause heat and I send 
forth and stop showers. I am immortality and also 
death ; and I, O Ar^iina! am that which is and that 
which is not -. Those who know the three (branches 
of) knowledge, who drink the Soma juice, whose sins 
are washed away, offer sacrifices and pray to me for 
a passage into heaven ; and reaching the holy world 
of the lord of gods, they enjoy in the celestial 
regions the celestial pleasures of the gods. And 
having enjoyed that great heavenly world, they 
enter the mortal world when (their) merit is ex- 
hausted 3 . Thus those who wish for objects of 
desire, and resort to the ordinances of the three 
(Vedas), obtain (as the fruit) going and coming. To 
those men who worship me, meditating on me and 
on no one else, and who are constantly devoted, 
I give new gifts and preserve what is acquired by 
them 4 . Even those, O son of Kunti ! who being 
devotees of other divinities worship with faith, 
worship me only, (but) irregularly 5 . For I am 
the enjoyer as well as the lord 0 of all sacrifices. 
But they know me not truly, therefore do they fall 7 . 
Those who make vows 8 to the gods go to the gods ; 

1 I.e. the seat of enjoyment; receptacle = where things are pre- 
served for future use, say the commentators. 

2 The gross and the subtle elements, or causes and effects. 

3 Cf. Mu//^akopanishad, p. 279 ; and A^andogya, p. 344. 

4 Cf. Dhammapada, stanza 23. I.e. attainment to the Brahman 
and not returning from it. — Ramanu£-a. 

5 Because in form they worship other divinities. 

c Giver of the fruit. As to enjoyer, cf. p. 67 supra. 

7 I. e. return to the mortal world. 

8 I. e. some regulation as to mode of worship. Cf. also p. 76 supra. 



those who make vows to the manes go to the manes ; 
those who worship the Bhutas go to the Bhutas ; 
and those likewise who worship me go to me. Who- 
ever with devotion offers me leaf, flower, fruit, water, 
that, presented with devotion, I accept from him 
whose self is pure. Whatever you do, O son of 
Kunti ! whatever you eat, whatever sacrifice you 
make, whatever you give, whatever penance you 
perform, do that as offered to me \ Thus will 
you be released from the bonds of action, the fruits 
of which are agreeable or disagreeable. And with 
your self possessed of (this) devotion, (this) renun- 
ciation 2 , you will be released (from the bonds of 
action) and will come to me. I am alike to all 
beings ; to me none is hateful, none dear. But 
those who worship me with devotion (dwell) in me : \ 
and I too in them. Even if a very ill-conducted 
man worships me, not worshipping any one else, he 
must certainly be deemed to be good, for he has 
well resolved 4 . He soon becomes devout of heart, 
and obtains lasting tranquillity. (You may) affirm, 
O son of Kunti ! that my devotee is never ruined. 
For, O son of Pntha ! even those who are of sinful 
birth 5 , women, Vaiiyas, and .Sudras likewise, resorting 
to me, attain the supreme goal. What then (need 

1 Cf. p. 55 supra, and other passages. 

2 This mode of action is at once devotion and renunciation : the 
first, because one cares not for fruit ; the second, because it is offered 
to the supreme. 

3 ' They dwell in me ' by their devotion to me ; I dwell in them 
as giver of happiness to them. 

4 Viz. that the supreme Being alone should be reverenced. 

5 -Sahkara takes Vai.ryas &c. as examples of this ; not so -Sridhara. 
Cf. as to women and -Sudras, Nr/siwha-tapini, p. 14. 'Of sinful 
birth ' = of low birth (Sridhara) = birth resulting from sins (Sankara). 



be said of) holy Brahma^as and royal saints who 
arc (my) devotees ? Coming- to this transient un- 
happy' world, worship mc. (Place your) mind on 
me, become my devotee, my worshipper ; reverence 
me, and thus making mc your highest goal, and 
devoting your self to abstraction, you will certainly 
conic to me. 

Chapter X. 

Yet again, O you of mighty arms ! listen to 
my excellent 2 words, which, out of a wish for your 
welfare, I speak to you who are delighted (with 
them). Not the multitudes of gods, nor the great 
sages know my source ; for I am in every way 3 
the origin of the gods and great sages. Of (all) 
mortals, he who knows me to be unborn, without 
beginning, the great lord of the world, being free 
from delusion, is released from all sins. Intelligence, 
knowledge, freedom from delusion, forgiveness, truth, 
restraintof thesenses, tranquillity, pleasure, pain, birth, 
death, fear, and also security, harmlessness, equability, 
contentment, penance, (making) gifts, glory, disgrace, 
all these different tempers 4 of living beings are from 
me alone. The seven great sages, and likewise the 
four ancient Manus 5 , whose descendants are (all) 
these people in the world, were all born from my 

1 Cf. p. 79 supra. 

2 As referring to the supreme soul. 

3 As creator, as moving agent in workings of the intellect, &c. 

4 The names are not always names of ' tempers,' but the corre- 
sponding ' temper' must be understood. 

5 The words are also otherwise construed, ' The four ancients 
(Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanatana, Sanatkumara) and the Manus.' 
According to the later mythology the Manus are fourteen. 

CHAPTER X, 1 6. 


mind 1 , (partaking) of my powers. Whoever correctly 
knows these powers and emanations of mine, be- 
comes possessed of devotion free from indecision ; 
of this (there is) no doubt. The wise, full of love 2 , 
worship me, believing that I am the origin of all, 
and that all moves on through me. (Placing their) 
minds on me, offering (their) lives to me, instructing 
each other, and speaking about me, they are always 
contented and happy. To these, who are con- 
stantly devoted, and who worship with love, I give 
that knowledge by which they attain to me. And 
remaining in their hearts, I destroy, with the brilliant 
lamp of knowledge, the darkness born of ignorance 
in such (men) only, out of compassion for them. 

Ar^una said : 
You are the supreme Brahman, the supreme goal, 
the holiest of the holy. All sages, as well as the 
divine sage Narada, Asita 3 , Devala, and Vyasa, call 
you the eternal being, divine, the first god, the un- 
born, the all-pervading. And so, too, you tell me 
yourself, O Kesava ! I believe all this that you tell 
me (to be) true ; for, O lord ! neither the gods nor 
demons understand your manifestation 4 . You only 
know your self by your self. O best of beings ! creator 
of all things ! lord of all things ! god of gods ! lord 
of the universe ! be pleased to declare without 

1 By the mere operation of my thought. As to ancients, cf. 
Aitareya-arawyaka, p. 136. 

2 -Sahkara renders the word here by perseverance in pursuit of 
truth ; 

3 Anandagiri calls Asita father of Devala. See also Davids' 
Buddhism, p. 185 ; Max Muller's Anc. Sansk. Lit., p. 463. 

4 Scil. in human form for the good of the gods and the destruc- 
tion of demons. 


exception your divine emanations, by which emana- 
tions you stand pe rvading all these worlds. How 
shall 1 know you, C) you of mystic power! always 
meditating on you ? And in what various entities 1 , 
( ) lord ! should I meditate on you ? Again, O 
Ganirdana ! do you yourself declare your powers 
and emanations ; because hearing this nectar, I (still) 
feel no satiety. 

The Deity said : 
Well then, O best of Kauravas ! I will state to 
you my own divine emanations ; but (only) the chief 
(ones), for there is no end to the extent of my (ema- 
nations). I am the self, O Gudakesa ! seated in the 
hearts of all beings 2 . I am the beginning and the 
middle and the end also of all beings. I am Vishnu 
among the Adityas 3 , the beaming sun among the 
shining (bodies) ; I am Mari/£i among the Maruts 4 , 
and the moon among the lunar mansions 5 . Among 
the Vedas, I am the Sama-veda G . I am Indra 
among the gods. And I am mind among the 
senses 7 . I am consciousness in (living) beings. And 
I am .Sankara 8 among the Rudras, the lord of 
wealth 9 among Yakshas and Rakshases. And I am 
fire among the Vasus, and Meru 30 among the high- 

1 To know you fully being impossible, what special manifesta- 
tion of you should we resort to for our meditations ? 

2 P. 129 infra. 

3 ' Aditya is used in the Veda chiefly as a general epithet for a 
number of solar deities.' Max Miiller, Hibbert Lectures, p. 264. 

4 The storm-gods, as Max Miiller calls them. 

6 Cf. Sutta Nipata, p. 121. 

n As being, probably, full of music. 

7 Cf. iTMndogya, p. 121, where *Sarikara says, 'Mind is 'he chief 
of man's inner activities/ 

8 Now the third member of our Trinity. 

9 Kubera. 10 The Golden Mount. 



topped (mountains). And know me, O Ar^una ! to 
be Brzhaspati, the chief among domestic priests. 
I am Skanda among generals. I am the ocean 
among reservoirs of water 1 . I am Bhrzgu among the 
great sages. I am the single syllable (Om -) among 
words. Among sacrifices I am the £apa sacrifice 3 ; 
the Himalaya among the firmly-fixed (mountains); 
the Asvattha 4 among all trees, and Narada among 
divine sages ; A^traratha among the heavenly choris- 
ters, the sage Kapila among the Siddhas 5 . Among 
horses know me to be U^'ai^ravas 6 , brought forth 
by (the labours for) the nectar ; and Airavata among 
the great elephants, and the ruler of men among 
men 7 . I am the thunderbolt among weapons, the 
wish-giving (cow) among cows. And I am love 
which generates 8 . Among serpents I am Vasuki. 
Among Naga 9 snakes I am Ananta ; I am Varu^a 
among aquatic beings. And I am Aryaman among the 
manes, and Yama 10 among rulers. Among demons, 
too, I am Pralhada. I am the king of death (Kala, 
time) among those that count 11 . Among beasts 

I Cf. Sutta Nipata, p. 121. 2 Vide p. 79 supra. 

3 Gapa is the silent meditation. Madhusudana says it is superior 
owing to its not involving the slaughter of any animal, &c. 

4 The fig tree. It is the symbol of ' life ' in chapter XV infra. 

6 Those who even from birth are possessed of piety, knowledge, 
indifference to the world, and superhuman power. Cf. -SVeta- 
jvatara-upanishad, p. 357. 

c This is Indra's horse, brought out at the churning of the ocean. 
Airavata is Indra's elephant. 7 Cf. Sutta Nipata, p. 121. 

8 I.e. not the merely carnal passion. Cf. p. 74 supra. 

9 Nagas are without poison, says *S'ridhara. Varu;/a is the sea-god. 

10 Yama is death, and Pralhada the virtuous demon for whom 
Vishwu became incarnate as the man-lion. As to manes, see 
Goldstiicker's Remains, I, 133. 

II 'Counts the number of men's sins,' Ramanu^a ; -Srtdhara says 

9 o 


1 am the lord of beasts, and the son of Vinata. 1 among 
birds. I am the wind among those that blow 2 . 
I am Rama :; among those that wield weapons. 
Among fishes I am Makara 4 , and among streams 
the C/ahnavi "'. Of created things I am the begin- 
ning and the end and the middle also, O Arf una ! 
Among sciences, I am the science of the Adhyatma, 
and I am the argument of controversialists. Among 
letters I am the letter A 6 , and among the group of 
compounds the copulative 7 compound. I myself am 
time inexhaustible, and I the creator whose faces 
are in all directions. I am death who seizes all, and 
the source of what is to be. And among females, 
fame s , fortune, speech, memory, intellect, courage, 
forgiveness. Likewise among Saman hymns, I am 
the Br/hat-saman 9 , and I the Gayatri 10 among 
metres. I am Margasirsha among the months, the 

this refers to 'time, with its divisions into years, months/ &c. ; 
while a little further on it means 1 time eternal/ 

1 I.e. the Garutf'a or eagle, who is the vehicle of Vish/m in 
Hindu mythology. 

2 4 Those who have the capacity of motion/ says Ramanu^a. 

3 The hero of the Hindu epos, Ramayawa, translated into verse 
by Mr. R. T. H. Griffiths. 

4 The dolphin. 5 The Ganges. 

6 That letter is supposed to comprehend all language. Cf. 
Aitareya-ararcyaka, p. 346, and another text there cited by Madhava 
in his commentary (p. 348). 

7 This is said to be the best, because all its members are co-ordi- 
nate with one another, not one depending on another. 

8 I. e. the deities of fame, &c. 

9 See, as to this, Muir, Sanskrit Texts, vol. i, p. 16. Saftkara 
says this hymn relates to final emancipation. 

10 Cf. /sT/^andogya-upanishad, p. 181, where «Sankara says, 
1 Gayatri is the chief metre, because it is the means to a knowledge 
of the Brahman.' It is the metre of the celebrated verse ' Om 
Tatsavitur/ &c. 



spring among the seasons 1 ; of cheats, I am the 
game of dice ; I am the glory of the glorious ; I am 
victory, I am industry, I am the goodness of the 
good. I am Vasudeva among the descendants of 
Vrishui 2 , and Ar^una among the Pa/^avas. Among 
sages also, I am Vyasa 3 ; and among the discerning 
ones, I am the discerning U^anas 4 . I am the rod 
of those that restrain, and the policy 5 of those 
that desire victory. I am silence respecting secrets. 
I am the knowledge of those that have knowledge. 
And, O Ar/una ! I am also that which is the seed 
of all things. There is nothing movable or im- 
movable which can exist without me. O terror of 
your foes ! there is no end to my divine emana- 
tions. Here I have declared the extent of (those) 
emanations only in part. Whatever thing (there is) 
of power, or glorious, or splendid, know all that 
to be produced from portions of my energy. Or 
rather, O Ar^una ! what have you to do, knowing 
all this at large ? I stand supporting all this by 
(but) a single portion (of myself) 6 . 

1 Cf. .A^andogya-upanishad, p. 126. Margarfrsha is November- 
December. Madhusudana says this is the best month, as being 
neither too hot nor too cold ; but see Schlegel's Bhagavadgita, ed. 
Lassen, p. 276. 

2 One of Kn'sh«a's ancestors. 
15 The compiler of the Vedas. 

4 The preceptor of the Daityas or demons. A work on politics 
is ascribed to him. 

5 Making peace, bribing, &c. 

6 Cf. Purusha-sukta (Muir, Sanskrit Texts, vol. i ; p. 9). 




b h agavadgItA. 

Chapter XI. 

Anmna said : 
In consequence of the excellent and mysterious 
words concerning the relation of the supreme and 
individual soul, which you have spoken for my 
welfare, this delusion of mine is gone away. O you 
whose eyes are like lotus leaves ! I have heard from 
you at large about the production and dissolution of 
things, and also about your inexhaustible greatness. 
C) highest lord! what you have said about yourself 
is so. I wish, O best of beings ! to see your divine 
form. If, O lord! you think that it is possible for 
me to look upon it, then, O lord of the possessors 
of mystic power 1 ! show your inexhaustible form 
to me. 

The Deity said : 
In hundreds and in thousands see my forms, O 
son of Pr/tha ! various, divine, and of various colours 
and shapes. See the Adityas, Vasus, Rudras, the 
two Asvins, and Maruts likewise. And O descen- 
dant of Bharata ! see wonders, in numbers, unseen 
before. Within my body, O Gu^ake^a ! see to-day 
the whole universe, including (everything) movable 
and immovable, (all) in one, and whatever else you 
wish to see. But you will not be able to see me 
with merely this eye of yours. I give you an eye 
divine. (Now) see my divine power. 

Sa;^aya said : 
Having spoken thus, O king! Hari, the great 

1 Madhusudana takes power to mean capacity of becoming 
small or great, of obtaining what is wanted, &c. ; the so-called 
eight Bhfitis. 



lord of the possessors of mystic power, then showed 
to the son of Pntha his supreme divine form, having 
many mouths and eyes, having (within it) many 
wonderful sights, having many celestial ornaments, 
having many celestial weapons held erect, wearing 
celestial flowers and vestments, having an anoint- 
ment of celestial perfumes, full of every wonder, the 
infinite deity with faces in all directions 1 . If in 
the heavens, the lustre of a thousand suns burst 
forth all at once, that would be like the lustre of 
that mighty one. There the son of F&ndu then 
observed in the body of the god of gods the whole 
universe (all) in one, and divided into numerous 2 
(divisions). Then Dhana/^aya filled with amaze- 
ment, and with hair standing on end, bowed his 
head before the god, and spoke with joined hands. 

Ar^una said : 

O god ! I see within your body the gods, as also 
all the groups of various beings ; and the lord 
Brahman seated on (his) lotus seat, and all the 
sages and celestial snakes. I see you, who are of 
countless forms, possessed of many arms, stomachs, 
mouths, and eyes on all sides. And, O lord of the 
universe ! O you of all forms ! I do not see your 
end or middle or beginning. I see you bearing a 
coronet and a mace and a discus — a mass of glory, 
brilliant on all sides, difficult to look at, having on 

1 Cf. p. 90 supra. £ankara explains it as meaning 'pervading 
everything.' The expression occurs in the Nr/siwha-tapinJ-upani- 
shad, p. 50, where it is said, ' as, without organs, it sees, hears, 
goes, takes from all sides and pervades everything, therefore it has 
faces on all sides/ 

2 Gods, manes, men, and so forth. 

G 2 


all sides the effulgence of a blazing" fire or sun, and 
indefinable. You arc indestructible, the supreme 
one to be known. You are the highest support 1 of 
this universe. You are the inexhaustible protector 
of everlasting piety. I believe you to be the eternal 
being. I see you void of beginning, middle, end — 
of infinite power, of unnumbered arms, having the 
sun and moon for eyes, having a mouth like a 
blazing fire, and heating the universe with your 
radialice. For this space between heaven and 
earth and all the quarters are pervaded by you 
alone. Looking at this wonderful and terrible form 
of yours, O high-souled one ! the three worlds are 
affrighted. For here these groups of gods are 
entering into you. Some being afraid are praying 
with joined hands, and the groups of great sages 
and Siddhas are saying ' Welfare 2 ! ' and praising 
you with abundant (hymns) of praise. The Rudras, 
and Adityas, the Vasus, the Sadhyas, the Visvas, the 
two Aivins, the Maruts, and the Ushmapas, and the 
groups of Gandharvas, Yakshas, demons, and Sid- 
dhas are all looking at you amazed. Seeing your 
mighty form, with many mouths and eyes, with 
many arms, thighs, and feet, with many stomachs, 
and fearful with many jaws, all people, and I like- 
wise, are much alarmed, O you of mighty arms ! 
Seeing you, O Vishnu ! touching the skies, radiant, 
possessed of many hues, with a gaping mouth, and 
with large blazing eyes, I am much alarmed in my 
inmost self, and feel no courage, no tranquillity. 
And seeing your mouths terrible by the jaws, and 

1 The words are the same as at p. 97 infra, where see the note. 

2 Seeing signs of some great cataclysm, they say, ' May it be well 
with the universe,' and then proceed to pray to you. 



resembling the fire of destruction, I cannot recog- 
nise the (various) directions, I feel no comfort. Be 
gracious, O lord of gods ! who pervadest the 
universe. And all these sons of Dhr/tarash/ra, 
together with all the bands of kings, and Bhishma 
and Dro;/a, and this charioteer's son 1 likewise, 
together with our principal warriors also, are rapidly 
entering your mouths, fearful and horrific 2 by (reason 
of your) jaws. And some with their heads smashed 
are seen (to be) stuck in the spaces between the 
teeth. As the many rapid currents of a river's 
waters run towards the sea alone, so do these heroes 
of the human world enter your mouths blazing all 
round. As butterflies, with increased velocity, enter 
a blazing fire to their destruction, so too do these 
people enter your mouths with increased velocity 
(only) to their destruction. Swallowing all these 
people, you are licking them over and over again 
from all sides, with your blazing mouths. Your 
fierce splendours, O Vishnu ! filling the whole 
universe with (their) effulgence, are heating it. Tell 
me who you are in this fierce form. Salutations be 
to thee, O chief of the gods ! Be gracious. I wish 
to know you, the primeval one, for I do not under- 
stand your actions. 

The Deity said : 
I am death, the destroyer of the worlds, fully 
developed, and I am now active about the over- 

1 I. e. Kar«a, who was really the eldest brother of the PaWavas, 
but having been immediately on birth abandoned by Kuntt, was 
brought up by a charioteer. Kar«a was told of his true origin by 
Bhishma on his deathbed, and advised to join the Pawr/avas, but he 

2 By reason of the ruggedness and distortion of face. 

9 6 


throw oi the worlds. Even without you, the war- 
riors standing in the adverse hosts, shall all cease to 
1 ( . Therefore, be up, obtain glory, and vanquishing 
(your) toes, enjoy a prosperous kingdom. All these 
have been already killed by me. Be only the in- 
strument, O Savyasa/'in 1 ! Dro^a, and Bhishma, and 
Gayadratha, and Kama, and likewise other valiant 
warriors also, whom I have killed, do you kill. Be 
not alarmed. Do fight. And in the battle you will 
conquer (your) foes. 

Sa%'aya said : 
Hearing these words of Kesava, the wearer of 
the coronet 2 , trembling, and with joined hands, 
bow ed down ; and sorely afraid, and with throat 
choked up, he again spoke to Krishna, after saluting 

Ar^una said : 
It is quite proper, O Hrzshikesa! that the uni- 
verse is delighted and charmed by your renown, 
that the demons run away affrighted in all directions, 
and that all the assemblages of Siddhas bow down 
(to you). And why, O high-souled one! should 
they not bow down to you (who are) greater than 
Brahman, and first cause ? O infinite lord of 
gods ! O you pervading the universe ! you are 
the indestructible, that which is, that which is not, 
and what is beyond them 3 . You are the primal 

1 Ar^una, as he could shoot with his left hand as well as the 
right. — .S'ridhara. 

2 Ar^una, who had this coronet given him by Indra. — Madhu- 


3 The commentators interpret this to mean the perceptible, the 
unperceived, and the higher principie. Cf. p. 84 supra, and also 
pp. 103, 113 infra and notes there. 


god, the ancient being, you are the highest support 
of this universe 1 . You are that which has know- 
ledge, that which is the object of knowledge, you 
are the highest goal. By you is this universe 
pervaded, O you of infinite forms ! You are the 
wind, Yama, fire, Yaru;/a, the moon, you Pra ~apa:i. 
and the great grandsire-. Obeisance be to thee 
a thousand times, and again and again obeisance to 
thee ! In front and from behind obeisance to thee ! 
Obeisance be to thee from all sides, O you who are 
all ! You are of infinite power, of unmeasured glory ; 
you pervade all, and therefore you are all ! What- 
ever I have said contemptuously,— for instance. 1 O 
Krishna ! ' ' O Yadava ! ' ' O friend ! ' — thinking you 
to be (my) friend, and not knowing your greatness 
(as shown in) this (universal form), or through 
friendliness, or incautiously : and whatever disrespect 
I have shown you for purposes of merriment, on 
(occasions of) play, sleep, dinner, or sitting (together), 
whether alone or in the presence (of friends), — for 
all that, O undegraded one ! I ask pardon of you 
who are indefinable 3 . You are the father of the 
world — movable and immovable — you its great 
and venerable master ; there is none equal to you, 
whence can there be one greater. O you whose 
power is unparalleled in all the three worlds ? 
Therefore I bow and prostrate myself, and would 
propitiate you, the praiseworthy lord. Be pleased. 

1 See p. 94 supra. Here the commentators say the words mean 
' that in which the universe is placed at deluge-time/ 

* Professor Tiele mentions great-grandfather as a name for the 
Creator among Kaffirs (History of Religion, p. 18). Cf. p. 83 supra. 

s I. e. of whom it is impossible to ascertain whether he is such 
or such. Cf. p. 94 supra. 

9 s 

bh agavadgJtA. 

O god ! to pardon (my guilt) as a father (that of 
his) son, a friend (that of his) friend, or a husband 
(that of his) beloved, I am delighted at seeing 
what 1 had never seen before, and my heart is also 
alarmed by fear. Show me that same form, O god ! 
Be gracious, O lord of gods! O you pervading the 
universe! I wish to see you bearing the coronet 
and the mace, with the discus in hand, just the same 
(as before) \ O you of thousand arms ! O you of 
all forms ! assume that same four-handed form. 

The Deity said : 

O Ar^una ! being pleased (with you), I have by 
my own mystic power shown you this supreme form, 
full of glory, universal, infinite, primeval, and which 
has not been seen before by any one else but you, 
O you hero among the Kauravas ! I cannot be seen 
in this form by any one but you, (even) by (the help 
of) the study of the Vedas, or of 2 sacrifices, nor by 
gifts, nor by actions, nor by fierce penances. Be not 
alarmed, be not perplexed, at seeing this form of 
mine, fearful like this. Free from fear and with 
delighted heart, see now again that same form of 

Sa^aya said : 

Having thus spoken to Ar^una, Vasudeva again 
showed his own form, and the high-souled one 
becoming again of a mild form, comforted him who 
had been affrighted. 

1 This is the ordinary form of Krishna* 

2 This is the original construction. One suspects that sacri- 
fices and study of the Vedas are meant. Cf. the speech of Krishna, 
on the next page. 



Ar^una said : 
O £anardana ! seeing this mild, human form of 
yours, I am now in my right mind, and have come 
to my normal state. 

The Deity said : 
Even the gods are always desiring to see this 
form of mine, which it is difficult to get a sight 
of, and which you have seen. I cannot be seen, as 
you have seen me, by (means of) the Vedas, not by 
penance, not by gift, nor yet by sacrifice. But, O 
Ar^una ! by devotion to me exclusively, I can in 
this form be truly known, seen, and assimilated 1 
with, O terror of your foes ! He who performs acts 
for (propitiating) me, to whom I am the highest 
(object), who is my devotee, who is free from attach- 
ment, and who has no enmity towards any being, he, 
O son of Ykndw. ! comes to me. 

Chapter XII. 
Ar^'una said : 
Of the worshippers, who thus, constantly devoted, 
meditate on you, and those who (meditate) on the 
unperceived and indestructible, which do best know 
devotion ? 

The Deity said : 
Those who being constantly devoted, and pos- 
sessed of the highest faith, worship me with a mind 
fixed on me, are deemed by me to be the most 
devoted. But those, who, restraining the (whole) 
group of the senses, and with a mind at all times 

1 Literally, ' entered into;' it means final emancipation. See p. 128. 

] oo 


equable, meditate on the indescribable, indestruc- 
tible, unperceived (principle) which is all-pervading, 
unthinkable, indifferent 1 , immovable, and constant, 
they, intent on the good of all beings, necessarily 
attain to me. For those whose minds are attached 
to the unperceived, the trouble is much greater. 
Because the unperceived goal 2 is obtained by 
embodied (beings) with difficulty. As to those, 
however, O son of Pr/tha ! who, dedicating all their 
actions to me, and (holding) me as their highest 
(goal), worship me, meditating on me with a devotion 
towards none besides me, and whose minds are fixed 
on me, I, without delay, come forward as their 
deliverer from the ocean of this world of death. 
Place your mind on me only ; fix your understanding 
on me. In me you will dwell 3 hereafter, (there is) 
no doubt. But if you are unable to fix your mind 
steadily on me, then, O Dhana^aya ! endeavour 4 
to obtain me by the abstraction of mind (resulting) 
from continuous meditation 5 . If you are unequal 
even to continuous meditation, then let acts for 
(propitiating) me be your highest (aim). Even 
performing actions for (propitiating) me, you will 
attain perfection. If you are unable to do even this, 
then resort to devotion G to me, and, with self- 
restraint, abandon all fruit of action. For knowledge 
is better than continuous meditation; concentration 7 

1 Passively looking on what occurs on earth; immovable = 
changeless; constant = eternal. 

2 Viz. the indestructible. 

?> I. e. assimilated with me, as expressed before. 

4 Literally, 'wish.' 6 Cf. p. 78 supra. 

6 Performing actions, but dedicating them to me. 

7 Fixing the mind with effort on the object of contemplation. 
Cf. Maitri-upanishad, p. 130. 



is esteemed higher than knowledge ; and the 
abandonment of fruit of action than concentration ; 
from (that) abandonment, tranquillity soon (results). 
That devotee of mine, who hates no being, who is 
friendly and compassionate, who is free from egoism, 
and from (the idea that this or that is) mine, to whom 
happiness and misery are alike, who is forgiving, 
contented, constantly devoted, self-restrained, and 
firm in his determinations, and whose mind and 
understanding are devoted to me, he is dear to me. 
He through whom the world is not agitated 1 , and 
who is not agitated by the world, who is free from 
joy and anger and fear and agitation, he too is dear 
to me. That devotee of mine, who is unconcerned 2 , 
pure, assiduous 3 , impartial, free from distress 4 , who 
abandons all actions (for fruit 5 ), he is dear to me. 
He who is full of devotion to me, who feels no joy 
and no aversion, who does not grieve and does not 
desire, who abandons (both what is) agreeable and 
(what is) disagreeable, he is dear to me. He who 
is alike to friend and foe, as also in honour and 
dishonour, who is alike in cold and heat, pleasure 
and pain, who is free from attachments, to whom 
praise and blame are alike, who is taciturn G , and 
contented with anything whatever (that comes), who 
is homeless 7 , and of a steady mind, and full of 

1 No disturbance results from him to other men. or from other 
men to him. Cf. Sutta Nipata, p. 56. 

2 Indifferent to worldly objects. 

3 Ready to do work as it arises. 

4 Not feeling afflicted by other people's doing an injury to him. 

5 ' For fruit ' must be understood here. 

G I. e. governs his tongue properly. Cf. Sutta Nipata, p. 55, and 
Dhammapada, stanza 96. 

7 Cf. Sutta Nipata, pp. 94, 101, 122; Apastamba, Dharma-sutra, 



devotion, man is dear to me. But those 
devotees who, imbued with faith, and (regarding) 
me as their highest (goal), resort to this holy (means 
for attaining) immortality, as stated, they are ex- 
tremely dear to me. 

Chatter XIII. 
The Deity said : 
This body, O son of Kunti ! is called Kshetra 1 , . 
and the learned call him who knows it the Kshe- 
tra; r //a 2 . And know me also, O descendant of 
Bharata ! to be the Kshetra^a in all Kshetras. 
The knowledge of Kshetra and Kshetra^/a is 
deemed by me (to be real) knowledge. Now hear 
from me in brief what that Kshetra (is), what (it 
is) like, what changes (it undergoes), and whence 
(it comes), and what is he 3 , and what his powers, (all 
which) is sung in various ways by sages in numerous 
hymns 4 , distinctly, and in well-settled texts full of 
argument, giving indications or full instruction about 
the Brahman. The great elements 5 , egoism, the 
understanding, the unperceived also, the ten senses, 
and the one, and the five objects of sense, desire, 

p. 86 (p. 152 in this series); and Dhammapada, stanzas 40-91 
(where the identical word is used). 

1 I retain the original for want of a good equivalent. 

2 Cf. ^vetajvataropanishad, p. 368, and Maitri, pp. 25-72. 

3 I. e. the Kshetra^Tza. 

4 Hymns = scil. from the Vedas about ordinary or special actions 
and so forth. Argument = e. g. in texts like ' How can entity come 
from non-entity ? ' ' Who could breathe, if &c. ? ' 

5 Cf. Aitareya-ara^yaka, p. 97. The subtle elements, e?*"th, fire, 
&c. f are meant. The unperceived= nature; the one=mind; 
courage = that by which the drooping body and senses are sup- 
ported ; egoism = self-consciousness — the feeling 'this is 1/ 



aversion, pleasure, pain, body, consciousness, cou- 
rage, thus in brief has been declared the Kshetra 
with changes \ Absence of vanity, absence of 
ostentatiousness, absence of hurtfulness, forgiveness, 
straightforwardness, devotion to a preceptor, purity 2 , 
steadiness, self-restraint, indifference towards objects 
of sense, and also absence of egoism ; perception of 
the misery and evil of birth, death 3 , old age, and 
disease ; absence of attachment, absence of self- 
identifying regard for son, wife 4 , home, and so 
forth ; and constant equability on the approach of 
(both what is) agreeable and (what is) disagreeable ; 
unswerving devotion to me, without meditation on 
any one else ; resorting to clean places, distaste for 
assemblages of men 5 , constancy in knowledge of the 
relation of the individual self to the supreme, percep- 
tion of the object 6 of knowledge of the truth, this is 
called knowledge ; that is ignorance which is opposed 
to this. I will declare that which is the object of 
knowledge, knowing which, one reaches immortality ; 
the highest Brahman, having no beginning nor end, 
which cannot be said to be existent or non-existent 7 . 
It has hands and feet on all sides, it has eyes, heads, 
and faces on all sides, it has ears on all sides, it 

1 See the last page. Changes = development. 

2 Internal as well as external ; as to devotion to a preceptor, cf. 
Apastamba, p. n (p. 23 in this series) ; Taittinya-upanishad, p. 38; 
iSVetajvatara, p. 117; and Sutta Nipata, p. 87 ; as to egoism, see 
p. 52 supra. 

3 Cf. Sutta Nipata, pp. 18-95. 

4 Cf. Sutta Nipata, p. 12. 5 Cf. Sutta Nipata, p. 11. 

6 Viz. removal of ignorance and acquisition of happiness. 

7 Words indicate a class, a quality, an action, or a relation, says 
Sankara. None of these can be predicated of the Brahman ; so 
you cannot apply either of these words to it. Cf. pp. 84, 96 supra, 
also -SVetajvatara, p. 346. 



stands pervading everything- in the world. Pos- 
sessed ol the qualities of all the senses, (but) devoid 
ol all senses unattached, it supports all, is devoid of 
qualities, and the enjoyer 2 of qualities. It is within 
all things and without them ; it is movable and 
also immovable ; it is unknowable through (its) 
subtlety ; it stands afar and near 3 . Not different in 
(different) things * but standing as though different, 
it should be known to be the supporter of (all) 
things, and that which absorbs and creates (them). 
It is the radiance even of the radiant (bodies); it is 
said (to be) beyond darkness. It is knowledge, the 
object of knowledge, that which is to be attained to 
by knowledge, and placed in the heart of all 5 . Thus 
in brief have Kshetra, knowledge, and the object 
of knowledge been declared. My devotee, knowing 
this, becomes fit for assimilation with me. Know 
nature and spirit both (to be) without beginning, 
and know all developments and qualities 0 (to be) 
produced from nature. Nature is said to be the 
origin of the capacity of working (residing) in the 
body and the senses ; and spirit is said (to be) 
the origin of the capacity of enjoying pleasures and 

1 Cf. -Svetiijvatara, p. 331. He has no ears, but has the quality 
of hearing, and so forth; unattached = really out of relation to 
everything, though seeming to be connected with other things 
through delusion. 

2 I. e. he perceives them. 

3 Ijopanishad, p. 12 ; Mum/aka, p. 313. 

4 Everything being really one. Cf. inter alia, p. 124 infra. The 
various manifestations of the Brahman are really one in essence, 
though apparently different, like foam and water. 

5 Cf. p. 88. 

6 Developments =body, senses, &c. Qualities=pleasure,pain,&c; 
altogether the expression means the body and feelings and so forth. 



pains 1 . For spirit with nature joined, enjoys the 
qualities born of nature. And the cause of its birth 
in good or evil wombs is the connexion with the 
qualities 2 . The supreme spirit in this body is 
called supervisor, adviser 3 , supporter, enjoyer, the 
great lord, and the supreme self also. He who 
thus knows nature and spirit, together with the 
qualities, is not born again, however living 4 . Some 
by concentration see the self in the self by the self ; 
others by the Sarikhya-yoga ; and others still by the 
Karma-yoga 5 ; others yet, not knowing this, practise 
concentration, after hearing from others 6 . They, too, 
being (thus) devoted to hearing (instruction) cross 
beyond death. Whatever thing movable or im- 
movable comes into existence, know that to be 
from the connexion of Kshetra and Kshetra^a, O 
chief of the descendants of Bharata ! H e sees (truly), 

1 -Sridhara says that 1 is said to be ' means by Kapila and others. 
For the notion that activity is not a function of the soul, see inter 
alia, p. 55 supra. Enjoyment, however, is, according to this pas- 
sage, the function of the soul, not of nature. See also Maitri-upa- 
nishad, pp. 107, 108. 

2 I.e. 'the senses/ says -Srtdhara ; good = gods, &c. ; evil= 
beasts, &c. 

3 Scil. concerning the operations of the body and senses. Cf. 
Nr/siwha-tapini, p. 224. He is adviser because, though he does 
not interfere, he sees and therefore may be said to sanction the 
operations alluded to. Supporter, i.e. of body &c. in their workings. 

4 I. e. though he may have transgressed rules. 

5 Concentration = fixing of the mind exclusively on the soul, the 
senses being quiescent. ' See the self/ i. e. the soul ; ' in the self/ 
i. e. within themselves ; ' by the self/ i. e. by the mind. Sahkhya- 
yoga = belief that qualities are distinct from the self, which is only 
a passive spectator of their operations. Cf. -Svetajvatara, p. 109. 
Karma-yoga = dedication of actions to the supreme. Cf. as to this 
the gloss on -Sahkara's Bhashya on Vedanta-sutra IV, 2, 21. 

6 Cf. Sutta Nipata, p. 49. 


who sews the supreme, lord abiding alike in all 
entities, and not destroyed though they are de- 
stroyed. For he who sees the lord abiding every- 
where alike, does not destroy himself 1 by himself, 
and then reaches the highest goal. He sees (truly), 
who sees (all) actions (to be) in every way done by 
nature alone, and likewise the self (to be) not the 
doer. When a man sees all the variety of entities as 
existing in one 2 , and (all as) emanating from that, 
then he becomes (one with) the Brahman. This 
inexhaustible supreme self, being without beginning 
and without qualities, does not act, and is not 
tainted, O son of Kunti ! though stationed in the 
body. As by (reason of its) subtlety the all-per- 
vading space is not tainted, so the self stationed in 
every body is not tainted. As the sun singly lights 
up all this world, so the Kshetra^Tza, O descendant 
of Bharata ! lights up the whole Kshetra. Those 
who, with the eye of knowledge, thus understand the 
difference between Kshetra and Kshetra^a, and 
the destruction of the nature of all entities 3 , go to 
the supreme. 

Chapter XIV. 
The Deity said : 
Again I will declare (to you) the highest know- 
ledge, the best of (all sorts of) knowledge, having 

1 Not to have true knowledge is equivalent to self-destruction. 
Cf. Lopanishad, pp. 9, 15, 16. 

2 I. e. absorbed at the time of the deluge in nature, one of the 
energies of the supreme ; ' emanating/ i. e. at the time of creation. 

3 Nature, which is the material cause from which all entities 
are produced; the destruction of it results from true knowledge of 
the soul. See the third note on p. 107 infra. 



learnt which, all sages have reached perfection 
beyond (the bonds of) this (body). Those who, 
resorting to this knowledge, reach assimilation with 
my essence, are not born at the creation, and are 
not afflicted 1 at the destruction (of the universe). 
The great Brahman 2 is a womb for me, in which 
I cast the seed. From that, O descendant of Bha- 
rata ! is the birth of all things. Of the bodies, O son 
of Kunti ! which are born from all wombs, the (main) 
womb is the great Brahman, and I (am) the father, 
the giver of the seed. Goodness, passion, darkness, 
these qualities 3 born from nature, O you of mighty 
arms ! bind down the inexhaustible soul in the body. 
Of these, goodness, which, in consequence of being 
untainted, is enlightening and free from (all) misery, 
binds the soul, O sinless one ! with the bond of 
pleasure and the bond of knowledge 4 . Know that 
passion consists in being enamoured, and is pro- 
duced from craving and attachment. That, O son 
of Kunti ! binds down the embodied (self) with the 

1 I. e. ' are not destroyed,' Madhusudana ; ' do not fall/ »Sankara ; 
' are not born/ -Sndhara, and apparently Ramanu^a. 

2 I. e. the ' nature ' spoken of before. 

3 These constitute nature. We must understand nature, with 
Professor BhaWarkar, as the hypothetical cause of the soul's feel- 
ing itself limited and conditioned. If nature is understood, as it 
usually is, to mean matter, its being made up of the qualities is 
inexplicable. Interpreted idealistically, as suggested by Professor 
BhaWarkar, the destruction of it spoken of at the close of the last 
chapter also becomes intelligible. By means of knowledge of the 
soul, the unreality of these manifestations is understood and nature 
is destroyed. 

4 Pleasure and knowledge appertain to the mind, not the self, 
hence they are described as constituting bonds, when erroneously 
connected with the self, Sankara and £ndhara. They constitute 
' bonds/ because the self when brought into contact with them, 
strives to obtain them, Ramanu^a. 

[8] n 


bond of action. Darkness (you must) know to be 
horn of ignorance, it deludes all embodied (selfs). 
And that. O descendant of Bharata! binds down 
(the self) with heedlessness 1 , indolence, and sleep. 
Goodness unites (the self) with pleasure; passion, 
O descendant of Bharata ! with action ; and darkness 
with heedlessness, after shrouding up knowledge. 
Passion and darkness being repressed, goodness 
stands, O descendant of Bharata ! Passion and 
goodness (being repressed), darkness ; and likewise 
darkness and goodness (being repressed), passion 2 . 
When in this body at all portals :j light (that is to 
say) knowledge prevails, then should one know 
goodness to be developed. Avarice, activity 4 , per- 
formance of actions, want of tranquillity, desire, 
these are produced, O chief of the descendants of 
Bharata ! when passion is developed. Want of light, 
want of activity 5 , heedlessness, and delusion, these 
are produced, O descendant of Kuru ! when dark- 
ness is developed. When an embodied (self) en- 
counters death, while goodness is developed, then he 
reaches the untainted worlds of those who know the 
highest 6 . Encountering death during (the preva- 

1 Carelessness about duty, owing to being intent on something 
else. Cf. Sutta Nipata, pp. 51-91; Dhammapada, stanza 21; 
Ka/^opanishad, p. 152. 

2 The effects of each quality assert themselves, when the other 
two are held in check. 3 I. e. the senses of perception. 

4 Activity = always doing something or another; performance, 
&c;=rearing large mansions, &c. ; want of tranquillity = perpetual 
agitation of mind, ' this I will do now, then that, and next the other;' 
desire = to obtain everything that one comes across. 

5 I. e. doing absolutely nothing. 

6 The highest manifestations of Brahman, viz. the Hira^ya- 
garbha, &c, say 6ridhara and Madhusudana. NilakawMa also 
suggests that 1 those who know the highest ' means gods. 



lence of) passion, he is born among those attached 
to action. Likewise, dying during (the prevalence of) 
darkness, he is born in the wombs of the ignorant 1 . 
The fruit of meritorious action is said to be good, 
untainted ; while the fruit of passion is misery ; and 
the fruit of darkness ignorance. From goodness is 
produced knowledge, from passion avarice 2 , and 
from darkness heedlessness and delusion and igno- 
rance also. Those who adhere to (the ways of) 
goodness go up :5 ; the passionate remain in the 
middle ; while those of the qualities of darkness, 
adhering to the ways of the lowest quality, go 
down. When a right-seeing person sees none but 
the qualities (to be) the doers (of all action), and 
knows what is above the qualities 4 , he enters into 
my essence. The embodied (self), who transcends 
these three qualities, from which bodies are pro- 
duced 5 , attains immortality, being freed from birth 
and death and old age and misery. 

Ar^una said : 
What are the characteristics, O lord ! of one who 
has transcended these three qualities ? What is his 
conduct, and how does he transcend these three 
qualities G ? 

1 Lower creation, such as birds, beasts, &c. 

2 Cf. Sulta Nipata, p. 15. 

3 I.e. are born as gods, &c. ; 'middle,' as men, &c; 'down,' 
as brutes, &c. 

4 I. e. what has been called Kshetra^wa before, the supervising 
principle within one. 

3 Bodies are developments of the qualities, say the commen- 
tators, which is not incompatible with the explanation of qualities 
given above. As to transcending qualities, cf. p. 48 supra. 

6 Cf. as to what follows what is said in chapter II about 'one 
whose mind is steady,' 

H 2 

i [O 

BHAG AY A 1 H ! H'A. 

The 1 )eity said : 

He is said to have transcended the qualities, 
0 son of Vkndu ! who is not adverse to light and 
activity and delusion (when they) prevail, and who 
does not desire (them when they) cease 1 ; who 
sitting like one unconcerned is never perturbed by 
the qualities 2 ; who remains steady and moves a not, 
(thinking) merely that the qualities 4 exist; who is 
self-contained 5 ; to whom pain and pleasure are 
alike ; to whom a sod and a stone and gold are 
alike ; to whom what is agreeable and what is dis- 
agreeable are alike; who has discernment; to whom 
censure and praise of himself are alike; who is alike 
in honour and dishonour ; who is alike towards the 
sides of friends and foes ; and who abandons all 
action ,; . And he who worships me with an un- 
swerving devotion, transcends these qualities, and 
becomes fit for (entrance into) the essence of the 
Brahman. For I am the embodiment of the Brahman 7 , 
of indefeasible immortality, of eternal piety, and of 
unbroken happiness. 

1 I. e. who does not feel troubled, for instance, thinking now I am 
actuated by a motive of passion or darkness, and so forth. 
■ So as to lose all discrimination. 

3 I.e. from his determination to pursue truth, by worldly plea- 
sures or pains. 

4 Cf. p. 55 supra. 

8 Intent on the self only. 

c ' For the whole passage, cf. p. ioi supra. 

7 Nilaka;z//?a interprets this to mean ' the ultimate object of the 
Vedas.' I here means Kr/sh;/a. -Sridhara suggests this parallel, 
il- light embodied is the sun, so is the Brahman embodied identical 
with Vasudeva. 


I I I 

Chapter XV. 

The Deity said : 

They say the inexhaustible Asvattha 1 has (its) 
roots above, (its) branches below ; the A7/andas 
are its leaves. He who knows it knows the Vedas. 
Upwards and downwards extend its branches, which 
are enlarged by the qualities, and the sprouts of 
which are sensuous objects. And downwards to 
this human world are continued its roots which lead 
on to action. Its form is not thus known here, nor 
(its) end, nor beginning, nor support. But having 
with the firm weapon of unconcern, cut this Asvattha, 
whose roots are firmly fixed, then should one seek 
for that seat from which those that go there never 
return, (thinking) that one rests on that same primal 
being from whom the ancient course (of worldly 
life) emanated. Those who are free from pride 
and delusion, who have overcome the evils of 
attachment, who are constant in (contemplating) 
the relation of the supreme and individual self, 
from whom desire has departed, who are free from 
the pairs (of opposites) called pleasure and pain, 
go undeluded to that imperishable seat 2 . The sun 

1 Cf. Ka//$opanishad, p. 70, Sutta Nipata, p. 76. 

2 Ai-vattha stands here for the course of worldly life. Its roots 
are above, viz. the supreme being : its boughs are Hiraz/yagarbha 
and others of the higher beings. The Vedas are its leaves, pre- 
serving it as leaves preserve trees (another interpretation is that 
they are the causes of the fruit which the tree bears, i. e. salvation, 
&c.) Upwards and downwards, from the highest to the lowest of 
created things. Enlarged = the qualities manifesting themselves, 
as body, senses, &c. ; objects of sense are sprouts as they are at- 
tached to the senses, which are the tips of the branches above slated, 
The roots which extend downwards are the desires for various 

l i 2 


does not light it, nor the moon, nor fire 1 . That 
is my highest abode, going to winch none returns. 
An eternal portion of me it is, which, becoming an 
individual soul in the mortal world, draws (to itself) 
the senses with the mind as the sixth 2 . When- 
ever the ruler (of the bodily frame) obtains or quits 
a body, he goes taking- these (with him) as the wind 
(takes) perfumes from (their) Seats 3 . And presiding 
over the senses of hearing and seeing, and touch, 
and taste, and smell, and the mind, he enjoys 
sensuous objects. Those who are deluded do not 
see (him) remaining in or quitting (a body), enjoying 
or joined to the qualities 4 ; they see, who have eyes 
of knowledge. Devotees making efforts perceive him 
abiding within their selfs 5 . But those whose selfs 
have not been refined, and who have no discern- 
ment, do not perceive him even (after) making efforts. 
Know that glory (to be) mine which, dwelling in the 
sun, lights up the whole world, or in the moon or fire °. 

enjoyments. Its form not thus known here, i. e. to those who live and 
move in this world, thus viz. as above described. The man who 
knows the tree thus is said to know the Vedas, because knowledge 
of it is knowledge of the substance of the Vedas, which is, that the 
course of worldly life springs from the supreme, is kept up by 
Vedic rites, and destroyed by knowledge of the supreme. As to 
freedom from pride, cf. Sutta Nipata, p. 4. 

1 Cf. KaMopanishad, p. 142; Mu;z</aka, p. 304; Nrrsimha- 
Lapini, p. 106; 6'vcta^vatara, p. no. 

2 Five senses and the mind issue from nature, in which they are 
absorbed during sleep or at a dissolution of the world. Cf. Sutta 
Nipata, p. 44. 

3 Cf. Kaushitaki-upanishad, pp. 86, 87. 

4 Perceiving objects of sense, or feeling pleasure, pain, &c. 

5 1 Selfs* == bodies, Ramanu^a and Sridhara ; 'understandings, 
.Sankara. In the next sentence 'self* means mind. 

8 Cf. Maitri-apanishad, p. 142. This sentence continues what 
has been stated at the top of the page. The intervening 



Entering the earth x , I by my power support all 
things ; and becoming the juicy moon, I nourish 
all herbs. I becoming the fire, and dwelling in the 
bodies of (all) creatures, and united with the upward 
and downward life-breaths, cause digestion of the 
fourfold food 2 . And I am placed in the heart of 
all 3 ; from me (come) memory, knowledge, and their 
removal ; I alone am to be learnt from all the 
Vedas ; I am the author of the Vedantas 4 ; and 
I alone know the Vedas. There are these two 
beings in the world, the destructible and the inde- 
structible 5 . The destructible (includes) all things. 
The unconcerned one is (what is) called the inde- 
structible. But the being supreme is yet another, 
called the highest self, who as the inexhaustible 
lord, pervading the three worlds, supports (them). 
And since I transcend the destructible, and since 
I am higher also than the indestructible 6 , therefore 

portion explains how souls do come back in some cases. As a 
general rule, 1 all going ends in returning.' But the soul is an 
exception in some cases, as the 'going' to the Brahman is going 
to the fountain-head. Then the question arises, How does the 
severance come off at all ? And that is what the lines up to this 

1 'Entering in the form of the goddess earth,' say Anandagiri 
and Madhusudana. Support, i. e. by keeping the earth from falling 
or crumbling away. The moon is said to nourish herbs by commu- 
nicating to them some of her ' juice.' The moon, it may be noted, 
is called ' watery star ' by Shakespeare. As to her relation to the 
vegetable kingdom, see Matsya-purawa XXIII, stanza 10 seq. 

2 I. e. what is drunk, what is licked, what is powdered with the 
teeth, and what is eaten without such powdering. 

3 Cf. p. 104 supra. 

4 See Introduction, p. 18. 
c Cf. -SVetajvatara, p. 294. 

c The two are the whole collection of things as they appear and 
their material cause. The supreme being is a third principle. 

i 14 


am I celebrated in the world and in the Vedas as the 
best of beings, lie who, undeluded, thus knows 
me the best of beings, worships me everyway 1 , O 
descendant of Bharata ! knowing- everything. Thus, 
() sinless one! have I proclaimed this most myste- 
rious science. He who knows this, has done all he 
need do, and he becomes possessed of discernment. 

Chapter XVI. 

Freedom from fear, purity of heart, perseverance 
in (pursuit of) knowledge and abstraction of mind, 
gifts -, self-restraint 2 , and sacrifice, study of the Vedas, 
penance, straightforwardness, harmlessness, truth 2 , 
freedom from anger, renunciation 3 , tranquillity, free- 
dom from the habit of backbiting 4 , compassion for 
(all) beings, freedom from avarice, gentleness, 
modesty, absence of vain activity, noblemindedness, 
forgiveness, courage, purity, freedom from a desire 
to injure others, absence of vanity, (these), O de- 
scendant of Bharata ! are his who is born to godlike 
endowments. Ostentatiousness, pride, vanity 5 , anger, 
and also harshness and ignorance (are) his, O son 
of Prz'tha ! who is born to demoniac G endowments. 
Godlike endowments are deemed to be (means) for 

1 Cf. p. 129 infra. Here Sankara paraphrases it by ' thinking me 
to be the soul of everything.' 

2 Cf. Sutta Nipata, p. 49. 3 See next chapter. 
4 Sutta Nipata, pp. 15, 101. 

r ' Ostenlatiousness = making a show of piety; pride=scil. of 
wealth and learning; vanity = esteeming oneself too highly ; harsh- 
ness = mercilessness. 

c Cf. A^andogya-upanishad, p. 585, and Max Midler's Hibbert 
Lectures, p. 322. 



final emancipation, demoniac for bondage l . Grieve 
not, O descendant of Bharata ! you are born to god- 
like endowments. (There are) two classes of created 
beings in this world, the godlike and the demoniac ; 
the godlike (class) has been described at length ; 
now hear from me, O son of Pr/tha ! about the 
demoniac. Demoniac persons know not action or 
inaction 2 , neither purity nor yet (correct) conduct 
nor veracity are in them. They say the universe 
is devoid of truth 3 , devoid of fixed principle 4 , and 
devoid of a ruler, produced by union (of male and 
female) caused by lust 5 , and nothing else. Holding 
this view, (these) enemies of the world, of ruined G 
selfs, of little knowledge, and of ferocious actions, are 
born for the destruction (of the world). Entertaining 
insatiable desire, full of vanity, ostentatiousness, and 
frenzy, they adopt false notions 7 through delusion, 
and engage in unholy observances. Indulging in 
boundless thoughts ending with death 8 , given up to 
the enjoyment of objects of desire, being resolved 
that that is all, bound down by nets of hopes in 
hundreds, given up to anger and desire, they wish 

1 Scil. to birth and death in this world. 

2 What should be done for the attainment of real good, and what 
should not be done as productive of mischief. See too p. 125. 

3 I. e. contains nothing that is entitled to belief, as the Vedas, &c. 

4 No principle based on virtue and vice in the government of 
the world. 

r> They do not believe in any unseen cause, but say the lust of 
mankind is the cause of the universe. 

fi I.e. who have none of the means of reaching the next world. 

7 Such as that by propitiating a certain divinity by a certain rite 
they may obtain treasure and so forth. 

8 Till their last moments, thinking of making new acquisitions 
and preserving old ones. 

i 16 


to obtain heaps of wealth unfairly for enjoying 
objects oi desire. 'This have 1 obtained to-day; 
this wish I will obtain ; this wealth is mine; and this 
also shall be mine; this foe I have killed; others 
too I will destroy; I am lord, I am the enjoyer, 
I am perfect 1 , strong, happy ; I have wealth; I am 
of noble birth; who else is like me ? I will sacrifice 2 ; 
I will make gifts ; I will rejoice.' Thus deluded by 
ignorance, tossed about by numerous thoughts, sur- 
rounded by the net of delusion, and attached to the 
enjoyment of objects of desire, they fall down into 
impure hell. Honoured (only) by themselves, void 
of humility, and full of the pride and frenzy of 
wealth, these calumniators (of the virtuous) perform 
sacrifices, which are sacrifices only in name, with 
ostentatiousness and against prescribed rules 3 ; in- 
dulging (their) vanity, brute force, arrogance, lust, 
and anger ; and hating me in their own bodies and in 
those of others 4 . These enemies 5 , ferocious, meanest 
of men, and unholy, I continually hurl down to these 
worlds c , only into demoniac wombs. Coming into 
demoniac wombs, deluded in every birth, they go 
down to the vilest state, O son of Kunti ! without 
ever coming to me. Threefold is this way to hell, — 

1 Blessed with children, &c. -Sridhara takes it to mean, ' one who 
has done all he need do/ and Ramanu^a ' sufficient in himself.' 

2 I.e. get higher renown for sacrifices than others. 

3 That is, because of indulgence in vanity, &c. Vanity = believing 
oneself to have virtues which one has not; arrogance = proud dis- 
dain of others. 

4 There is trouble to oneself in sacrifices and to the animals 
killed for them. 

5 I. e. of God. 

f; The commentators render the original here by ' the paths of 
life and death/ or ' path to hell.' 



ruinous to the self 1 , — lust, anger, and likewise avarice; 
therefore one should abandon this triad. Released 
from these three ways to darkness, O son of Kunti ! 
a man works out his own salvation, and then proceeds 
to the highest goal. He 2 who abandoning scripture 
ordinances, acts under the impulse of desire, does 
not attain perfection 3 , nor happiness, nor the highest 
goal. Therefore in discriminating between what 
should be done and what should not be done, your 
authority (must be) scripture. And knowing what 
is declared by the ordinances of scripture, you should 
perform action in this world. 

Chapter XVII. 

Ar^'una said : 

What is the state of those, O Krishna ! who 
worship with faith, (but) abandoning scripture ordi- 
nances — goodness, passion, or darkness ? 

The Deity said : 
Faith is of three kinds in embodied (beings), it is 
produced from dispositions 4 . It is of the quality 
of goodness, of the quality of passion, and of the 
quality of darkness. Hear about it. The faith of 
all, O descendant of Bharata ! is conformable to the 

1 I.e. rendering the self unfit for any of the highest ends of man. 

2 Here, says &idhara, it is laid down that the triad is not to be 
got rid of save by following scripture rules. 

? ' I.e. fitness for the attainment of the summum bonum. As 
to acting from desire, see also p. 65. 

4 I. e. the result of the actions in a former birth, cf. p. 56 supra. 


heart '. A being here is full of faith, and whatever 
is a man's faith, that is a man himself 2 . Those of 
the quality oi goodness worship the gods ; those of 
the quality of passion the Yakshas and Rakshases 3 ; 
and the others, the people of the quality of darkness, 
worship departed (spirits) and the multitudes of 
Bhutas. Know those to be of demoniac convictions, 
who practise fierce penance 4 not ordained by scrip- 
ture ; who are full of ostentatiousness and egoism, 
and of desire, attachment, and stubbornness ; who 
are without discernment ; and who torment the 
groups of organs in (their) bodies, and me also 
seated within (those) bodies. The food also, which 
is liked by all, and likewise the sacrifice, the penance, 
and gifts, are of three kinds. Listen to the distinc- 
tions regarding them as follows. The kinds of food 
which increase life, energy, strength, health, comfort, 
and relish, which are savoury, oleaginous, full of 
nutrition, and agreeable, are liked by the good. The 
kinds of food which are bitter, acid, saltish, too hot, 
sharp, rough, and burning, and which cause pain, 
grief, and disease, are desired by the passionate. 
And the food 5 which is cold, tasteless, stinking, 
stale, impure, and even leavings, are liked by the 
dark. That sacrifice is good which, being prescribed 
in (scripture) ordinances, is performed by persons 

1 The hearts of gods are said to be good, those of Yakshas &c. 
passionate, those of men mixed, and so forth. 

2 Faith is the dominant principle in man, and he is good, pas- 
sionate, or dark, as his faith is. 

8 Goldstiicker, Remains, I, 154. 

4 Troublesome to oneself and others, as standing or. heated 
stones, &c. 'Egoism' (Ahankara) = the feeling that one is worthy 
of honour, NilakawMa. 

6 Cf.Sutta Nipata,p. 109, and Apastamba,p.3i(p.62 in this series). 

CHAPTER XVII, 1 8. 119 

not wishing for the fruit (of it), and after determining 
(in their) mind that the sacrifice must needs be per- 
formed. But when a sacrifice is performed, O highest 
of the descendants of Bharata ! with an expectation of 
fruit (from it), and for the purpose of ostentation, 
know that sacrifice (to be) passionate. They call 
that sacrifice dark, which is against the ordinances 
(of scripture), in which no food is dealt out (to Brah- 
ma;/as, &c). which is devoid of Mantras 1 , devoid of 
Dakshi^a presents, and which is without faith. 
Paying reverence to gods, Brahma/^as, preceptors, 
and men of knowledge ; purity 2 , straightforward- 
ness, life as Brahma/'arin, and harmlessness, (this) is 
called the penance bodily. The speech which causes 
no sorrow, which is true, agreeable, and beneficial, 
and the study 3 of the Yedas, (this) is called the 
penance vocal. Calmness of mind, mildness, taci- 
turnity 4 , self-restraint, and purity of heart, this is 
called the penance mental. This threefold penance, 
practised with perfect faith, by men who do not wish 
for the fruit, and who are possessed of devotion, 
is called good. The penance which is done for 
respect, honour, and reverence r \ and with ostenta- 

1 Texts from the Yedas which ought to be recited on such occa- 
sions. Presents (Dakshi?/a) to Brahma;/as are insisted on in 
Brzriad-ara;/yaka-upanishad. p. 661; Aj-valavana Gr/hya I, 23, 14. 

2 Cleanliness of body; straightforwardness = not doing prohibited 
acts; harmlessness = not injuring any living beings. These are 
' bodily/ because the body is the main instrument in these actions. 

3 I. e. recitation of the Yedas. 

4 This is part of the 1 mental penance/ because the government 
of the tongue is a consequence of mental restraint; the effect being, 
according to 6'ahkara, put here for the cause. 

5 Respects people rising to receive one, &c. ; honour = people 
saying ' this is a holy man/ &c. ; reverence = people washing one's 
feet, &c. 

! 20 


tiousness, and which is uncertain and transient 1 , is 
here called passionate. And that penance is de- 
scribed as dark, which is performed under a mis- 
guided conviction, with pain to oneself, or for the 
destruction of another. That gift is said (to be) 
good, which is given, because it ought to be given, 
to one who (can) do no service (in return), at a 
(proper) place and time, and to a (proper) person. 
But that gift which is given with much difficulty, for 
a return of services, or even with an expectation of 
fruit 2 , is said to be passionate. And that gift is 
described as dark, which is given to unfit persons, at 
an unfit place and time, without respect, and with 
contempt. Om, Tad, and Sat, this is said (to be) 
the threefold designation of the Brahman. By that 3 , 
the Brahma^as and the Veclas and sacrifices were 
created in olden times. Hence, the performance by 
those who study the Brahman, of sacrifices, gifts, 
and penances, prescribed by the ordinances (of scrip- 
ture), always commence after saying ' Om V Those 
who desire final emancipation perform the various 
acts of sacrifice and penance, and the various acts of 
gift, without expectation of fruit, after (saying) ' Tad 5 / 
' Sat ' is employed to express existence and good- 
ness ; and likewise, O son of Prztha ! the word 'Sat' 
is used to express an auspicious act. Constancy in 

1 The fruit of which is uncertain or perishable. 
- Heaven &c. as a reward for liberality. 

3 I. e. the Brahman, according to -Sridhara. 

4 Cf. Apastamba, p. 21 (p. 49 in this series). Nilaka»Ma cites 
texts to show that this and the other two words are used to designate 
the Brahman. The texts are from the Taittiriya, Aitareya, and 

5 Nilaka«///a says, ' after " Tad " ' means considering the act and 
all are Brahman, and cites p. 61 supra. 



(making) sacrifices, penances, and gifts, is called 'Sat;' 
and (all) action, too, of which that 1 is the object, is 
also called ' Sat.' Whatever oblation is offered, what- 
ever is given, whatever penance is performed, and 
whatever is done, without faith 2 , that, O son of 
Pr/tha! is called ' Asat,' and that is nought, both 
after death and here 3 . 

Chapter XVIII. 

Anfuna said : 

0 you of mighty arms! O Hr/shike^a! O de- 
stroyer of Ke^in ! I wish to know the truth about 
renunciation and abandonment distinctly. 

The Deity said : 

By renunciation the sages understand the rejection 
of actions done with desires. The wise call the 
abandonment of the fruit of all actions (by the name) 
abandonment. Some wise men say, that action 
should be abandoned as being full of evil ; and 
others, that the actions of sacrifice, gift, and penance 

1 I. e. either the Brahman itself, or sacrifice, penance, and gift. 

2 Cf. Sutta Nipata, p. 69. 

3 The meaning of this whole passage seems to be that these three 
words, which designate the Brahman, have distinct uses, as specified. 
' Om,' says Nilaka;/Ma, is employed whether the action is done 
with any special desire or not. Those who study the Brahman 
there means ' study the Vedas.' ' Tad ' is employed in case of 
actions without desires only. ' Sat 1 is employed, according to 
*Sankara, in case of existence, such as the birth of a first son ; 
'goodness/ the reclamation of a bad man ; 'auspicious acts,' mar- 
riage, &c. The intelligent use of these terms as here specified is 
said to cure any defects in the actions, the various classes of which 
are mentioned before. 

I 22 

should not be abandoned. As to that abandonment, 
0 best oi the descendants of Bharata! listen to my 
decision ; for abandonment, O bravest of men ! is 
described (to be) threefold. The actions of sacrifice, 
grift, and penance should not be abandoned; they 
must needs be performed ; for sacrifices, gifts, and 
penances are means of sanctification to the wise. But 
even these actions, O son of IVztha ! should be per- 
formed, abandoning attachment and fruit; such is 
my excellent and decided opinion. The renunciation 
of prescribed action is not proper. Its abandon- 
ment through delusion 1 is described as of the quality 
of darkness. When a man abandons action, merely 
as being troublesome, through fear of bodily afflic- 
tion, he does not obtain the fruit 2 of abandonment 
by making (such) passionate abandonment. When 
prescribed action is performed, O Ar^una ! aban- 
doning attachment and fruit also, merely because it 
ought to be performed, that is deemed (to be) a good 
abandonment. He who is possessed of abandon- 
ment :i , being full of goodness, and talented, and 
having his doubts destroyed, is not averse from 
unpleasant actions, is not attached to pleasant 4 
(ones). Since no embodied (being) can abandon 
actions without exception 5 , he is said to be pos- 
sessed of abandonment, who abandons the fruit of 
action. The threefold fruit of action, agreeable, dis- 
agreeable, and mixed, accrues after death to those 
who are not possessed of abandonment, but never to 

1 Without delusion no such abandonment will occur. 

2 Namely, final emancipation, by means of purity of heart. 

3 I.e. who has the frame of mind necessary for a good aban- 

4 Such as bathing at midday in summer. 5 Cf. p. 53 supra. 



renouncers l . Learn from me, O you of mighty arms ! 
these five causes of the completion of all actions, 
declared in the Saiikhya system 2 . The substratum, 
the agent likewise, the various sorts of organs, and 
the various and distinct movements, and with these 
the deities, too, as the fifth. Whatever action, just 
or otherwise, a man performs with his body, speech, 
and mind, these five are its causes. That being so, the 
undiscerning man, who being of an unrefined under- 
standing, sees the agent in the immaculate self, sees 
not (rightly) 3 . He who has no feeling of egoism 4 , 
and whose mind is not tainted, even though he kills 
(all) these people, kills not, is not fettered 5 (by the 
action). Knowledge °, the- object of knowledge, the 
knower — threefold is the prompting to action. The 
instrument, the action, the agent, thus in brief is 
action threefold. Knowledge and action and agent 

1 The original is sannyasi, but Sridhara is probably right in taking 
it to mean one who has command of 'abandonment.' -Sahkara 
and Madhusudana, however take the word in its ordinary sense of 
' ascetic/ What follows explains, says *SVidhara, why ' the fruit does 
not accrue to renouncers.' 

2 Sahkara and Madhusudana say this means Vedanta-^astra. 
-Sridhara suggests also the alternative Sahkhya-jastra. Substratum 
= the body, in which desire, aversion, &c. are manifested ; agent = 
one who egoistically thinks himself the doer of actions; organs 
= senses of perception, action, &c. ; movements =of the vital breaths 
in the body ; deities = the deities which preside over the eye and other 
senses (as to this cf. Aitareya-upanishad, p. 45 ; Piuma, pp. 216, 217; 
Muw^aka, p. 314 ; Aitareya-araz/yaka, pp. 88-270; and Max Muller's 
Hibbert Lectures, p. 204, note). 8 Cf. p. 106. 

4 Egoism = the feeling that he is the doer of the action; taint = 
the feeling that the fruit of the action must accrue to him. 

0 Cf. p. 45, and Dhammapada, stanza 294. 

6 Knowledge, i. e. that something is a means to what is desired ; 
object is the means ; the knower is he who has this knowledge. 
When these co-exist we have action. The instrument = senses, &c. 
[8] 1 



arc declared in the enumeration of qualities 1 (to be) 
of three classes only, according to the difference of 
qualities. 1 [ear about these also as they really are. 
Know that knowledge to be good, by which (a man) 
sees one entity, inexhaustible, and not different in 
all things (apparently) different 2 (from one another). 
Know that knowledge to be passionate, which is 
(based) on distinctions 3 (between different entities), 
which sees in all things various entities of different 
kinds. And that is described as dark, which clings 
to one created (thing) only as everything, which is 
devoid of reason, devoid of real principle, and in- 
significant 4 . That action is called good, which is 
prescribed, which is devoid of attachment, which, is 
not done from (motives of) affection or aversion, 
(and which is done) by one not wishing for the 
fruit. That is described as passionate, which (oc- 
casions) much trouble, is performed by one who 
wishes for objects of desire, or one who is full of 
egotism 5 . The action is called dark, which is com- 
menced through delusion, without regard to con- 
sequences, loss, injury, or strength G . That agent is 
called good, who has cast off attachment, who is free 
from egotistic talk, who is possessed of courage and 
energy, and unaffected by success or ill-success. That 
agent is called passionate, who is full of affections 7 , 

1 The system of Kapila. 2 Cf. p. 104. 

3 Cf. KaZ/fopanishad, p. 129. 

4 Reason = argument in support; real principle = truth, view of 
things as they are ; insignificant, i. e. in comprehensiveness. 

5 I.e. 'pride of learning/ &c, -Sahkara ; 'egoism,' Ramanug-a. 

0 Consequences=good or evil resulting; loss = of wealth or 
strength; injury=to others; strength = one's own capacity. 

7 I.e. ' for children,' &c, according to *Sridhara ; 'for the action,' 
according to others. 


who wishes for the fruit of actions, who is covetous, 
cruel, and impure, and feels joy and sorrow. 
That agent is called dark, who is without applica- 
tion 1 , void of discernment, headstrong, crafty, ma- 
licious, lazy, melancholy, and slow. Now hear, O 
Dhana^aya ! the threefold division of intelligence 2 
and courage, according to qualities, which I am 
about to declare exhaustively and distinctly. That 
intelligence, O son of Pr/tha ! is good which under- 
stands action and inaction 3 , what ought to be done 
and what ought not to be done, danger and the 
absence of danger, emancipation and bondage. 
That intelligence, O son of Pmha ! is passionate, 
by which one imperfectly understands piety and 
impiety, what ought to be done and also what ought 
not to be done. That intelligence, O son of Pr/tha ! 
is dark, which shrouded by darkness, understands 
impiety (to be) piety, and all things incorrectly. 
That courage, O son of Pmha ! is good courage, 
which is unswerving 4 , and by which one controls 
the operations of the mind, breath, and senses, 
through abstraction. But, O Ar^una ! that courage 
is passionate, by which one adheres to piety, lust, 
and wealth 5 , and through attachment 0 wishes 

1 I.e. attention to work; melancholy = always desponding and 
wanting in energy. 

2 The nature of the faculty of understanding ; and courage is the 
firmness of that faculty. 

3 See p. 115. -Sankara takes these to mean the ' paths ' of action 
and knowledge, and Nilaka;/Ma takes the next expression to mean 
that which is constant and that which is not constant — nitya, anitya. 

4 Always co-existing with mental abstraction and supporting it. 

5 Three of the aims of mankind, the highest being final emanci- 
pation. In the view of the Gila, piety, leading only to heaven, is 
of doubtful benefit. 

G I. e. to the action for attaining them, in the belief that one is 

I 2 

1 26 


( ) son ol lV/tha ! for the fruit. That courage is 
dark, 0 son of Pmha ! by which an undiscerning 
man docs not give up sleep, fear, sorrow, despon- 
dency, and folly. Now, O chief of the descendants 
oi Bharata! hear from me about the three sorts of 
happiness. That happiness is called good, in which 
one is pleased after repetition 1 (of enjoyment), and 
readies the close of all misery, which is like poison 
first and comparable to nectar in the long run, and 
which is produced from a clear knowledge of the 
self 2 . That happiness is called passionate, which 
(flows) from contact between the senses and their 
objects, and which is at first comparable to nectar 
and in the long run like poison. That happiness is 
described as dark, which arises from sleep, laziness, 
heedlessness, which deludes the self, both at first 
and in its consequences. There is no entity either 
on earth or in heaven among the gods, which is free 
from these three qualities born of nature. The 
duties of Brahmawas, Kshatriyas, and Vaisyas, and 
of .Sudras, too, O terror of your foes ! are distin- 
guished according to the qualities born of nature 3 . 
Tranquillity 4 , restraint of the senses, penance, purity, 
forgiveness, straightforwardness, also knowledge, ex- 
perience, and belief (in a future world), this is the 
natural duty of Brahma/zas. Valour, glory, courage, 

the doer of it ; the ' fruit ' scil. of the action performed with an eye 
to the three things named. 

1 Not at once, as in the case of sensuous pleasures. 

2 Cf. p. 51. The original has also been rendered by ' tranquillity 
of one's own mind/ 

3 Cf. p. 59. 

4 I.e. resulting from control of the mind, purity here is both 
external and internal. And see p. 119. 



dexterity \ not slinking away from battle, gifts, exer- 
cise of lordly power 2 , this is the natural duty of Ksha- 
triyas. Agriculture, tending cattle, trade, (this) is the 
natural duty of Valyyas. And the natural duty of 
Madras, too, consists in service. (Every) man intent on 
his own respective duties obtains perfection 3 . Listen, 
now, how one intent on one's own duty obtains per- 
fection. Worshipping, by (the performance of) his 
own duty, him from whom all things proceed, and 
by whom all this is permeated, a man obtains per- 
fection. One's duty, though defective, is better than 
another's duty well performed 4 . Performing the 
duty prescribed by nature, one does not incur sin. 
O son of Kunti ! one should not abandon a natural 
duty though tainted with evil ; for all actions are 
enveloped by evil, as fire by smoke 5 . One who is 
self-restrained, whose understanding is unattached 
everywhere, from whom affections have departed, 
obtains the supreme perfection of freedom from 
action 6 by renunciation. Learn from me, only in 
brief, O son of Kunti ! how one who has obtained 
perfection attains the Brahman, which is the highest 
culmination of knowledge. A man possessed of a pure 
understanding, controlling his self by courage, dis- 
carding sound and other objects of sense, casting off 

1 I. e. in battle, Nilakaw/^a seems to say. Sankara says it means 
ready resource whenever occasion arises. 

2 I.e. 'power to restrain people from going astray,' Nilaka/////a. 

3 Eligibility for the path of knowledge. 
« Cf. p. 56. 

5 Cf. p. 121 ; the evil appears to be the quality of * fettering ' the 

6 iSridhara compares p. 65 (V, 13) and distinguishes this from 
p. 64 (V, 8 seq.) .S'aiikara says the perfection here spoken of is 
emancipation, and it is obtained by true knowledge. 



at union and aversion ; who frequents clean places, 
who eats little, whose speech, body, and mind are 
restrained, who is always intent on meditation and 
mental abstraction 1 , and has recourse to unconcern, 
who abandoning egoism 2 , stubbornness, arrogance, 
desire, anger, and (all) belongings, has no (thought 
that this or that is) mine, and who is tranquil, becomes 
fit for assimilation with the Brahman. Thus reaching 
the Brahman 3 , and with a tranquil self, he grieves 
not, wishes not ; but being alike to all beings, obtains 
the highest devotion to me. By (that) devotion he 
truly understands who I am and how great. And 
then understanding me truly, he forthwith enters 
into my (essence). Even performing all actions, 
always depending on me, he, through my favour, 
obtains the imperishable and eternal seat. Dedi- 
cating in thought 4 all actions to me, be constantly 
given up to me, (placing) your thoughts on me, 
through recourse to mental abstraction. (Placing) 
your thoughts on me, you will cross over all difficulties 
by my favour. But if you will not listen through 
egotism 5 , you will be ruined. If entertaining egotism, 
you think that you may not fight, vain, indeed, is 
that resolution of yours. Nature 6 will constrain 
you. That, O son of of Kunti ! which through delu- 
sion you do not wish to do, you will do involuntarily, 

1 Abstraction is concentrated and exclusive meditation, -Sahkara. 
The other commentators take dhyanayoga as meditation simply, — 
as treated of in chapter VI, says Nilaka;////a. 

2 See p. 52. 

3 I. e. comprehending his identity with the Brahman. 

4 Cf. p. 55. 

5 Pride of learning and cleverness, or of piety. See p. 124, note 5. 
8 The nature of a Kshatriya, -Sankara. 


tied down by your own duty, flowing from your 
nature. The lord, O Ar^una ! is seated in the 
region of the heart 1 of all beings, turning round all 
beings (as though) mounted on a machine, by his 
delusion. With him, O descendant of Bharata ! 
seek shelter in every way 2 ; by his favour you will 
obtain the highest tranquillity, the eternal seat. 
Thus have I declared to you the knowledge more 
mysterious than any mystery. Ponder over it 
thoroughly, and then act as you like. Once more, 
listen to my excellent words — most mysterious of all. 
Strongly I like you, therefore I will declare what is 
for your welfare. On me (place) your mind, become 
my devotee, sacrifice to me, reverence me, and you 
will certainly come to me. I declare to you truly, 
you are dear to me. Forsaking all duties 3 , come 
to me as (your) sole refuge. I will release you 
from all sins. Be not grieved. This 4 you should 
never declare to one who performs no penance 5 , who 
is not a devotee G , nor to one who does not wait on 
(some preceptor) 7 , nor yet to one who calumniates 
me. He who, with the highest devotion 8 to me, will 
proclaim this supreme mystery among my devotees, 
will come to me, freed from (all) doubts. No one 

1 iSveta^vatara-upanishad, pp. 333-345; KaZ/zopanishad, p. 157. 

2 Cf. p. 114 ; by thought, word, and deed. 

3 Of caste or order, such as Agnihotra and so forth. 

4 All that has been taught in the Gita. 

5 Sridhara renders this to mean, ' who performs no pious acts.' 

6 I.e. of God and a preceptor. Cf. last stanza of -Svetiuvataro- 

7 Cf. p. 62. Sankara says all these elements must co-exist to 
give eligibility. 

8 I. e. belief that in disseminating it, he is serving me. Cf. Ka///o 
panishad, p. 120. 


amongst men is superior to him in doing what is 
dear to me. And there will never be another on 
earth dearer to me than he. And he who will study 
this holy dialogue of ours, will, such is my opinion, 
have offered to me the sacrifice of knowledge 1 . 
And the man, also, who with faith and without 
carping will listen (to this), will be freed (from sin), 
and attain to the holy regions of those who perform 
pious acts 2 . Have you listened to this, O son of 
Prtth& ! with a mind (fixed) on (this) one point only? 
Has your delusion (caused) by ignorance been de- 
stroyed, O Dhana/^aya ? 

Ar^una said : 

Destroyed is my delusion ; by your favour, O un- 
degraded one ! I (now) recollect 3 myself. I stand 
freed from doubts 4 . I will do your bidding. 

Sa%*aya said : 

Thus did I hear this dialogue between Vasudeva 
and the high-minded son of Prztha, (a dialogue) 
wonderful and causing the hair to stand on end. By 
the favour of Vyasa, I heard this highest mystery, 
(this) devotion 5 , from Krishna, himself, the lord of 
the possessors of mystic power, who proclaimed it 
in person. O king! remembering and (again) re- 
membering this wonderful and holy dialogue of 
Kesava. and Ar^una, I rejoice over and over again. 
And remembering and (again) remembering that 

1 Which is the best of sacrifices ; see p. 62. 

2 Cf. p. 72. 

3 I. e. understand my real essence, what I am, &c. 

4 As to whether the battle was right or not. 

5 The work is so called, as it refers to devotion. 


excessively wonderful form of Hari also, great is 
my amazement, O king! and I rejoice over and 
over again. Wherever (is) Krzstwa, the lord of 
the possessors of mystic power, wherever (is) the 
(great) archer, the son of Pr/tha, there in my 
opinion (are) fortune, victory, prosperity \ and 
eternal justice. 

1 Prosperity is the greater development of fortune. 





The Sanatsu^atiya is, like the Bhagavadgita, one of the 
numerous episodes of the Mahabharata * It is true, that 
it has never commanded anything like that unbounded 
veneration which has always been paid in India to the 
Bhagavadgita. Still it is sometimes studied even in our 
days, and it has had the high distinction of being com- 
mented on by the great leader of the modern Vedantic 
school — .Sankara^arya 2 . The Sanatsu^atiya purports to 
be a dialogue mainly between Sanatsu^ata on the one side 
and Dhrztarash/ra on the other. Sanatsu^ata, from whom 
it takes its name, is said to be identical with Sanatku- 
mara, a name not unfamiliar to students of our Upanishad 
literature. And Dhr/tarash/ra is the old father of those 
Kauravas who formed one of the belligerent parties in 
the bellum plusquam civile which is recorded in the 
Mahabharata. The connexion of this particular episode 
with the main current of the narrative of that epos is one 
of the loosest possible character — much looser, for instance, 
than that of the Bhagavadgita. As regards the latter, it 
can fairly be contended that it is in accordance with poetical 
justice for Ar^rina to feel despondent and unwilling to 
engage in battle, after actual sight of ' teachers, fathers, 
sons,' and all the rest of them, arrayed in opposition to 
him; and that therefore it was necessary for the poet to 
adduce some specific explanation as to how Ar^una was 
ultimately enabled to get over such natural scruples. But 
as regards the Sanatsu^atiya, even such a contention as this 

1 Mahabharata, Udyoga Parvan, Adhyaya 41-46. 

2 MadbavfU'arya, in speaking of .Sankara's works, describes him as having 
commented on the Sanatsu»atiya, which is ' far from evil (persons) ' [asatsudu- 
raw]. ^ankara-vi^aya, chapter VI, stanza 62. 


can have no place. For this is how the matter stands. In 
the course of the negotiations for an amicable arrangement 1 
between the PaWavas and the Kauravas, Sa^aya, on one 
occasion, came back to Dh/'/tarashfra, with a message from 
the lYi^/avas. When he saw Dhr/tardsh/ra, however, he 
said that he would deliver the message in the public 
assembly of the Kauravas the next morning, and went 
away after pronouncing a severe censure on Dhrztarash/ra 
for his conduct. The suspense thus caused was a source of 
much vexation to the old man, and so he sent for Vidura, 
in order, as he expresses it, that Vidura might by his dis- 
course assuage the fire that was raging within him. Vidura 
accordingly appears, and enters upon an elaborate prelection 
concerning matters spiritual, or, perhaps, more accurately 
quasi-spiritual, and at the outset of the Sanatsu^atiya he 
is supposed to have reached a stage where, as being born 
a 5udra, he hesitates to proceed. After some discussion 
of this point, between Vidura and Dhrztarash/ra, it is 
determined to call in the aid of Sanatsu^ata, to explain 
the spiritual topics which Vidura felt a delicacy in dealing 
with ; and Sanatsu^ata is accordingly introduced on the 
scene in a way not unusual in our epic and pura/ac litera- 
ture, viz. by Vidura engaging in some mystic process of 
meditation, in response to which Sanatsu^ata appears. 
He is received then with all due formalities, and after he 
has had some rest, as our poem takes care to note, he is 
catechised by Dhrztarash/ra ; and with one or two excep- 
tions, all the verses which constitute the Sanatsu^atiya are 
Sanatsu^ata's answers to Dhrz'tarash/ra's questions 2 . 

This brief statement of the scheme of this part of the 
Mahabharata shows, as already pointed out, that the con- 
nexion of the Sanatsu^-atiya with the central story of that 
epic is very loose indeed ; and that it might have been 
entirely omitted without occasioning any aesthetical or other 
defect. And therefore, although there is nothing positive 

1 See p. 3 supra. 

2 After this dialogue is over, the dawn breaks, and Dhr/tarash/ra and the 
Kaurava princes meet in general assembly. 



tending to prove the Sanatsu^atiya to be a later addition 
to the original epos, still the misgivings which are often 
entertained upon such points may well, in this case, be 
stronger than in the case of the Bhagavadgita. The text, 
too, of the Sanatsu^atiya is not preserved in nearly so satis- 
factory a condition as that of the Gita. I have had before 
me, in settling my text, the editions of the Mahabharata 
respectively printed and published at Bombay Calcutta, 
and Madras, and three MSS., one of which was most kindly 
and readily placed at my disposal by my friend Professor 
Ramkr/sh;/a Gopa/ Bha/^arkar ; the second by another 
friend, Professor Abagi Vishnu Kathava/e ; and the third 
was a copy made for me at Sagar in the Central Provinces, 
through the good offices of a third friend, Mr. Vaman Maha- 
deva Kolha/kar. The copy lent me by Professor Bha;^/ar- 
kar comes from Pu;/a, and that lent by Professor Kathava/e 
also from Puzza. This last, as well as the Sagar copy, and 
the edition printed at Madras, contains the commentary of 
SaiikaraMrya. And the text I have adopted is that which 
is indicated by the commentary as the text which its author 
had before him. But the several copies of the commentary 
differ so much from one another, that it is still a matter 
of some doubt with me, whether I have got accurately the 
text which 5ahkara commented upon. For instance, the 
Sagar copy entirely omits chapter V, while the other 
copies not only give the text of that chapter, but also a 
commentary upon it which calls itself 5ankara£arya's com- 
mentary 2 . Again, take the stanzas which stand within 
brackets at pp. 167, 168 :3 of our translation. There is in 
none of the copies we have, any commentary of Sankara- 
Hrya on them. And yet the stanzas exist in the text of 
the Mahabharata as given in those copies which do contain 
Sankara's commentary. The matter is evidently one for 
further investigation. I have not, however, thought it 

1 This contains NtlakawMa's commentary, but his text avowedly includes the 
text of Ankara, and verses and readings contained in more modern copies. 

2 The commentary on the sixth chapter, however, takes up the thread from 
he end of the fourth chapter. 

3 See p. 182, where one of the lines recurs. 

1 3 8 


absolutely necessary to make such an investigation for the 
purposes of the present translation. But to be on the safe 
side, I have retained in the translation everything which 
is to be found in those copies of the Sanatsu^atiya which 
also contain Sankara's commentary. As to other stanzas — 
and there are some of this description — which other MSS. 
or commentators vouch for, but of which no trace is to be 
found in the MSS. containing 5ankara's commentary 1 , 
1 have simply omitted them. 

These facts show that, in the case of the Sanatsu^atiya, 
the materials for a trustworthy historical account of the 
w ork are not of a very satisfactory character. The mate- 
rials for ascertaining its date and position in Sanskrit litera- 
ture are, indeed, so scanty, that poor as we have seen the 
materials for the Bhagavadgita to be, they must be called 
superlatively rich as compared with those we have now to 
deal with. As regards external evidence on the points now 
alluded to, the first and almost the last fact falling under 
that head, is the fact of the work being quoted from and 
commented upon by Sankara&irya. In his commentary 
on the vSvetajvatara-upanishad 2 , Sankara cites the pas- 
sage about the flamingo at p. 189, introducing it with the 
words, 'And in the Sanatsu^ata also.' In the same 15 com- 
mentary some other passages from the Sanatsu^atiya are 
also quoted, but without naming the work except as a 
Smrzti, and mixing up together verses from different parts 
of the work. 

This is really all the external evidence, that I am aware 
of, touching the date of the Sanatsu^atiya. There is, how- 
ever, one other point, which it is desirable to notice, though 
not, perhaps, so much because it is of any very great value 
in itself, as because it may hereafter become useful, should 
further research into the Mahabharata and other works 
yield the requisite information. There are, then, eight 
stanzas in the thirty-sixth, thirty-seventh, thirty-ninth, and 
fortieth chapters of the Udyoga Parvan of the Mahabha- 

1 See note i, p. 137. 2 P. 283. 

3 P. 252. See, too, .Sariraka Bhashya, p. 828. 



rata (the Sanatsu^atiya commencing at the forty-first 
chapter), seven of which are quoted in the Paȣatantra \ and 
the eighth in the Mahabhashya 2 of Pata%ali. Of course, 
it almost goes without saying, that neither the Pa;X£atantra 
nor the Mahabhashya mentions the source from which it 
derives the verses in question. But I do not think it unallow- 
able to make the provisional assumption, that they were 
derived from the Mahabharata, so long as we cannot produce 
any other, and more likely, source. It is true, that Professor 
Weber has, in another connexion, impugned the cogency 
of this argument. He seems to think, that the probability — 
in the case he was actually dealing with — of the Ramaya/;a 
having borrowed from the Mahabhashya, is quite as strong 
as the probability of the Mahabhashya having borrowed 
from the Ramaya//a 3 . And doubtless, he would by parity 
of reason contend, in the case before us, that the probabi- 
lities, as between the Mahabharata on the one hand, and the 
Mahabhashya and the Pa/7£atantra on the other, bear the 
same mutual relation. I cannot accept this view. I am not 
now concerned to discuss the merits of the conclusion in 
support of which Professor Weber has advanced this argu- 
ment 4 . I am only considering, how far it affects the 
question now before us. And as to that question, I may 
say, that the Pa;X£atantra expressly introduces the stanzas 
now under consideration with some such expression as, 1 For 
it has been said,' indicating clearly that it was there quoting 
the words of another 5 . And so, too, does the Mahabhashya, 

1 Cf. Kosegarten's Pa/Xfatantra, p. 28 (I, 28, Bombay S. C. cel.), with Udyoga 
Tarvan, chap. XL, st. 7 (Bombay ed.) ; Pa///£atantra, pp. 112 and 209 (II, 10 ; 
IV, 5, Bombay ed.), with Udyoga Parvan, chap. XXXVIII, 9 ; p. 35 (1, 37, 
Bombay ed.) with chap. XXXVI, st. 34; p. 140 (II, 40, Bombay ed.) with 
chap. XXXVII, st. 15; p. 160 (III, 62, Bombay ed.) with chap. XXXVII, 
st. 17, 18; p. 106 (II, 2, Bombay ed.) with chap. XXXVI, st. 59. 

2 Udyoga Parvan, chap. XXXVIII, st. r, and Mahabhashya VI, 1-4, p. 35 
(Banaras ed.) 

s See Indian Antiquary IV, 247. The parallel from Madhava which Professor 
Weber adduces is quite inconclusive, and as far as it goes appears to me to 
militate against the Professor's own view. 

4 I may, however, admit at once, that I ought not to have expressed myself 
as strongly as I did in the note which Professor Weber criticises. 

5 See p. 203 infra. 

[8] K 



where the passage we refer to runs as follows: '(It is) laid 
down, (that there is) a sin in one of tender age not rising to 
receive (an elderly person), and (that there is) merit in rising 
to receive. How? Thus, "The life-winds of a youth depart 
upwards, when an elderly man approaches (him). By rising 
to receive (him), and salutation, he obtains them again." ' It 
appears to me, that the indications of this being a quotation 
in the Bhashya are very strong. But apart from that, I do 
demur to the proposition, that the probabilities are equal, 
of a work like the Mahabharata or Ramaya/^a borrowing 
a verse from the Mahabhashya, and vice versa. It appears 
to me perfectly plain, I own, that the probability of a gram- 
matical work like the Bhashya borrowing a verse from 
a standard work like the Bharata or Ramaya/^a for pur- 
poses of illustration is very much the stronger of the two. 
And this, quite independently of any inquiry as to whether 
the Bhashya does or does not show other indications of 
acquaintance with the Bharata or the Ramaya/^a. 

If these arguments are correct, it seems to me that they 
carry us thus far in our present investigation — namely, 
that we may now say, that we have reason to believe some 
parts, at all events, of the thirty-sixth, thirty- seventh, thirty- 
eighth, and fortieth chapters of the Udyoga Parvan of the 
Mahabharata to have probably been in existence prior to the 
sixth century A.c. 1 ; and that some parts of the thirty-seventh 
chapter were probably extant in the time of Pata/7£-ali, viz. 
the second century B.C. 2 Now, internal evidence does not 
yield any indications tending to show that the several 
chapters here referred to must have been prior in time to 
the chapters composing the Sanatsu^atiya, which come so 
soon after them in the Mahabharata. On the contrary, it 
is not too much to maintain, that to a certain extent the 
style and language of the Sanatsu^-atiya is, if anything, 
rather indicative of its priority in time over the five chapters 
immediately preceding it. And, therefore, so far as this 
argument goes, it enables us— provisionally only, it must be 

See p. 2(j supra. 

2 See p. 32 supra. 


I 4 I 

remembered — to fix the second century B.C. as a terminus 
ad quern for the date of the Sanatsu^atiya. 

This is all the external evidence available for a discussion 
of the question — when the Sanatsu^atiya was composed. 
We now turn to the internal evidence. Standing by itself, 
internal evidence is not, in my opinion, of much cogency 
in any case. Still in ascertaining, as best we can, the history 
of our ancient literature, even this species of evidence is not 
to be despised ; it must only be used and received with 
caution. Under this head, then, we may note first the 
persons who are supposed to take part in the dialogue. 
Sanatsu^ata 1 — or Sanatkumara — as already pointed out, is 
a name already familiar to the readers of one of our older 
Upanishads— the A7<?andogya. Dhr/tarash/ra is not known 
in the Upanishads, but he is an important personage in the 
epic literature. And it is to be remarked, that his character 
as disclosed in the Sanatsu^atiya is not at all similar to 
that which has attached itself to his name, alike in the later 
literature of our country, and in that popular opinion which 
was probably formed by this later literature. In the dialogue 
before us, he figures as an earnest inquirer after truth ; he 
is described as the 'talented king Dhrztarash/ra ;' and is 
addressed by Sanatsu^ata as, ' O acute sir ! ' * O learned 
person!' True it is, that Nilaka/^a in one place, as we 
have noticed in our note there 2 , endeavours to bring out 
the later view of Dhr/tarash/ra's character 3 ; but it seems to 
me that that endeavour, based as it is on a forced and far- 
fetched interpretation of a single word in our poem, is an 
unsuccessful one. None of the questions, which Dhrz'ta- 
rash/ra puts to Sanatsu^ata in the course of their dialogue, 
indicates the avaricious old man who wished to deprive his 
innocent nephews of their just rights in the interests of his 
own wicked and misguided sons. They rather indicate the 
bona fide student of spiritual lore, and thus point to what 
is, perhaps, an earlier view of Dhrz'tarash/ra's character. 

1 See Hall's Sankhyas&ra, preface, pp. 14, 15. 2 P. 151, note 2. 

3 Nilaka«//*a himself, however, treats Dhr/tanish/ra's question later on as 
showing that he had attained indifference to worldly concerns. That question 
does not occur in 6'ankara's text, but is given at p. 158 infra. 

K 2 

S.\ NATS r GAT 1YA. 

[f we look next to the general style of this poem, we find 
iluit it has none of that elaboration which marks what I 
have called the age of Kavyas and Na/akas. The remarks 
on this topic in the Introduction to the Gita apply pretty 
accurately to this work also. We observe here the same 
paucity of long-drawn compounds, the same absence of 
merely ornamental adjectives, the same absence of figures 
and tropes 1 ; in one word, the same directness and simplicity 
of style. Furthermore, there is a somewhat greater want 
of finish about the syntax of our poem than there is even 
in the Gita. Such constructions as we find inter alia at 
chapter II, stanza 2, or 25, or at chapter III, stanza 14, or 
chapter IV, stanza 12, or in the early verses of the last 
chapter, indicate a period in the history of the language, 
when probably the regulations of syntax were not quite 
thoroughly established in practice. 

If we turn to the metre of the poem, an analogous phe- 
nomenon strikes us there. Similar irregularities in the 
collocation of long and short syllables, similar superfluities 
and deficiencies of syllables, meet us in the Sanatsu^atiya 
and the Bhagavadgita. And in the former work, as in the 
latter, the irregularities are less observable in the Anush^ubh 2 
than in the other metres used. Probably the explanation, 
apart from the great elasticity of that metre, is that the 
Anush/ubh had been more used, and had in consequence 
become comparatively more settled in its scheme even in 
practical composition. 

Looking now more particularly to the language of the 
work before us, we find one word to be of most frequent 
occurrence, namely, the word vai, which we have rendered 
'verily.' It is not a common word in the later literature, 
while in the Upanishad literature we meet with great 
frequency, not merely vai, but the words, which I think are 
cognate with it, va and vava. The former word, indeed, 

1 The five similes which occur, and which are nearly all that occ;.r, in the 
poem, are the very primitive ones — of the hunter, of water on grass, the tiger of 
straw, death eating men like a tiger, dogs eating what is vomited, a branch 
of a tree and the moon, and birds and their nests. 

2 Cf. as to this the NWsiwha Tapini, p. 105. 



appears to me to stand in some passages of the Upanishads 
for vai by euphonic alterations. Thus in the passage tvam 
va aham asmi bhagavo devate, aha;;/ vai tvam asi, it is 
difficult not to suppose that the va of the first part of the 
sentence is the same word as the vai of the second part, 
only altered according to the rules of Sandhi in Sanskrit. 

A second point of similarity between the language of the 
Upanishads and that of the Sanatsu^atiya is to be found in 
the phrase, ' He who knows this becomes immortal.' This 
sentence, or one of like signification, is, as is well known, 
of common occurrence in the Upanishads and in the Brah- 
ma;/as. In the Bhagavadgita, the verses towards the end, 
which come after Krishna's summing-up of his instruction, 
seem to be of a somewhat analogous, though in some respects 
different, nature. And in the Pura;/as we meet sometimes 
with elaborate passages extolling the merits of a particular 
rite, or a particular pilgrimage, and so forth. This form of 
the Phala^ruti, as it is called, appears to have been developed 
in process of time from the minute germ existing in the 
Brahma;/as and the Upanishads. In the Sanatsu^atiya, 
however, we are almost at the beginning of those develop- 
ments ; indeed, the form before us is identically the same 
as that which we see in the works where it is first met with. 
It is a short sentence, which, though complete in itself, still 
appears merely at the end of another passage, and almost 
as a part of such other passage. 

There is one other point of a kindred nature which it may 
be well to notice here. As in the Gita, so in the Sanatsu- 
^atiya, we meet with a considerable number of words used 
in senses not familiar in the later literature. They are 
collected in the Index of Sanskrit words in this volume ; 
but a few remarks on some of them will not, it is thought, 
be entirely out of place here. The word marga 1 — in the 
sense of 1 worldly life ' — is rather remarkable. Sankara 
renders it by ' the path of sawsara ' or worldly life. And 
he quotes as a parallel the passage from the AV/andogya- 

1 I give no references here, as they can be found in the Index of Sanskrit 
woids at the end of this volume. 



upanishad which speaks of returning to the 'path.' There, 
however, 5ankara explains it to mean the 'path by which 
the self returns to worldly life,' namely, from space to the 
wind and so forth into vegetables, and food, ultimately 
appearing as a foetus. Another remarkable word is ' varga,' 
which occurs twice in the Sanatsu^atiya. 5ankara and 
Nilaka/////a differ in their explanations of it, and Nilaka/^/Z/a 
indeed gives two different meanings to the word in the two 
passages where it occurs. We may also refer here specially to 
utsa, ritv\g y and matva. In Boehtlingk and Roth's Lexicon 
the only passages cited under 'utsa' are from Vedic works, 
except two respectively from Suiruta and the Da^akumara- 
£arita. One passage, however, there cited, viz. Vish;zo// pade 
parame madhva utsa//, is plainly the original of the passage 
we are now considering. As to ritvlg in the sense it bears 
here, we see, I think, what was the earlier signification of 
that word before it settled down into the somewhat technical 
meaning in which it is now familiar. And matva in the 
sense of ' meditating upon ' is to be found in the Upanishads, 
but not, I think, in any work of the classical literature. 
These words, therefore, seem to indicate that the Sanatsu- 
^•atiya was composed at a stage in the development of the 
Sanskrit language which is a good deal earlier than the 
stage which we see completely reached in the classical 

Coming now to the matter of the Sanatsu^atiya, it appears 
to me, that we there see indications pointing in a general 
way to the same conclusion as that which we have here 
arrived at. There is, in the first place, a looseness and want, 
of rigid system in the mode of handling the subject, similar 
to that which we have already observed upon as charac- 
terising the Bhagavadgita. There is no obvious bond of 
connexion joining together the various subjects discussed, 
nor are those subjects themselves treated after any very 
scientific or rigorous method. Again, if the fourth chapter 
is a genuine part of the Sanatsu^atiya, we have an elaborate 
repetition in one part, of what has been said in another 
part of the work, with only a few variations in words, and 



perhaps fewer still in signification. As, however, I am not 
at present prepared to stand finally by the genuineness 
of that chapter, I do not consider it desirable to further 
labour this argument than to point out, that similar repeti- 
tions, on a smaller scale, perhaps, are not uncommon in 
our older literature 

Coming now to the manner in which the Vedas are 
spoken of in the work before us, there are, we find, one 
or two noteworthy circumstances proper to be considered 
here. In the first place, we have the reference to the four 
Vedas together with Akhyanas as the fifth Veda. This is 
in conformity with the old tradition recorded in the various 
works to which we have referred in our note on the passage. 
The mention of the Atharva-veda, which is implied in this 
passage, and expressly contained in another, might be re- 
garded as some mark of a modern age. But without dwell- 
ing upon the fact, that the Atharva-veda, though probably 
modern as compared with the other Vedas, is still old 
enough to date some centuries before the Christian era 2 , 
it must suffice to draw attention here to the fact that the 
AT//andogya-upanishad mentions that Veda, and it is not 
here argued that the Sanatsu^atiya is older than the K/ia,n- 
dogya-upanishad. We have next to consider the reference 
to the Saman hymns as 'vimala,' or pure. The point 
involved in this reference has been already sufficiently 
discussed in the Introduction to the Gita 3 ; and it is not 
necessary here to say more than that, of the two classes 
of works we have there made, the Sanatsu^atiya appears 
from the passage under discussion to rank itself with the 
class which is prior in date. 

The estimate of the value of the Vedas which is implied 
in the Sanatsu^atiya appears to coincide very nearly with 
that which we have shown to be the estimate implied in the 
Bhagavadgita. The Vedas are not here cast aside as useless 
any more than they are in the Bhagavadgita. For, I do 
not think the word Anr?'/'as which occurs in one passage 
of the work can be regarded really as referring to those 

See p. 181, note I infra. 

2 P. 19 supra. 

3 Pp. 19, 20. 



who entirely re ject the Vedic revelation. But without going 
as far as that, the Sanatsiu/atiya seems certainly to join the 
Bhagavadgita in its protest against those men of extreme 
viewSj who could see nothing beyond the rites and ceremonies 
taught in the Vedas. A study of the Vedas is, indeed, 
insisted on in sundry passages of the Sanatsu^atiya. But 
it is equally maintained, that the performance of the cere- 
monies laid down in the Vedas is not the true means of 
final emancipation. It is maintained, that action done with 
any desire is a cause of bondage to worldly life ; that the 
gods themselves arc ordinary creatures who have reached 
a certain high position owing to the practice of the duties 
of Brahma^arins, but that they are not only not superior 
to. but arc really under the control of, the man who has 
acquired the true knowledge of the universal self. On all 
these points, we have opinions expressed in the Sanatsu- 
^-atiya, which conclusively establish an identity of doctrine 
as between the Upanishads and the Bhagavadgita 1 on the 
one hand, and the Sanatsu^atiya on the other. Lastly, we 
have an explicit statement, that the mere study of Vedic 
texts avails nothing, and that sin is not to be got rid of by 
one who merely ' studies the Rik and the Ya^ us texts, and 
the Sama-veda.' It is not necessary to repeat here the 
chronological deductions which may be based upon this 
relation between the Sanatsu^atiya and the Vedas. We 
have already argued in the Introduction to the Bhagavad- 
gita, that such a relation points to a period of Indian 
religious history prior to the great movement of Gautama 
Buddha \ 

There is, however, this difference, perhaps, to be noted 
between the Gita and the Sanatsu^-atiya — namely, that the 
latter work seems to afford more certain indications of the 
recognition, at the date of its composition, of a C7#anakaw/a 
as distinguished from a Karmaka//<m in the Vedas, than, 
we have seen, are contained in the Bhagavadgita 3 . The 
passage, for instance, which speaks of the AV/andas as 

1 Cf« p. 16 supra. 

2 Cf. pp. 25, 26. 

3 P. 17. 



referring ' of themselves ' to the Brahman, and the passage 
which refers to an understanding of the Brahman by means 
of the Vedas, according to the principle of the moon and 
the branch— these seem rather to point to a portion of the 
Vedas which was regarded as giving instruction in true 
knowledge, as distinguished from merely laying down 
various sacrifices and ceremonials for special purposes. In 
fact, in one passage we have the germ of the whole Vedantic 
theory as afterwards settled. For there we are told, that 
sacrifices and penances are laid down as the preliminary 
steps towards the acquisition of true knowledge. By those 
sacrifices one is purified of one's sins, and then acquires 
a knowledge of the supreme self as described in the Vedas — 
which, I apprehend, must mean the Upanishads. 

There is but one other point on which we need say 
anything further. And that is connected with the definition 
of a Brahma//a. That definition appears to me, to point 
to an earlier stage in religious progress than is indicated 
in Apastamba and Manu. The true Brahma;/a is he who 
is attached to the Brahman. Perhaps, this marks some 
little advance beyond the more general doctrine of the 
Gita, but it is still very far short of the petrified doctrine, 
if I may so call it, of the later law-givers. The Brahma;/a 
has not yet degenerated into the mere receiver of fees and 
presents, but is still in possession of the truth. 

We thus see, that the external and internal evidence 
bearing upon the question of the position of the Sanatsu- 
^atiya in Sanskrit literature, seems to point to nearly the 
same period and place for it as for the Bhagavadgita. It 
is plain enough, that the evidence under both heads is 
extremely scanty and meagre. But such as it is, it appears 
to us to justify a provisional conclusion, that the Sanatsu- 
^atiya dates from a period prior to the rise of Buddhism, 
and forms part of that same movement in the religious 
history of ancient India of which the Gita is another 
embodiment. More than this, we are not at present in 
a position to assert. To this extent, the evidence enables 
us, I think, to go. And we accordingly hold, that unless 


other and further evidence requires a reversal of this judg- 
ment, the Sanatsu^&tiya may be treated as a work nearly 
contemporary with the Bhagavadgitct, and occupying gene- 
rally the same point of view. 

One word, finally, about the translation. As stated 
already, the text adopted is that which appears to have 
been before A'ankara/'arya. And the translation follows 
mainly his interpretations in his commentary. Sometimes 
we have followed Nilaka/////a, whose commentary has been 
consulted as well as a very incorrect copy of another com- 
mentary by one Sarva£7/a Narayawa, contained in the MS. 
from Pu#a lent me by Professor Bha;/<farkar. In some 
places even the commentators have failed to clear up 
obscurities, and there we have given the best translation we 
could suggest, indicating the difficulties. There has been 
an endeavour made here, as in the case of the Bhagavadgita, 
to keep the translation as close and faithful to the text as 
the exigencies of the English language permitted. The 
exegetical notes are mostly taken from the commentaries, 
even where the name of the commentator is not specified ; 
while the references to parallel passages have been collected, 
mostly by myself, in the same way as in the case of the 


Chatter I. 

Dhr/tarash/ra said : 

If, O Vidura ! there is anything - not (yet) said by 
you in (your) discourse, then do impart it to me 
who wish to hear, for you have spoken marvellous 

Vidura said : 

0 Dhr/tarash/ra ! the ancient youth Sanatsufata, 
(otherwise called) Sanatana 1 , who declared that death 
exists not — he, O descendant of Bharata ! the best 
of all talented men, will explain all the doubts of 
your mind, both those (which are) secret 2 , and those 
openly declared. 

Dhr/tarash/ra said : 
What, do you not yourself know more about this 
(subject), that Sanatana should explain (it) to me ? 
Explain (it) yourself, O Vidura ! if there is any 
remnant of intelligence (left) in you. 

1 So Nilaka^///a. Sahkara says Sanatsu^ata is Sanatkumara, 
and the component parts of the name he paraphrases by ' born 
from Brahman.' For Sanatana, see Br/hadara;/yaka, p. 506, and 
note 1, p. 141 supra. 

2 I.e. relating to subjects which may be freely discussed by all, 
and those which may not. NilakawMa adopts a different reading, 
which he interprets to mean ' doctrines exoteric and esoteric,' 
e. g. self-restraint, &c, and the acquisition of mystic power, &c, 
respectively. The expression ' doubts of the mind ' occurs, how- 
ever, further on. 


Vidura said : 
1 am born of a AYidra womb, and do not like to say 
more than what (I have said). But the intelligence 
of that youth, I believe to be eternal 1 . He who 
has come of a Brahma;/a womb, even though he 
may proclaim a great mystery, does not thereby 
become liable to the censure of the gods. There- 
lore do I say this to you. 

Dhrztarash/ra said : 

Do you, O Vidura ! speak to the ancient Sana- 
tana for me, so that there may be a meeting even 
here, between (myself in) this body (and him). 

Vai^ampayana 2 said : 

(Then) Vidura meditated on that sage whose 
vows are laudable 3 . And he, too, O descendant 
of Bharata ! knowing of such meditation, made his 
appearance. And he 4 , too, received him with the 
ceremonies prescribed in the ordinances. After he 
had been comfortably seated, and had taken rest, 
Vidura then spoke to him : ' Venerable sir ! there is 
some doubt in Dhrztarash/ra's mind, which cannot 

1 I.e., I suppose, never-failing, and such as can deal with all 
sorts of topics. Sanatkumara, it need scarcely be stated, is the 
teacher of Narada in the famous dialogue in the ^7;andogyopa- 
nishad, p. 473. 

2 Vai^ampayana is the narrator of the grand story of which 
pieces like the present form parts. 

3 The reading is sometimes different, so as to mean ' of rigid 
vows,' as at Gita, p. 61 supra. 

4 The pronouns here are too numerous. Does ' he ' here refer 
to Dhr/tarash/ra ? Vidura seems more likely, though the express 
mention of him in the next sentence might be treated as pointing 
the other way. 


be explained by me. Do you be pleased to explain 
(it) to him. Hearing it (explained), this lord of men 
may cross beyond all misery, so that gain and loss \ 
(what is) agreeable and (what is) odious, old age and 
death, fear and vindictiveness, hunger and thirst, 
frenzy and worldly greatness, disgust and also lazi- 
ness, desire and wrath, ruin and prosperity, may not 
trouble him.' 

Vai^ampayana said : 
Then the talented king, Dhr/tarash/ra, bowed 2 to 
those words uttered by Vidura, and, in a secluded 
place 3 , interrogated Sanatsu^ata regarding the 
highest knowledge 4 , wishing to become (a) high- 
souled (man) 5 . 

Dhrztarash/ra said : 

0 Sanatsu^ata ! which of the two is correct, your 
teaching 6 , about which I have heard, that death 
exists not, or that 7 the gods and demons practised 

1 Comp. Gita, passim ; disgust, scil. that resulting from a general 
dissatisfaction with everything. As to ' ruin and prosperity,' Nila- 
kaw/^a adds, ' and their causes, sin and merit.' 

2 Literally i respected.' Nilakaz/Ma says it means c rejoiced over,' 
for Dhr/tarash/ra thought, that in spite of his treachery he was 
safe, as death was taught by Sanatsug-ata to have no existence. 

3 I. e. free from the presence of ignorant and vulgar people. 
Cf. Gita, p. 68 supra. 

4 I. e. knowledge concerning the supreme Self. 

5 £ankara's construction seems different, but is not quite clear. 
He says, ' wishing to become — Brahman — the meaning is wishing 
to acquire the self lost through ignorance.' 

6 I. e. imparted to your pupils, Sankara adds ; ' heard,' scil. from 

7 The construction is imperfect, but the sense is clear. Is your 


the life of Brahma/£&rin$ 1 , for freedom from 

Sanatsu^ata said : 
Some (say), that freedom from death (results) from 
action 2 ; and others that death exists not. Hear me 
explain (this), O king! have no misgiving about it 3 . 
Both truths, O Kshatriya! have been current from 
the beginning '. The wise maintain what (is called) 
delusion (to be) death. I 5 verily call heedlessness 
death, and likewise I call freedom from heedlessness 
immortality. Through heedlessness, verily, were 
the demons G vanquished ; and through freedom 

view correct, or the view involved in the practice of gods and 
demons ? 

1 See Gita, p. 69 supra ; Ka/Zzopanishad, p. 102;, p. 162. 
As to the gods being afraid of death, see A7zandogya, p. 50 ; and 
Nrisimhs, Tapim, p. 32 ; and as to gods and demons practising 
the life of BrahmaMrins, see jOandogya, p. 571 ; and cf. Br/had- 
ara//yaka, p. 964. 

2 I. e. action prescribed in the Vedas. 

3 I. e. as to how I shall be able to reconcile the seeming 
contradiction between the ' two truths.' 

4 I. e. of creation. 

5 Sanatsu^ata says he differs from ' the wise ; ' delusions thinking 
the not-self to be the self; heedlessness = falling off from one's 
natural condition as the Brahman — which is the cause of delusion 
( Sankara). See p. 153 infra; KaMa,p. 152; andTaittiriya-upanishad 
p. 80. 

.S'cihkara suggests that demons might mean creatures attached 
to worldly objects : and gods those who are pleased in their own 
self ; and he cites a stanza in support of this suggestion. The 
allusion, however, seems to be plainly to the story at AYMndogya, 
p. 571 seq., where the idea and expression of ' being vanquished' 
also occurs (p. 583). That word *S'ahkara interprets in connexion 
with his suggested interpretation to mean 1 are born in lower 
species.' See iOandogya, p. 585, and Maitri, p. 211, abouc asuras 
or demons. It is interesting to note that in the Introduction to the 
Mahabhashya, there is an allusion to a story of the ' demons' being 
' vanquished ' in consequence of their grammatical blunders. 



from heedlessness the gods attained to the Brah- 
man. Death, verily, does not devour living crea- 
tures like a tiger; for, indeed, his form is not to be 
perceived. Some 1 say that death is different from 
this, (named) Yama, who dwells in the self 2 ; the 
(practice of the) life of Brahmaiarins (being) immor- 
tality. That god governs his kingdom in the world 
of the Pitrzs, (being) good to the good, and not good 
to (those who are) not good. That death, (or) heed- 
lessness, develops in men as desire, and afterwards 
as wrath, and in the shape of delusion 3 . And then 
travelling in devious paths 4 through egoism, one 
does not attain to union 5 with the self. Those who 
are deluded by it 6 , and who remain under its in- 
fluence, depart from this (world), and there again 
fall down 7 . Then the deities 8 gather around 
them. And then he undergoes death after death 9 . 
Being attached to the fruit of action, on action pre- 
senting itself, they follow after it 10 , and do not cross 

1 Those deluded by worldly objects ; 'this' means 'heedlessness.' 

2 iSahkara ciles a stanza from Manu, which says that king 
Yama Vaivasvata dwells in the heart of every one. Cf. Aitareya- 
upanishad, p. 187. The following clause he understands to contain 
two epithets of Yama, meaning ' immortal, and intent on the Brah- 
man. ' I follow Nilaka«///a, but not very confidently. 

3 Cf. Gita, p. 57. Here we have the developments, the varying 
forms, of death or heedlessness. 

4 I. e. paths contrary to -Srutis and Smr/tis. 

5 Concentration of mind on the self or Brahman. 

6 I. e. the egoism spoken of before. 

7 I.e. to this mortal world. Cf. Gita. p. 84, and Br/hadara//yaka, 
PP- 855, 856. There = from the next world. »Sahkara says, 
' having lived there.' 

8 I.e. the senses. Cf. Gita, p. 123, and inter alia Lopanishad, 
p. 10. 

9 Cf. Ka/Z?a, p. 129, and Br/hadaraz/yaka, p. 889. 

30 I.e. the fruit. Cf. KaMa, p. 155, and Mu//r/aka, p. 317. 

•5 1 


beyond death. And the embodied (self), in conse- 
quence of not understanding union 1 with the real 
entity, proceeds on all hands" with attachment to 
enjoyments. That 3 , verily, is the great source of 
delusion to the senses; for by contact 4 with unreal 
entities, his migrations 5 are (rendered) inevitable; 
because having his inner self contaminated by 
contact with unreal entities, he devotes himself to 
obje cts of sense on all sides, pondering on them 
(only). (That) pondering, verily, first ruins 0 him; 
and soon afterwards desire and wrath, after at- 
tacking him. These 7 lead children to death. But 
sensible men cross beyond death by their good 
sense. He who pondering (on the self) destroys 8 
(the) fugitive (objects of sense), not even thinking 
of them through contempt (for them), and who 
being possessed of knowledge destroys desires in 
this way, becomes, as it were, the death of death 
(itself), and swallows (it) up 9 . The being who 

1 I.e. its identity with the Brahman. 

2 I. e. in various forms of life, Nilakaw//*a. 

3 The going about in search of enjoyments. 

4 The contact leads to pondering on them, and that to desire, &c, 
as described further on. 

Through various lives. Birth and death are certain for him. 

6 I. e. causes oblivion of his real nature, *Sahkara. Cf. the 
whole train of cause and effect at Gita, p. 50 supra. 

7 I.e. the pondering, desire, wrath, &c. As to ' children/ cf. 
Ka///a, pp. 96 and 123, where bala is contrasted with dhira, as 
here. The ' good sense ' is of help in withstanding the temptations 
of worldly objects. 

8 Destroys = abandons ; pondering, just before this, is rendered by 
6ahkara to mean ' thinking of the objects as transient, impure,' &c. 

Sankara cites on this a stanza of unknown authorship, which 
says, ' The learned and clever man who knows the self, and by 
discrimination destroys all objects of sense, is said to be the death 
of death.' See too p. 178 infra. 



pursues desires, is destroyed (in pursuing) after 
the desires \ But casting away desires, a being 
gets rid of all taint 2 whatever. This body, void of 
enlightenment 3 , seems (to be) a hell for (all) beings. 
Those who are avaricious run about 4 , going head- 
long to a ditch. A man, O Kshatriya ! who con- 
temns everything else 5 learns nothing. To him 
(the body is) like a tiger made of straw 6 . And this 
internal self (joined to) delusion and fear 7 in conse- 
quence of wrath and avarice, within your body, — 
that verily is death 8 . Understanding death 9 to be 
thus produced, and adhering to knowledge, one is 
not afraid of death 10 in this (world). In his province 
death is destroyed, as a mortal (is destroyed) on 
arriving in the province of death. 

Dhrztarash/ra said : 
The good, eternal, and most holy worlds 11 , which 

1 On this Nilaka«/^a quotes these lines, ' The antelope, elephant, 
butterfly, bee, and fish — these five are destroyed by the five/ 
i.e. the five objects of sense, sound, &c. See £anti Parvan (Moksha 
Dharma), chap. 174, st. 45. 

2 I. e. misery, NtlakawMa ; merit or sin, iSarikara. 

3 I. e. void of discrimination between the real and unreal, Nila- 
kawMa ; result of ignorance, 6'ankara. ' A hell, as being full of 
filth/ says -Sankara, * such as phlegm, blood, excretions/ Cf. Maitri, 
p. 48. 

4 As blind men groping about fall into a ditch, so do these, 

5 I. e. other than the sensuous objects he loves ; ' learns nothing ' 
about the supreme Self which he disregards. 

,; Useless for any good purpose. 
7 Cf. Taittiriya-upanishad, p. 102. 

s As being ruinous to oneself. *Sankara compares Gita, p. 68. 
Cf. also Taittiriya-upanishad, p. 103, and see Bn'hadarawyaka, p. 61. 

9 I. e. heedlessness and its developments as stated. 

10 -S'ankara cites on this Taittiriya-upanishad, p. 78. 

11 Such as Satyaloka, &c. 

[8] ' L 

E 5 6 


are mentioned (as attainable) by the twice-born by 
means of worship ', those, say the Vedas, are the 
highest aim -. Mow is it, then, that one who under- 
stands this does not resort to action? 

Sanatsu^ata said : 
(Thinking) so, an ignorant man does resort to 
action. The Vedas likewise do lay down various 
benefits 3 (for him). But that 4 (man) comes not 
hither "'. (Becoming) the supreme self G , he attains 
the supreme, by the (right) path destroying the 
wrong paths 7 . 

Dhr/tarash/ra said : 
Who s is it that constrains this unborn primeval 
(self), if it is (itself) all this severally 9 ? And what 

1 Gyotish/oma. A^vamedha, and other rites. 

2 As leading to final emancipation. 

3 I. e. objects for which various ceremonies (or ' actions ') should 
be performed. 

4 I. e. the man of knowledge. 

D I. e. into the sphere of action. Cf. Gita, p. 48. 

6 Knowing the supreme self is identical with becoming the 
supreme self, MuWaka, p. 323. 

7 I. e. getting rid of the paths which keep one away from the 
Brahman by means of contemplation of the Brahman, &c. Nila- 
ka;////a renders ' right path ' to mean the Sushumwa passage by 
which the soul proceeds to final emancipation, see A r Mndogya, 
p. 570; KaMa, p. 157. 

r .Sarikara says : ' Having shown that true death is heedlessness, 
and having shown that heedlessness in its forms of anger &c. is the 
cause of all evil, and having also shown that death is destroyed by 
true knowledge, and having shown further that heaven &c. are 
really not man's highest goal ; the author has also implied the 
unity of the supreme and individual self. On that arises a doubt, 
which is stated in this passage.' 

J All this=all the developments of the Brahman, i.e. space, 
wind, fire, water, earth, vegetation, food, living creatures; see 
Tailtiriyopanishad, p. 68. 



has it to do, or what is its unhappiness 1 ? Tell me 
all that accurately, O learned person ! 

Sanatsu^ata said : 
There is great danger 2 in attributing distinctions 
to it. The everlasting 3 (principles) exist by con- 
nexion with the beginningless 4 (principle). So that 
his greatness is not lost at all 5 , and beings exist 
by connexion with the beginningless 4 (principle). 
That which is the real — the supreme Being 5 — is 
eternal. He creates the universe by means of 
changes 7 , for such is his power held to be ; and 
for such connexions of things the Vedas are 
(authority) 8 . 

1 What is the purpose of its existence, and what misery does it 
undergo on entering the course of worldly life? 

2 ' The danger,' says Sahkara, ' is that of contravening Vedic 
texts such as " I am the Brahman/' " Thou art that," &c/ May it 
not rather be that pointed out at Ka/^opanishad, p. 129, viz. never 
attaining final emancipation? Cf. also Nnsiz»ha Tapim, p. 223. 

3 The individual selfs, *Sankara. 4 Nature or maya. 

5 The appearance of degradation to an inferior state being delusive. 

6 The original word implies the possession of aijvarya, dharma, 
ya.ras, sri, vairagya, moksha. See -SVeta^vatara, p. 329 (where the list 
is slightly different). For another definition, see Maitn, p. 6 (gloss). 

7 See note 9, p. 156. 

8 -Sankara says : ' The question of Dhntarash/ra having suggested 
a difference between two principles, one of which constrains, and the 
other of which is constrained, the answer is — Such a difference ought 
not to be alleged, as it involves " danger." Then the question arises, 
How is the difference, which does appear, to be explained ? The reply 
is, It is due to the beginningless principle — delusion or ignorance. 
The next sentence shows that the universe as it appears is also a 
result of delusion.' Nilaka;////a says expressly, change s= delusion. 
He renders the original which we have translated by ' beginningless ' 
first, to mean ' collection of objects of enjoyments.' -Sahkara's 
explanation seems tautological as regards the words 'connexion 
with the beginningless,' which occur twice in the above. Nila- 


1 )h;7tanish/ra saicl : 
Since some practise piety 1 in this world, and some 
likewise practise impiety in this world ; is the piety 
destroyed by the sin, or else does the piety destroy 
sin ? 

Sanatsu <?ata said : 
Whichever 2 he adheres to, the man of under- 
standing always destroys both by means of know- 
ledge; (that is) settled 3 . Likewise, in the other case 4 , 
the embodied (self) obtains merit; and to such a 
one sin (also) accrues ; (that too is) settled :5 . De- 
parting- (from this world), he enjoys by his actions 
both (kinds of) fruit, which are not enduring 5 — of 
actions (which are) pure, and of .(those which are) 
sinful. The man of understanding casts aside sin 
by piety in this (world), for know that his piety is 
more powerful °. Those Brahma^as, in whom there 
is emulation 7 about (their) piety, as there is in 
strong men about (their) strength, after departing 
from this world, become glorious in heaven 8 . And 

ka;/Ma's is not quite clear. May the expression on the second 
occasion mean, that the connexion by which beings are stated 
before to exist has had no beginning — has existed from eternity ? 
The translation should then run thus : 'And beings exist by a con- 
nexion which had no beginning;' (see Sariraka Bhashya, p. 494.) 
Connexions of things = creation of universe by his power. 

1 E. g. Agnish/oma, &c, -Sarikara. 

2 I. e. impiety or piety, sin or merit. 

3 In Srutisand Smntis, which .S'ahkara quotes. AfMndogya, p. 62 2 ; 
MuWaka, p. 309; B/'/hadarawyaka, p. 911. See, too, Maitn, p. 131. 

4 Of the man devoid of knowledge. 

6 Cf. Gita, p. 76, and Brz'hadarawyaka, p. 636. 
,: See p. 164, note 9 infra. 

7 The feeling of one's own superiority over others in piety. 

• In the shape of Nakshatras/ says -Sarikara, which is not quite 
intelligible. See A^andogya, p. 258, and Anugita infra, p. 240. 



to those in whom there is no emulation about 
(their) piety, that (piety) is a means of (acquiring) 
knowledge \ Such Brahma^as released from this 
(world), go to the heaven which is free from the 
threefold source of pain 2 . People who understand 
the Vedas call his conduct good. (But) people 
closely connected 3 , as well as strangers, do not pay 
much regard to him. Wherever he may believe 
food and drink for a Brahma^a to exist in abun- 
dance, like water on grass in the autumn, there 
would he live and not be vexed 4 . (To him) only 
that person is good, and no other (as a companion), 
who does nothing in excess, and who occasions 
fear and injury to a taciturn man 5 . And his food is 
acceptable to the good, who does not vex the self 
of a taciturn man, and who does not destroy the 
property of a Brahma^a 0 . A Brahma;za should 
hold, that living in the midst of kinsmen, his actions 
should be always unknown 7 ; and he should not 

1 According to the Vedantic theory, the acts of piety purify the inner 
man, and are thus a stepping-stone to knowledge. See Introduction, 
p. 147 supra. Cf. Gita, p. 122; and B/Yhadarawyaka, p. 899. 

2 I. e. physical, mental, and such as is caused by superhuman 
agency. This is .Sankara's explanation. It is somewhat far- 
fetched, but I can find none better. Cf. Gila, p. 49. And see also 
Br/hadara;/yaka, p. 876, and the commentary of £ahkara therewith 
Anandagiri's gloss. 

3 E. g. wife, children, &c. 

4 I. e. vexed as to how his livelihood is to be earned, &c. 

5 Excess, e.g. too much obsequiousness towards a 'taciturn 
man,' owing to his holiness, &c. Taciturn man = ascetic. 
I njury = disrespect, &c. Perhaps the protest against worldliness 
is here carried to an extreme. <Sahkara cites Manu as a parallel, 
' A Brahma/za should be afraid of (worldly) respect as of poison.' 

6 E. g. the Kuj-a grass, deerskin, &c, mentioned at Gita, p. 68. 

7 I. e. he should not parade his actions. .Sahkara compares Vasi- 
sh//fo and a Vedic text. See, too, the quotation at Taitt. A raw. p. 902. 



think ' (about them). What Brahma^a ought to 
think of the inner self, which is void of symbols 2 , 
immovable, pure, and free from all pairs of oppo- 
site s in this way 3 ? What sin is not committed by 
that thief, who steals away his own self 4 , who re- 
gards his self as one thing, when it is a different 
thing. The far-seeing Brahma^a, who knows the 
Brahman, is not wearied"', he receives nothing 0 ; he 
is honoured, free from trouble 7 , and wise, but acts 
as if he was not wise 8 . As dogs eat what is 
vomited, so do they, enjoying their own bravery 9 , 
eat what is vomited, always with disaster (to them- 
selves). Those twice-born persons, who are not 

1 Cf. Gita, p. 103. Sankara suggests an alternative explanation 
of this stanza, which will make it mean that one performing the 
operations of the senses, should devote oneself nevertheless to the 
unknown principle, and not consider the senses to be the self. 

2 I.e. beyond the reach of inference ; 'subtle/ says Sarikara. Cf. 
Svetajvatara, p. 364 ; B/Yhadara^yaka, p. 855 ; Maitri, p. 182 ; and 
Ka///a, p. 149, where £ankara suggests a somewhat different 
meaning. As to immovable, cf. If a, p. 10, and Gita, p. 104. Sah- 
kara renders it by 'void of activity;' and pure he paraphrases by 
' free from ignorance and other taints.' 

3 It is difficult to say what 'in this way' refers to. .Sankara 
renders it by ' as possessing qualities appertaining to the two kinds 
of body.' On Sankara's suggested meaning of the stanza pre- 
ceding (see note 1), it would refer to the confusion of the senses 
with the self. 

1 Such a person is called a destroyer of his own self at I^cpani- 
shad, p. 9. 

5 I. e. by the troubles of worldly life. 

6 Cf. 'without belongings' at Gita, p. 128. 

7 Anger and other obstacles to concentration of mind. 

8 I. e. unintelligent. The text of VasishMa referred to in note 7, 
p. 159, says he should act like an unintelligent man. Cf. also 
Gau^apada-karikas, p. 443, and .Sariraka Bhashya, p. 1041. 

0 I.e. singing the praises of their own greatness and worth, 
instead of keeping their ' conduct unknown.' 



first 1 in respect of human wealth, but who are first 
in the Vedas 2 , are unconquerable, not to be shaken 3 ; 
they should be understood to be forms of the Brah- 
man. Whosoever may in this (world) know all the 
gods 4 — doers of favours — he is not equal to a Brah- 
ma;ia, (nor even) he 5 for whom he exerts himself 
The man who makes no efforts G , and is respected, 
does not, being respected, think himself respected 7 , 
nor does he become vexed in consequence of dis- 
respect. One who is respected 8 should think it to 
be a natural operation of people, like their opening 
or closing of the eyelids, that the learned respect 
him in this world. One who is not respected should 
think, that the deluded people who do not under- 
stand piety, and who are devoid of (knowledge of) 
the world and the 6astras, will never respect one 
who is worthy of respect. Respect and taciturnity ?) , 
verily, never dwell together ; for this world is (the 
field) for respect, the next for taciturnity, as is 
understood 10 . For worldly wealth dwells in the 

1 Highly esteemed for or strongly attached to, -Sankara. Human 
wealths wife, offspring, property, &c. Cf. ^7/andogya, p. 319; 
Brz'hadaraz/yaka, p. 262. 

2 I.e. veracity and other duties taught by the Vedas. 

3 ' They need fear nought,' says Nilaka;////a. 

4 I. e. may sacrifice to them, Sankara. 

5 Not even the deity to whom the sacrifice is offered is equal to one 
who knows the Brahman. Cf. Taittinya, p. 23, and Anugita, p. 250. 

6 I. e. one who is 1 taciturn ' and does not parade his greatness. 

7 He does not care for the respect shown him. 

8 Because he knows the Brahman. 

9 I. e. restraint of all senses, not of speech only. For the con- 
trast compare that between jreya and preya at Ka//za, p. 92. 

10 I. e. by all men of understanding. £ankara's rendering is 
different : ' The next, which is known as Tad, is for taciturnity.' 
He cites for this Gita, p. 120. 



sphere of respect 1 , and that, too, is an obstacle' 2 . 
While the Brahmic wealth 8 , 0 Kshatriya! is diffi- 
cult to be attained by any one devoid of knowledge. 
The ways (to it) are stated by the good to be of 
various descriptions, and difficult to reach — truth, 
straightforwardness, modesty 4 , restraint (of senses), 
purity, knowledge, which are the six impediments 
(in the way) of respect and delusion. 

Chapter III. 

Dhr/tarash/ra said : 

Who possesses this taciturnity 5 , and which of the 
two 6 is taciturnity ? Describe, O learned person ! 
the condition of taciturnity here. Does a learned 
man reach taciturnity 7 by taciturnity ? And how, 
O sage ! do they practise taciturnity in this world ? 

1 I.e. they both follow on devotion to worldly life. 

2 I. e. in the way to final emancipation. 

3 The enjoyment of supreme felicity, Brahmananda (*S*ankara) ; 
the greatness consisting of a knowledge of Rik, Ya^us, Saman, 
and the substance of their teaching, which is worthy of a Brahmawa 
(XilakawMa). See, too, Anugita, p. 232. 

4 Modesty = being ashamed of doing wrong ; restraint (of senses) 
omental restraint; and purity is both internal and external, — Safi- 
kara ; knowledge is, of course, knowledge of the Brahman. 

5 I. e. that spoken of in the last chapter. 

6 Viz. mere silence, or the contemplation of the self after re- 
straining all the senses. In the B/7hadara«yaka-upanishad, •S'ankara 
(p. 605) renders the original word, mauna, to mean, 'The fruit of 
the destruction of the consciousness of anything other than the self. 
And his commentator makes it clearer thus : ' The conviction in the 
mind that one is the self — the supreme Brahman — and thar there 
is nothing else existing but oneself.' 

7 I. e. the highest seat — the Brahman ; for mind, sense, &c. are 
all non-existent there. Cf. Ka//za, p. 151, and Maitri, p. 161. 


Sanatsu^ata said : 
Since the Vedas, together with the mind 1 , fail to 
attain to him, hence (is he) taciturnity 2 — he about 
whom the words of the Vedas were uttered 3 , and 
who, O king ! shines forth as consubstantial 1 with 

Dhr/tarash/ra said : 
Does 5 the twice-born person who studies the Rik 
and the Ya^us texts, and the Sama-veda, committing 
sinful (acts), become tainted, or does he not become 
tainted ? 

Sanatsu^ata said : 
Not the Saman texts, nor yet the Rik texts, nor 
the Ya^us texts G save him, O acute sir ! from sinful 

1 Cf. Kenopanishad, p. 39; Ka//za, p. 152 ; Taittinya, p. 119. 

2 ' Taciturnity is his name,' says Nilakaw/fta. 

3 Or, says .Sarikara, ' who is the author of the Vedas.' 

4 I. e. ' with the Vedas,' says Nilaka;///za, Om, the quintessence of 
the Vedas, being a name of the Brahman (as to which cf. Gita, p. 79, 
and Maitri, p. 84). *Sankara takes the whole expression to mean 
^yotirmaya, consisting of light. Nilaka;////a says this stanza answers 
the five following questions put in the stanza preceding, viz. of what 
use is taciturnity? which of the two is taciturnity? &c, as above. 
The first four questions are answered by the first two lines of this 
stanza — the substance of the answer being, that the use of taci- 
turnity is to attain the seat which is not to be grasped even by the 
mind, that taciturnity includes both restraint of mind and of the 
external senses. By means of such restraint, the external and 
internal worlds cease to be perceived as existing, and the highest 
goal is attained. 

5 This question arises naturally enough on Nilaka;////a's inter- 
pretation of the preceding stanza, the meaning of which is in 
substance that the Vedas cannot grasp the Brahman fully, but they 
are of use towards a rudimentary comprehension of it, as is said 
further on, see p. 172 infra. 

6 Cf. Sveta-yvatara-upanishad, p. 339 ; see, too, Nr/siwha Tapini, 
pp. 81-98. 

I ().) 


action. I do not tell you an untruth. The AV^andas 
do not save a sinful deceitful 1 man who behaves 
deceitfully 2 . At the time of the termination (of his 
life), the A^andas abandon 3 him, as birds who have 
got wings (abandon their) nest. 

Dhr/tarash/ra said : 

If, O acute sir! the Vedas are not able to save 
one who understands the Vedas, then whence is this 
eternal talk 1 of the Brahma//as ? 

Sanatsu^'ata said : 

0 you of great glory ! this universe becomes 
manifest through his special forms — names 5 and 
the rest. The Vedas proclaim (his form) after 
describing (it) well °, and (they 7 also) state his 
difference from the universe. For that 8 are this 
penance and sacrifice prescribed. By these a 
learned man acquires merit, and afterwards de- 
stroying sin by merit 9 , he has his self illuminated by 
knowledge. By knowledge the learned man attains 

1 I. e. one who parades his piety. 

2 I. e. hypocritically. 

3 I. e. do not rise to his memory — Nilaka;///^a, citing Gita, 
p. 78 supra. 

4 Scil. about the veneration due to one who has studied the 
Vedas — Nilaka;///za, citing one or two passages in point. 

5 The universe consists of ' names and forms,' the reality being 
the Brahman only. Cf. ^andogya, p. 407 seq. 

6 .S'ahkara refers to Taittinya-upanishad, p. 68 ; X^andogya, 
p. 596 seq. &c. 

7 .S'arikara takes this to mean ' sages,' who, according to him, 
slate the difference. He quotes Parrbara for this. 

8 I. e. the Brahman, that is to say, for attaining to it. Penance = 
X'andraya/za and other observances; sacrifice =£yotish/oma, &c. 

9 Cf. p. 158 supra, and Taittiriya-arawyaka, p. 888. 



the self 1 . But, on the other hand, one who wishes 
for the fruit — heaven 2 — takes with him 8 all that he 
has clone in this (world), enjoys it in the next, and 
then returns to the path 4 (of this world). Penance 
is performed in this world ; the fruit is enjoyed 
elsewhere. But the penance of Brahma was is fur- 
ther developed 5 ; that of others remains only as 
much (as when first performed). 

Dhrztarash/ra said : 
How does the pure penance become developed 
and well developed G ? O Sanatsu^ata ! tell (me) 
how I should understand that, O Lord ! 

Sanatsu^ata said : 
This penance, free from sin 7 , is called pure 8 ; and 
this pure penance becomes developed and well de- 
veloped, not otherwise 9 . All this 10 , O Kshatriya ! 

1 Cf. -SVeta^vatara, p. 327 ; Mu/^/aka, p. 323. 

2 So -Sankara. Nilaka/////a takes the original word to mean 
' the group of the senses/ and the whole phrase to mean ' enjoy- 
ments of sense/ Nilaka;////a is supported by a passage further on, 
p. 167. But as to ' those who wish for heaven/ cf. Gita, pp. 48-84. 

3 I.e. in the form of merit, &c. 
1 Cf. Gita, p. 84. 

5 Cf. .AVzandogya, p. 23. Brahma«as= those that know the 
Brahman. Seep. 171 infra. 

6 I am not quite sure about the meaning of the original here. 
ivVddha, which I have rendered ' developed/ Nilakaw/^a understands 
to mean ' what is performed merely for show.' What has been 
rendered ' well developed ' in the text, Nilaka;////a takes to mean 
'performed from some desire/ &c. 

7 Anger, desire, &c. 

8 The original is kevala. Niiaka;////a says it is so called as 
being a means of kaivalya, 'final emancipation.' 

9 I. e. not that which is not free from sin, which latter is not 
developed at all. 

10 All objects of enjoyment, Nilaka«/^a. 


has for its root that penance about which you 
question me, By penance 1 , those conversant with 
the Vedas attained immortality, after departing 
from this world. 

Dhr/tarash/ra said : 
I have heard about penance free from sin, O 
Sanatsu£*£ta ! Tell me what is the sin (connected) 
with penance, so that I may understand the eternal 
mystery -. 

Sanatsu^ata said : 
The twelve beginning with wrath, and likewise 
the seven cruelties, are the defects (connected) with 
it; and there are (stated) in the 6astras twelve 
merits (connected) with it, beginning with know- 
ledge, which are known to the twice-born, and may 
be developed. Wrath, desire 3 , avarice, delusion 4 , 
craving 5 , mercilessness, censoriousness, vanity, grief 6 , 
attachment 7 , envy 8 , reviling others — these twelve 
should always be avoided by a man of high quali- 

1 Cf. Br/hadaraz/yaka, p. 899. Tapas is variously rendered. See 
inter alia, Pra^na, pp. 162-170; -SYetajvatara, p. 307 ; Mu/z^aka, pp. 
270-280, 311-314; ^Mndogya, p. 136; Anugita, pp. 247, 339. 

2 I. e. Brahma-vidya, or science of the Brahman, Nilakaw/7/a ; 
the Brahman itself, £ahkara. 

3 I. e. lust. 

4 Want of discrimination between right and wrong. 

5 Desire to taste worldly objects. 

6 For the loss of anything desired. 

7 Desire to enjoy worldly objects. The difference between this 
and craving, according to *Sahkara, appears to be between merely 
tasting and continual enjoyment. According to Nilaka;///^a, the 
former is a desire which is never contented ; the latter is merely 
a general liking. 

8 Impatience of other people's prosperity ; censoriousness being 
the pointing out of flaws in other people's merits; and reviling 
being an ignoring of the merits and merely abusing. 



fications These, O king of kings ! attend each 
and every man, wishing to find some opening 2 , 
as a hunter (watches) animals. [Boastful, lustful, 
haughty, irascible, unsteady 3 , one who does not 
protect (those dependent 4 on him), these six sinful 
acts are performed by sinful men who are not afraid 
(even) in the midst of great danger 5 .] One whose 
thoughts are (all) about enjoyments, who prospers 
by injuring (others), who repents of generosity, who 
is miserly, who is devoid of the power G (of know- 
ledge), who esteems the group 7 (of the senses), 
who hates his wife 8 — these seven, different (from 
those previously mentioned), are the seven forms 
of cruelty. Knowledge, truth, self-restraint, sacred 
learning, freedom from animosity (towards living 
beings), modesty 9 , endurance 10 , freedom from cen- 
soriousness, sacrifice, gift, courage n , quiescence 12 , — 
these are the twelve great observances 13 of a Brah- 
ma//a. Whoever is not devoid of these twelve 
can govern this whole world, and those who are 

1 Scil. for attaining to the Brahman. 

2 Some weak point by which they may attack a man. 

3 Fickle in friendship, &c. 

4 Such as a wife, &c. 

5 Connected with this or the next world, Nilaka;///#a. This and 
a stanza further on I place within brackets, as it is not quite certain 
whether ^ahkara's copy had them, though they are now in some 
of our copies of the text with his commentary. See Introduction. 

G Cf. Mu»</aka, p. 319; A7/andogya, p. 494. 

7 See note 2, at page 165. 

8 The wife having no other protector. 

9 See note 4, at page 162. 

10 Of pairs of opposites, such as heat and cold, &c. 

11 Restraint of senses in presence of their objects. 

12 Cf. Gita, pp. 69, 70. 

13 Which are serviceable in attaining the highest goal. 



possessed oi three, two, or even one (of these) be- 
come, in (due) course, distinguished (for knowledge) 
and identified with the Brahman '. [Self-restraint, 
abandonment 3 , and freedom from heedlessness — on 
these depends immortality. And the talented Brah- 
ma#as say that truth is chief over them.] Self- 
restraint has eighteen defects ; if (any one of them 
is, committed, it is an obstacle (to self-restraint). 
They are thus stated. Untruthfulness, backbiting, 
thirst", antipathy (to all beings), darkness 4 , repin-' 
ing 5 , hatred 0 of people, haughtiness, quarrelsome- 
ness, injuring living creatures, reviling others, gar- 
rulity, vexation 7 , want of endurance 8 , want of 
courage 9 , imperfection 10 , sinful conduct, and slaugh- 
ter. That is called self-restraint by the good, which 
is free from these defects. Frenzy has eighteen 
defects 11 ; and abandonment is of six kinds. The 
contraries of those which have been laid down 12 are 
stated to be the defects of frenzy. Abandonment 
of six kinds is excellent. Of those six, the third 
is hard to achieve. With it one certainly crosses 

1 The original is the word 1 taciturnity ' as at p. 162 supra. 

2 Offering one's acts to God (Nilaka7/Ma), as to which cf. Gita, 
p. 64. See also p. 182 infra for this stanza. 

3 I. e. for objects of sense. 4 Ignorance. 

5 Discontent even when one obtains much. 

6 This*is active; antipathy is passive only. 

7 Of oneself, by brooding on evil. Cf. Taittinya, p. 119. One 
copy of 6'arikara's commentary says this means ' thinking ill of 
others without cause.' 

8 Of. pairs of opposiles. 

u Restraint of senses in presence of their objects. 

10 I. e. of piety, knowledge, and indifference to worldly objects. 

11 I. e. qualities which destroy it. 

12 Scil. as defects of self-restraint, viz. untruthfulness, &c. 



beyond all misery without distinction 1 . That being 
achieved, (everything) is accomplished 2 . The (first 
is the) giving away of sons and wealth to a de- 
serving man who asks (for them) ; the second is 
gifts at Vedic ceremonies, and gifts at ceremonies 
laid down in the Smrztis 3 . The abandonment of 
desires, O king of kings ! by means of indifference 
(to worldly objects) is laid down as the third 4 . 
With these one should become free from heed- 
lessness. That freedom from heedlessness, too, has 
eight characteristics, and is (a) great (merit). Truth- 
fulness, concentration, absorbed contemplation, re- 
flexion 5 , and also indifference (to worldly objects), 
not stealing G , living the life of a Brahma^arin, and 

1 Scil. any distinction as to physical, mental, or that which is 
caused by superhuman agency. 

2 Literally, ' all is conquered.' Everything that needs to be 
done is done. Cf. Ka//zopanishad 5 p. 155; Muz/r/aka, p. 317. 

d Another interpretation of ish/apurta is ' offerings to gods, and 
offerings to the manes;' a third 'sacrifices, &c, and works of 
charity, such as digging tanks and wells • ' for a fourth, see -Sankara 
on Mu/zdaka, p. 291. 

4 Each of the three classes mentioned contains two sub-classes, 
and so the six are made up. It is not quite easy to see the two 
heads under the third class ; but perhaps indifference, and the 
consequent abandonment of desire, may be the two intended. To 
indicate that, I have adopted the construction which takes the 
words ' by means of indifference ' with abandonment, instead of 
with * gifts at Vedic ceremonies/ &c. -Sahkara seems to understand 
' giving away of wealth ' with the words ' by means of indifference/ 
and thus to constitute the second head under the third class. But 
he is not quite clear. 

6 Concentration = fixing the mind continuously on some object, 
such as the being in the sun, &c. ; contemplation is that in which 
one identifies oneself with the Brahman ; reflexion as to what one 
is, whence one comes, and so forth. 

c *Sankara says this may refer to the ' stealing ' mentioned at 
p. 1 Co. The life of a Brahma£&rin is here taken to mean con- 


likewise freedom from all belongings 1 . Thus have 
the defects of self-restraint been stated; one should 
avoid those defects. Freedom from (those) defects 
is freedom from heedlessness; and that, too, is 
deemed to have eight characteristics 2 . Let truth 
be your (very) self, O king of kings! On truth all 
the worlds rest ;i . Truth is said to be their main 
(principle). Immortality depends on truth 4 . Get- 
ting rid of (these) defects, one should practise the 
observance of penance. This is the conduct pre-' 
scribed by the Creator. Truth is the solemn vow 
of the good. The pure penance, which is free from 
these defects, and possessed of these characteristics, 
becomes developed, and well developed 5 . I will 
state to you, in brief, O king of kings ! what you 
ask of me. This (observance) G is destructive of sin, 
and pure, and releases (one) from birth and death and 
old age 7 . If one is free from the five senses, and also 
from the mind 8 , O descendant of Bharata ! also from 
(thoughts regarding) the past and the future 9 , one 
becomes happy. 

Dhrztarash/ra said : 
Some people make great boasts in consequence 
of (their knowing) the Vedas with the Akhyanas as 

tinence by the commentators, as also at Muw/aka, p. 311 inter alia. 
See also .Oandogya, p. 533. 

1 Son, wife, home, &c. ; as to which cf. Gita, p. 103, and 
Nrisimha, Tapini, p. 198, commentary. 

2 The eight mentioned already. :i Cf. Taitt. Araw. p. 885. 

4 Cf. Mu/zdaka, p. 312; 6anti Parvan (Moksha), chap. 199, 
st. 64 seq. Immortality = final emancipation. 

5 P. 165 supra. c Of penance, that is to say. 

7 Cf. Gita, p. 109 for the collocation. 

8 Ka/^opanishad, p. 151; Maitri, p. 161. -Sahkara seems to take 
the five and the senses separately : the five meaning the five classes of 
sensuous objects. 9 Past losses and future gains, NtlakawMa. 



the fifth 1 ; others, likewise, are (masters) of four 
Vedas ; others, too, of three Vedas ; others are 
(masters) of two Vedas, and of one Veda ; and 
others of no Veda 2 . Tell me which of these is the 
greatest, whom I may know (to be) a Brahma/za. 

Sanatsu^ata said : 
Through ignorance of the one Veda 3 — the one 
truth — O king of kings ! numerous Vedas came into 
existence. Some 4 only adhere to the truth. The 
fancies of those who have fallen away from the truth 
are abortive, and through ignorance of the truth, 
ceremonies become amplified 5 . One should under- 
stand a Brahma;/a, who (merely) reads much, to be 
a man of many words 6 . Know him only to be the 
(true) Brahma^a, who swerves not from the truth 7 . 
O you who are the highest among men 8 ! the 
A^andas, indeed, refer of themselves 9 to it. There- 

1 Cf., as to this, Max Miiller's Ancient Sanskrit Literature, 
p. 38 seq. ; and -Oandogya, pp. 164, 474, 493; Brz'hadara^yaka, 
pp. 456, 687, 926; Maitri, p. 171 ; Nr/siwha Tapim, p. 105. 

2 The original is 'void of Rife.' The commentators give no 
explanation. Does it mean those who abandon the karma-marga ? 
Heretics who reject all Vedas are scarcely likely to be referred to in 
this way. Nilaka«/^a's interpretation of all this is very different. 
See his gloss. 

3 -Sahkara gives various interpretations of this. Perhaps the 
best is to take it as meaning knowledge. ' The one knowledge — 
the one truth' — would then be like the famous text — Taittiriya, 
p. 56 — ' The Brahman is truth, knowledge/ &c. 

4 For this phrase cf. Gita, p. 73. 

0 Those who do not understand the Brahman lose their natural 
power of obtaining what they wish, and so go in for various 
ceremonies for various special benefits. Cf. A^andogya, p. 541 ; 
Gila, p. 47 ; and p. 184 infra. 

0 Cf. Br/hadara«yaka, p. 893. 7 Ibid. p. 636. 

8 Literally, ' highest among bipeds,' a rather unusual expression. 

9 Nilaka«///a says ; 'The part of the Vedas which teaches the 
[8] M 



fore, studying them, the learned persons who Under- 
stand the AV/aiulas, attain to the Veda, not that 
which is to be known 1 . Among the Vedas, there 
is none which understands '-. By the unintelligent 3 , 
one understands not the Veda, nor the object of 
knowledge *. He who knows the Veda knows the 
object of knowledge. He who knows the object of 
knowledge 5 knows not the truth. He who under- 
stands the Vedas understands also the object of 
knowledge; but that 6 is not understood by the Vedas 
or by those who understand the Vedas. Still the 
Brahma;zas who understand the Vedas, understand 
the Veda by means of the Vedas 7 . As the branch 
of a tree with regard to the part of a portion of the 
glorious 8 one, so, they declare, are the Vedas with 

knowledge of the supreme is enough by itself for its purpose ; 
it is not like the part about rites, &c, which rites must be per- 
formed before they serve any useful purpose/ The Cr^anakanda 
is enough by itself for understanding the Brahman. Sahkara 
compares Gita, p. 113, and Ka//$a, p. 102. 

1 The Veda=the Brahman, as above, cf. .SVetajvatara, p. 372 
and commentary; that which is to be known = the material world, 
which is a subject for human knowledge. 

2 Scil. understands the Veda — the Brahman. 

3 ' The mind,' says Nilaka^Ma ; literally, 4 that which is to be 

4 Because a real knowledge of it requires a knowledge of the 
Brahman. As to the next clause cf. inter alia A'Mndogya, p. 384 ; 
Br/hadara/zyaka, p. 450. 

5 This is the converse of the last sentence, as to which cf. 
Br/nadara^yaka, p. 925. 

6 The supreme. 

7 The apparent contradiction is explained in the next sentence. 

8 I. e. the moon. This refers to the well-known jakha/fondra- 
nyaya. As the small digit of the moon, which cannot be perceived 
by itself, is pointed out as being at the tip of a branch of a tree 
pointing towards the moon, so the Vedas are of use as pointing 
towards the Brahman, though inaccurately and imperfectly. 



regard to the subject of understanding the supreme 
self. I understand him to be a Brahma/^a who is 
ingenious, and explains 1 (Vedic texts). He who 
apprehends (those texts) thus 2 , does verily know 
that supreme (principle). One should not go in 
search of it among (things) antagonistic 3 to it at all. 
Not looking (for him there) one sees that Lord by 
means of the Veda 4 . Remaining quiet, one should 
practise devotion, and should not even form a wish 
in the mind 5 . To him the Brahman presents 0 
itself, and directly afterwards he attains to the 
perfect 7 (one). By taciturnity 8 , verily, does one 
become a sage ; (one does) not (become) a sage by 
dwelling in a forest 9 . And he is called the highest 
sage, who understands that indestructible (principle). 
One is called an analyser 10 (also) in consequence of 

1 Scil. in the manner just indicated. 

2 As giving an idea of the Brahman. The first step to a 
knowledge of the Brahman is to ' hear ' about it from Vedic texts. 
Cf. Br/hadara^yaka, p. 925. 

3 Such as the body, the senses, &c, which must be distinguished 
as quite distinct from the self, though most often confounded 
with it. 

4 Such passages, namely, as 'Thou art that, I am the Brahman,'&c. 

5 About the objects of the senses. 
G Cf. KaMa, p. 155. 

7 Cf. -Oandogya, p. 516. The Bhuman there is the same as 
the Bahu here, viz. the Brahman. £ahkara says expressly in his 
comment on the Upanishad text, that Bahu and Bhuman, among 
other words, are synonyms. 

8 Self-restraint, as explained before at p. 163. 

8 Though this is not unimportant, as may be seen from the 
contrast between town and forest at A7/andogya, p. 340. See also 
Maitri, p. 100; Mu/^aka, p. 240. As to the 'highest sage,' see 
Br/hadara?/yaka, p. 899, where the passage about 'sacrifice, gift, 
penance' should be compared with Gita, p. 122. 

10 The construction in the original is not quite clear. I under- 
stand the sense to be as follows : In the science of the soul, the 

M 2 



analysing all objects. The analysis (is) from that 
as the root ; and as he makes (such an) analysis, 
hence is he so (called). The man who sees the 
\vorkls directly sees everything 1 . A Brahma^a, 
verily, adhering to the truth, understands it, and 
becomes omniscient. I say to you, O learned man ! 
that adhering to knowledge and the rest 2 in this 
way, one sees the Brahman, O Kshatriya ! by means 
of a course (of study) in the Vedas 3 . 

Chapter IV. 

Dhrztarash/ra said : 

0 Sanatsu^ata! since you have spoken these 
words of highest significance, relating to the Brah- 
man, and of numerous forms 4 , give me that advice 
which is excellent, and difficult to obtain in the 

analyser (the word is the same as the word for grammarian) is he 
who analyses objects, not words merely. Now the true analysis 
of objects reduces them all to the Brahman (cf. ^andogya, p. 407; 
Br/hadarawyaka, p. 152) ; and the sage understands this, and makes 
the analysis accordingly, so he is rightly called an analyser. 

1 This again is not clear, and the discrepancies of the MSS. 
make it more perplexing. The meaning, I take to be, that a man 
may perceive all material things, such as the worlds, Bhur, &c. 
(as the commentators put it), but to be really omniscient, you must 
have knowledge of the truth — the Brahman. See Sabha Parvan, 
chapter V, stanza 7. And see, too, Br/hadarawyaka, p. 613. 

2 P. 167 supra. 

3 k Hearing the Vedantas — Upanishads,' &c, says »Sahkara. See 
note 2 supra, p. 173. 

4 Does this mean referring to many aspects of the Brahman ? 
S'ankara merely says nanarupa. Nilakaw/^a takes it differently, 
and as meaning that in which everything is elucidated; 'relating 
to the Brahman ' NilakawMa takes to mean ' leading to the Brah- 
man,' or ' instrument for attaining to the Brahman.' 



midst of these created objects T . Such is my request, 
O youth ! 

Sanatsu£*ata said : 
This Brahman, O king ! about which you question 
me with such perseverance, is not to be attained by 
anybody who is in a hurry. When the mind is 
absorbed in the understanding 2 , then can that know- 
ledge, which must be deeply pondered over, be 
attained by living the life of a Brahma/£arin 3 . For 
you are speaking of that primordial knowledge 4 , 
which consists in the truth ; which is obtained by 
the good by living the life of Brahma^arins 5 ; which 
being obtained, men cast off this mortal world ; and 
which knowledge, verily, is to be invariably (found) 
in those who have been brought up under pre- 
ceptors G . 

Dhrztarash/ra said : 
Since that knowledge is capable of being truly 
acquired by living the life of a Brahma/£arin, there- 
fore tell me, O Brahma/za! of what description the 
life of a BrahmaZ'arin is 7 . 

Sanatsu^ata said : 
Those who entering (as it were) the womb 8 of a 

1 In this material world, the highest knowledge is not to be got. 
Cf. Ka//*a, p. 96. 

2 I. e. withdrawn from objects and fixed on the self only. Cf. 
Gita, p. 79, and Maitri, p. 179, where, however, we have hri'd for 

3 Viro/£ana and India do so according to the A7/andogya, p. 570. 
See also Mundaka, p. 311. 

4 The object of which is the primal Brahman. 

5 Cf. A7mndogya, p. 534; and Gita, pp. 78, 79, and the passage 
from the KaMa there cited. 

6 ^andogya, pp. 264-459. 7 See A7/andogya, p. 553 seq. 
8 I. e. attending closely upon him ; foetus = pupil. 

1 7 6 


preceptor, and becoming (as it were) a foetus, prac- 
tise the life of Brahma^&rins, become even in this 
world authors of ^Sastras \ and they repair to the 
highest truth 2 after casting off (this) body. They 
subjugate desires here in this world, practising for- 
bearance in pursuit of the Brahmic state 3 ; and with 
courage, they even here remove the self out of the 
body *, like the soft fibres from the Mu/^a. Father 
and mother, O descendant of Bharata ! only form 
the body. But the birth 5 obtained from the pre- 
ceptor, that verily is true 0 , and likewise immortal. 
He perfects 7 (one), giving (one) immortality. Re- 
cognising what he has done (for one), one should 
not injure him. The disciple should always make 
obeisance to the preceptor 8 ; and, free from heedless- 
ness, should always desire sacred instruction. When 
the pure man obtains knowledge by this same 
course of discipleship 9 , that is the first quarter of 
his life as a Brahma/£arin. As (is) his conduct 

1 Learned, men of knowledge, iSankara. 

2 The supreme, which is described as ' truth, knowledge,' &c. 
In our ancient works the truth often means the real. 

3 The state of being absorbed in the Brahman. Cf. Gita, p. 52. 
" Cf. KaMa, p. 158. 

5 *Sarikara cites Apastamba (p. n) in support of this, and Pra^na- 
upanishad. p. 256. The consciousness of being one with the 
Brahman is a new birth. See, too, Muw^aka, p. 282. 

f > That birth is not merely delusive, and does not result in death. 

7 Immortality or final emancipation is not to be achieved without 
knowledge, which can only be got from a preceptor. And one is 
not perfect without that immortality ; one is limited by the con- 
ditions of human existence. See Nirukta (Roth's ed.), p. 41. 

8 .S'ankara compares *SVeta.yvatara, p. 374; see also p. 203 infra. 
The necessity of having a Guru is often insisted on even in the 
Upanishads. Cf. Mu^aka, p. 282; JOandogya, p. 264. 

9 Stated at the beginning of this speech. -S'ankara. 



always towards his preceptor, so likewise should he 
behave towards the preceptor s wife, and so likewise 
should he act towards the preceptor's son — (that) is 
said to be the second quarter. What one, recog- 
nising what the preceptor has done for one, and 
understanding the matter 1 (taught), feels with a 
delighted heart regarding the preceptor — believing 
that one has been brought into existence 2 by him — 
that is the third quarter of life as a Brahma^arin. 
One should do what is agreeable to the preceptor, 
by means of one's life and riches, and in deed, 
thought, and word 3 — that is said to be the fourth 
quarter. (A disciple) obtains a quarter by time 4 , 
so likewise a quarter by associating with the pre- 
ceptor, he also obtains a quarter by means of his 
own energy ; and then he attains to a quarter by 
means of the .Sastras. The life as a BrahmaMrin 
of that man, whose beauty 5 consists in the twelve 
beginning with knowledge, and whose limbs are 
the other (qualifications mentioned), and who has 

1 The meaning of the Vedic texts, &c., *Sankara in one copy ; 
the highest aim of man, according to another copy. 

2 See note 5 on p. 176. 

3 I keep the order of the original, though I do not translate 
quite literally ; ' thought and word ' should be literally ' mind and 
speech.' See, on the collocation, Gita, p. 123 inter alia. 

4 Time = maturity of understanding which comes by time; 
energy = intellectual power; Sastras = consultation about .Sastras 
with fellow-students — Sarikara, who adds that the order is not 
material as stated, and quotes a stanza which may be thus ren- 
dered, 1 The pupil receives a quarter from the preceptor, a 
quarter by his own talent ; he receives a quarter by time ; and 
a quarter through fellow-BrahmaX'arins. 

5 The body being disregarded, these qualities are attributed to 
the self in this way. For the twelve, see p. 167; the others are 
abandonment, truthfulness, &c, p. 169. 



strength ', bears fruit, they say, by association with 
a preceptor, in (the shape of) contact with that entity 
— the Brahman. Whatever wealth may come to a 
man who lives in this way, he should even pay that 
over to the preceptor. He would thus be adopting 
the conduct of the good which is of many merits ; 
and the same conduct is (to be adopted) towards the 
preceptors son. Living thus, he prospers greatly 2 
on all sides in this world ; he obtains sons and 
position ; the quarters 3 and sub-quarters shower 
(benefits 4 ) on him, and men pass their lives as 
Brahma>§arins under him. By this life as a Brah- 
ma/arin, the divinities obtained their divinity. And 
the sages, too, became great by living the life of 
BrahmaZ'arins. By this same (means), too, the Apsa- 
rasas, together with the Gandharvas, achieved for 
themselves beautiful forms. And by this life as a 
Brahma/'arin, the sun illuminates (the universe). 
That man of knowledge, O king ! who practising 
penance, may by penance pierce through or tear off 
his body, crosses beyond childhood 5 by means of this 
(life as a Brahma/£arin), and at the time of the 
termination (of life) overcomes death G . Those who 
understand this (life as a Brahma/'arin) attain to a 

1 To observe the duties referred to, -Sankara. But see, too, p. 167, 
note 6. 

2 ' Obtains wealth, learning, and greatness/ says a commentator. 
For similar benefits, cf. A'Mndogya, p. 122. 

3 Cf. A'Mndogya, p. 132. 

4 ' Wealth,' says Nilaka;///$a, as well as another commentator. 

5 Ignorance; cf. note 7 at p. 154 supra. Nilaka;z/^a reads 
' reaches ' instead of ' crosses beyond/ and interprets ' balya ' to 
mean 'freedom from affection, aversion/ &c. Cf. Brzhadp^zyaka, 
p. 605. As to the divinity of divinities, cf. Taitt. Araw. p. 886. 

r Xilaka;/Ma reads ' vanquishes death.' The meaning is, he 
reaches final emancipation. Cf. p. 154 supra. 



condition like that of those who ask (for what they 
want) from the wish-granting stone \ when they 
obtain the thing desired. By performing action, 
O Kshatriya ! people conquer (for themselves only) 
perishable worlds 2 . (But) the man of understanding 
attains by knowledge to the everlasting glory — for 
there is no other way to it 3 . 

Dhrztarash/ra said : 
Where a Brahma^a possessed of knowledge, per- 
ceives it, does it appear as white 4 , as red, or again 
as black, or again as grey or tawny ? What is the 
colour of that immortal, indestructible goal ? 

Sanatsu^ata said : 
It appears not as white, as red, nor again as black, 
nor again as grey, nor tawny 5 . It dwells not on 
earth, nor in the sky ; nor does it bear a body in 
this ocean 6 (-like world). It is not in the stars, nor 
does it dwell in the lightning ; nor is its form 7 to be 
seen in the clouds, nor even in the air, nor in the 
deities ; it is not to be seen in the moon, nor in the 
sun. It is not to be seen in Rik texts, nor in 

1 Called Aintama;/i. The effect of Brahma/'arya is that those 
who practise it can get what they desire. 

2 Cf. Gita, p. 76; A^andogya, p. 538; Muz/^aka, p. 279. 

3 Cf. .SVetawatara, p. 327. 4 Cf. Bnhadarawyaka, p. 877. 

5 Cf. Ka//«a, p. 119 ; and Mu/z</aka, p. 267. As to its not dwell- 
ing in earth, sky, &c, Sankara refers to A7mndogya, p. 518, as 
implying that. 

6 Literally, 'it bears no water in the ocean.' 'Water' is said by 
the commentators to mean the five elements of which the body is 
composed. See Manu I, 5, and A7/dndogya, p. 330. In the SVeta- 
jvatara it signifies mind (see p. 388). For ocean meaning world, or 
sa;«sara; cf. Aitareya-upanishad, p. 182. 

7 Here I do not render rupa by colour, as before. 


\ .i ;iis texts ; nor yet in the Atharvan texts, nor in 
the pure 4 Saman texts; nor yet, O king, in the 
Rathantara or B^'hadratha 1 hymns. It is seen in 
tin- self of a man of high vows 2 . It is invincible, 
beyond darkness 3 , it comes forth from within 4 at 
the time of destruction. Its form is more minute 
tli an the most minute (things), its form is larger even 
than the mountains 5 . That is the support 6 (of the 
universe); that is immortal; (that is) all things 
perceptible 7 . That is the Brahman, that is glory V 
From that all entities were produced 9 , in that they 
are dissolved. All this shines forth as dwelling in it 
in the form of light 10 . And it is perceived by means 
of knowledge 11 by one who understands the self; 
on it depends this whole universe. Those who 
understand this become immortal. 

1 See Muir, Sanskrit Texts, vol. i, p. 16; TaWya-brahmawa, 
p. 838 ; Gita, p. 90; and Kaushitaki, p. 21. B/7'hadratha=Brihat- 
saman (?). 

2 The twelve great vows — knowledge, &c, mentioned above, 
see p. 167. Nilaka;///za takes Mahavrata to refer to the sacrifice 
of that name. It is described in the Aitareya Arawyaka. 

3 See Gita, p. 78, note 4. 

4 Cf. Gita, p. 82, and Lropanishad, p. 12. 

5 See Gita, p. 78, note 3. 

(i Cf. Gita, p. 113; KaMa, p. 99. 

7 So Nilaka////za. The original word ordinarily means ' worlds.' 

8 Cf. ^vetaj-vatara, p. 347. 

9 Cf. the famous passage in the Taittiriya, p. 123: and also 
MuWaka, p. 289. 

10 The explanations of the commentators are not quite clear 
as to the word ahna, ' in the form of light.' Probably the meaning 
is : The universe depends on the Brahman, and is, as it were, the 
light of the Brahman. -Sahkara compares the passages referred to 
at Gita, p. 112, note 1. 

11 ' Not by means of action,' says ^arikara. 



Chapter V 1 . 

Grief and wrath, and avarice, desire, delusion, 
laziness, want of forgiveness, vanity, craving, friend- 
ship 2 , censoriousness, and reviling others — these 
twelve great enormities are destructive of a man's 
life. These, O king of kings ! attend on each and 
every man. Beset by these, a man, deluded in his 
understanding, acts sinfully. A man full of at- 
tachments, merciless, harsh (of speech), talkative, 
cherishing wrath in his heart, and boastful — these 
are the men of cruel qualities ; (such) persons, even 
obtaining wealth, do not always enjoy (it) 3 . One 

1 The whole of this chapter is wanting in one of our copies 
of Sahkara's commentary. In the copy published in the Maha- 
bharata (Madras edition) there is, however, this passage : ' Wrath 
&c. have been already explained, still there are some differences 
here and there, and those only are now explained.' The chapter 
is for the most part a repetition of what we have already had. 
For such repetitions cf. B/7*hadara/jyaka, pp. 317-1016 ; 444-930. 
The same copy of Sahkara's commentary gives this general state- 
ment of the object of this and the next chapter : ' The course of study 
of the science of the Brahman, in which knowledge is the principal 
thing, and concentration of mind &c. are subsidiary, has been 
described. Now is described the course of study in which 
concentration of mind is principal, and knowledge subsidiary. 
The first mode consists in understanding the meaning of the 
word "you" by means of concentration of mind, and then identify- 
ing it with the Brahman by means of a study of the Upanishads ; 
the second, in first intellectually understanding the identity of the 
individual self and Brahman, by such study of the Upanishads, 
and then realising the identity to consciousness by con- 
templation, &c. In both modes the fruit is the same, and the 
means are the same ; and to show this, the merits and defects 
already stated are here again declared.' This explanation is 
verbatim the same in Nilaka;///za's commentary. 

2 The original is ' pity,' which is explained to mean ' friend- 
ship ' by .Sahkara and Nilaka;////a. 

3 ' Owing to there being in it no enjoyment for the self,' says one 


whose thoughts arc fixed on enjoyments, who is 
partial', proud 2 , boastful when he makes a gift, 
miserly, and devoid of power 11 , who esteems the 
group (of the senses), and who hates (his) wife — 
thus have been stated the seven (classes of) cruel 
persons of sinful dispositions. Piety, and truthful- 
ness, and penance, and self-restraint, freedom from 
animosity, modesty, endurance, freedom from cen- 
soriousness, liberality, sacred learning, courage, for- 
giveness — these are fhe twelve great observances of 
a Brahma;/a. Whoever does not swerve from these 
twelve may govern this whole world. And one who 
is possessed of three, two, or even one, of these, 
must be understood to have nothing of his own 4 . 
Self-restraint, abandonment, freedom from delusion, 
on these immortality depends 5 . These are possessed 
by those talented Brahma/zas to whom the Brahman 
is the principal 6 (thing). A Brahma^a's speaking ill 
of others, whether true or false, is not commended. 

copy of £ankara's commentary. Another reading, which is in the 
Madras edition and in Nilaka////?a, may be rendered, ' even obtaining 
benefits, they do not respect one (from whom they obtain them).' 

1 The commentary says the meaning is the same as that of the 
expression used in the corresponding place before, viz. one who 
prospers by injuring others. 

2 One copy of .Sarikara's commentary takes this to mean one 
who thinks the not-self to be the self. I adopt the other meaning, 
however, as agreeing with that of atimani, which is the reading 
of some copies instead of abhimani. 

Xilaka«//za reads durbala and does not explain it. See p. 167. 

4 One commentator says this means that he should not be 
supposed to have incurred the demerit of having any attachment 
to this world. NilakawMa says, he gives up everything in the pursuit 
of even one of these observances. 5 See p. :68. 

6 I. e. the goal to be reached. The commentary takes Brahman 
to mean the Vedas, and the whole phrase to mean those who devote 
themselves to the performance of actions stated in the Vedas. 



The men who act thus have their places in hell. 
Frenzy has eighteen defects — as already described 
here — hatred of men, factiousness l , censoriousness, 
untruthful speech, lust, wrath, want of self-control 2 , 
speaking ill of others, backbiting, mismanagement 
in business 3 , quarrelsomeness, animosity, troubling 
living creatures, want of forgiveness, delusion, flip- 
pancy, loss of reason 4 , censoriousness 5 ; therefore 
a wise man should not be subject to frenzy, for it 
is always censured. Six characteristics should be 
understood as (belonging) to friendship — that one 
should rejoice at (anything) agreeable : and feel 
grieved at (anything) disagreeable ; that with a 
pure heart one, when asked by a deserving (man), 
should give to him who asks what can 6 certainly 
be given, (though it) may be beneficial to oneself, 
and even though it ought not to be asked, (namely) 
one's favourites, sons, wealth, and one's own wife ; 
that one should not dwell there where one has be- 
stowed (all one's) wealth, through a desire (to get 
a return for one's liberality) ; that one should enjoy 

1 One copy of .Sahkara's commentary says this means ' obstruct- 
ing other people's acts of piety/ &c. 

2 One copy of Sahkara's commentary says this means 1 being 
given up to intoxicating drinks/ &c. ; another copy says, ' doing 
another's bidding without thought.' 

3 One copy says this means 'inattention to any work undertaken;' 
another renders the original by ' destruction of property, i.e. squan- 
dering it on dancers,' &c. 

4 I.e. discrimination between right and wrong. 

5 This seems to be some error, for ' censoriousness ' has occurred 
before. But neither the texts nor the commentaries give any help 
to correct the error. Perhaps the latter is to be distinguished as 
referring to the habit, and the former only to sporadic acts, of 
censoriousness. These qualities, I presume, constitute frenzy ; they 
are not the ' defects.' 

6 I. e. where the power to give exists. 

[8 4 


(the fruit of one's 1 own) toils (only) ; and that one 
should forego one's own profit 2 . Such a man, pos- 
sessed of wealth, and possessed of merits, is a liberal 
man of the quality of goodness 3 ; such a one diverts 
the five elements from the five 4 (senses). This 5 
pure penance, acquired out of desire 0 by those who 
are fallen off from the truth, even though developed, 
leads upwards 7 ; since sacrifices are performed 
owing to a misapprehension of the truth 8 . (The 

1 Not a friend's. 2 For a friend. 3 See Gita, p. 120. 

4 The commentators take this to mean objects of sense, and 
they interpret 'elements' before to mean senses. 

b 1 Viz. the turning away of the senses from their objects,' says 
one copy of -Sahkara. 

c Scil. to enjoy the higher enjoyments of superior worlds. 

7 I. e. to the higher worlds ; it does not lead to emancipation here. 

s Cf. Mu;/(/aka, p. 277. I must own that I do not quite under- 
stand this passage, nor its explanation as given in the commentaries. 
I do not quite see what the penance here mentioned has to do 
with sacrifice, and yet the commentators seem to take the words 
k since sacrifices,' &c, with what precedes them, not with what 
follows. Taking them, however, with what follows, it is difficult to 
explain the word ' since.' As far as I can understand the passage 
I take the sense of it to be as follows : The author having said that 
penance performed out of a particular motive does not lead to 
final emancipation, he then proceeds to point out that all * action ' 
or ' sacrifice ' is due to an imperfect understanding of the truth (cf. 
p. 171 supra), being mostly due to some particular motive. Then 
he goes on to show the different classes of sacrifice, and finally 
] joints out that he who is free from desires is superior to one who 
is actuated by desires. The original for ' misapprehension ' is ava- 
bodha, which commonly means ' apprehension/ but Sankara finally 
makes it mean moha or 'delusion.' The original for truth is rendered 
by NflakawMa to mean 'fancies.' Nilaka#//za says that the sacrifice 
by the mind is the highest ; that by speech, viz. Brahmaya^v/a, 
Gapa, &c, is middling ; and that by deed, viz. with clarified butter 
and other offerings, of the lowest class. 'Perfected by fancies ' = 
one whose fancies are always fulfilled 'through a knowledge/ 
says Nilakaw/^a, ' of the Brahma as possessing qualities.' 

CHAPTER V, 2 1. 


sacrifices) of some are by the mind, of others by 
speech, and also by deed. The man void of fancies 
takes precedence over the man perfected by fancies, 
— especially among Brahma;^as \ And hear this 
further from me. One should teach this great and 
glorious 2 (doctrine) ; (other doctrines) the wise call 
mere arrangements of words. On this concentration 
of mind 3 , all this 4 depends. Those who know this 
become immortal. Not by meritorious action only, 
O king! does man conquer the truth 5 . One may 
offer offerings, or sacrifice. By that the child(-like 
man) does not cross beyond death ; nor, O king ! 
does he obtain happiness in his last moments 6 . One 
should practise devotion quietly, and should not be 
active even in mind 7 ; and then one should avoid 
delight and wrath (resulting) from praise and cen- 
sure 8 . I say to you, O learned person ! that 
adhering to this 9 , one attains the Brahman and 
perceives it, O Kshatriya ! by a course (of study) 
of the Vedas. 

1 This also is far from clear. Should it be, 1 and a Brahmawa 
more especially ? ' This might be taken as referring to one who 
knows the Brahman as devoid of qualities, as Nilakaw/^a does take 
it. But his construction is not quite clear. 

2 As serviceable in attaining to ' the glory/ the Brahman ; see p. 1 80. 

3 See note 1 at p. 181. As to 'arrangements of words,' cf. 
Maitri, p. 179. 

4 ' Everything/ says one copy of .Sankara's commentary ; ' all that 
is good and desirable/ says another. 

5 Cf. inter alia, Mu#</aka, pp. 281-314. 

G For he has got to undergo migration from one life to another 
as the result of the action. Cf. Br/hadara;/yaka, p. 856 ; Muwdaka, 
p. 278. 

7 Cf. Gita, p. 70. 8 Ibid. pp. 101-110. 

u I. e. the yoga or concentration of mind here described. This 
stanza, like many others in this chapter, occurs in chapter III with 
slight variations. 


Chapter VI. 
That pure 1 , great light 2 , which is radiant; that 
great glory :: ; that, verily, which the gods worship 4 ; 
that by means of which the sun shines forth n — 
that eternal divine being is perceived by devotees. 
From (that) pure (principle) the Brahman G is pro- 
duced ; by (that) pure (principle) the Brahman is 
developed 7 ; that pure (principle), not illumined 
among all radiant (bodies), is (itself) luminous and 
illuminates (them) 8 . That eternal divine being is 
perceived by devotees. The perfect is raised out 
of the perfect. It (being raised) out of the perfect 
is called the perfect. The perfect is withdrawn 
from the perfect, and the perfect only remains 9 . 
That eternal divine being is perceived by devotees. 

1 Free from ignorance and other taints. See Ka/^a, p. 144. 

2 Ankara compares KaMa, p. 142. See, too, Muwdaka, p. 303; 
and note 4 infra. 

3 .Svetajvatara, p. 347, and p. 180 supra. 

4 Sahkara refers to Br/hadara7/yaka, p. 887. 

5 Cf. Gita, p. 112, note 1. 

c ' Named Hirawyagarbha/ -Sankara. Cf. Gita, p. 107 ; -SVeta^va- 
tara, p. 354 ; Mu«</aka, p. 309 ; Maitrf, p. 130 ; Taitt. Ara/z. p. 894. 

7 ' In the form of Vira^/ says Sankara. As to these two, cf. 
Mu«^aka, pp. 270-272 ; and -Sahkara's and Anandagiri's notes 
there. See also -SVetajvatara, pp. 324, 325 • and Nr/siwha Tapini, 
pp. 233, 234; Colebrooke, Essays, pp. 344, 368 (Madias reprint). 
The Vira^ corresponds rather to the gross material world viewed as 
a whole ; the Hirawyagarbha to the subtle elements similarly viewed, 
an earlier stage in the development. Cf. the Vedantasara. 

8 Cf. Muwdaka, p. 303, and Gita, p. 112. 

9 The individual self is part of the supreme (Gita, p. 112); perfect 
= not limited by space, time, &c. ; as being part of a thing perfect 
in its essence, the individual soul also is perfect. Thf individual 
self is withdrawn from the perfect, viz. the whole aggregate of body, 
senses, &c. presided over by the self, and when so withdrawn it 
appears to be the pure self only. Cf. Bn'hadara;/yaka, p. 948. 



(From the Brahman), the waters 1 (are produced) ; and 
then from the waters, the gross body. In the space 
within that 2 , dwelt the two divine (principles). Both 
enveloping the quarters and sub-quarters, support 
earth and heaven 3 . That eternal divine being is 
perceived by devotees. The horse 4 (-like senses) 
lead towards heaven him, who is possessed of know- 
ledge and divine' (who is) free from old age, and 
who stands on the wheel of this chariot(-like body), 
which is transient, but the operations of which are 
imperishable 5 . That eternal divine being 6 is per- 
ceived by devotees. His form has no parallel 7 ; no 
one sees him with the eye 8 . Those who apprehend 
him by means of the understanding, and also the 
mind and heart, become immortal 9 . That eternal 

1 'The five elements,' says £ankara, cf. Aitareya, p. 189; and 
for 'gross body/ the original is literally 'water;' see supra, p. 179, 
note 6; and see, too, Ij-opanishad, p. n, and *SVeta.rvatara, p. 368, 
for different but kindred meanings. 

2 Viz. the lotus-like heart. Cf. A7;andogya, p. 528. 

3 The two principles between them pervade the universe, the 
individual self being connected with the material world, the other 
with heaven ; ' divine ' is, literally, ' the brilliant,' says -Sahkara, who 
quotes Ka//$a, p. 305, as a parallel for the whole passage. 

4 Cf. Ka//za, p. 11 1 ; Maitri, pp. 19-34; and Mahabharata Stri 
Parvan, chap. VII, st. 13. Heaven = the Brahman here (see Br/hada- 
ra«yaka, p. 876) ; divine = not vulgar, or unrefined — .Sarikara, who 
adds that though the senses generally lead one to sensuous objects, 
they do not do so when under the guidance of true knowledge. 

5 The body is perishable, but action done by the self while in 
the body leaves its effect. 

6 To whom, namely, the man of knowledge goes, as before stated. 

7 Cf. .Svetajvatara, p. 347. 

8 Cf. KaMa, p. 152, and comment there, where the eye is said to 
stand for all the senses. 

9 KaMa, p. 149 ; -SVeta\rvatara, pp. 346-348, also p. 330 (should it 
be manisha there instead of manvi-yo ?). The meanings of the three 
words are difficult to fix accurately. -Sankara varies in his interpre- 

[8] N 



divine being is perceived by devotees. The cur- 
rents of twelve collections 1 , supported by the Deity, 
regulate the honey 2 ; and those who follow after it 
move about in (this) dangerous (world). That 
eternal divine being {] is perceived by devotees. 
The bee 4 drinks that accumulated honey for half 
a month 6 . The Lord created the oblation for all 
beings 6 . That eternal divine being is perceived by 
devotees. Those who are devoid of wings 7 , coming 

unions. Probably the meaning he gives here is the best. Mind and 
understanding have been explained at Gita, p. 57. The heart is the 
place within, where the self is said to be, and it may be taken as indi- 
cating the self, the meaning would then be — a direct consciousness in 
the self of its unity with the Supreme. See, too, Taitt. Ara«. p. 896. 

1 The five organs of action, the five senses of perception, the 
mind and understanding make the twelve. 

2 Each current has its own honey regularly distributed to it 
under the supervision of the Deity, the Supreme. Honey = material 
enjoyment. Cf. Ka//$a, p. 126, where £arikara renders it by kar- 
maphala, 1 fruit of action.' 

3 Who supervises the distribution as stated. Cf. Vedanta-sutra 
III, 2, 28-31. 

4 Bhramara, which the commentators interpret to mean 'one 
who is given to flying about — the individual self.' 

5 I.e. in one life in respect of actions done in a previous life. 

6 6'ahkara says this is in answer to a possible difficulty that 
action performed here cannot have its fruit in the next world, 
as the fruit is so far removed in time from the action. The 
answer is, The Lord, the Supreme, can effect this, and taking his 
existence into account there is no difficulty. Oblation = food, &c, 
•S'ankara. The meaning of the whole passage, which is not very 
clear, seems to be that the Lord has arranged things so that each 
being receives some of this honey, this food, which is the fruit 
of his own action. Then the question arises, Do these beings 
always continue taking the honey and 'migrating,' or are they 
ever released ? That is answered by the following sentence. 

7 ' The wings of knowledge/ says -Sarikara, citing a Brahmawa text, 
' those, verily, who have knowledge are possessed of wings, those 
who are not possessed of knowledge are devoid of wings.' 



to the A^vattha of golden leaves \ there become 
possessed of wings, and fly away happily 2 . That 
eternal divine being 3 is perceived by devotees. 
The upward life-wind swallows up the downward 
life-wind ; the moon swallows up the upward life- 
wind ; the sun swallows up the moon 4 ; and another 5 
swallows up the sun. Moving about above the 
waters, the supreme self 0 does not raise one leg 7 . 
(Should he raise) that, which is always performing 
sacrifices 8 , there will be no death, no immortality 9 . 
That eternal divine being 10 is perceived by devotees. 

1 So, literally; -Sankara explains 'golden' to mean 'beneficial 
and pleasant,' by a somewhat fanciful derivation of the word 
hira#ya. He refers to Gita, p. 111, about the leaves of the As- 
vattha. NflakawMa takes the leaves to be son, wife, &c, which are 
' golden,' attractive at first sight. ' Coming to the A^vattha,' -Sari- 
kara says, ' means being born as a Brahma/za,' &c. ' Flying away ' 
= obtaining final emancipation. 

2 The ' selfs ' are compared to birds in the famous passage at 
Muwdaka, p. 306 (also £Veta«rvatara, p. 337). See also B/Yhada- 
ra^yaka, p. 499. 

3 Knowledge of whom leads to ' flying away happily.' 

4 Cf. A'Mndogya, p. 441. -Sahkara says that the author here ex- 
plains the yoga by which the Supreme is to be attained. As to the 
life-winds, cf. Gita, p. 61. 1 The moon,' says .Sahkara, ' means the 
mind, and the sun the understanding, as they are the respective 
deities of those organs ' (cf. Brz'hadara/zyaka, pp. 521-542, and Aita- 
reya, p. 187, where, however, the sun is said to appertain to the eye). 

5 I.e. the Brahman; the result is, one remains in the condition 
of being identified with the Brahman. 

6 Literally, flamingo. Cf. Sveta^vatara, pp. 332, 367 ; see also 
p. 289; Maitri, p. 99 ; and the commentary on Svetarvatara, p. 283. 

7 Viz. the individual self, Sahkara ; that is, as it were, the bond 
of connexion between the Supreme and the world. Cf. Gita, p. 112. 

8 This is the meaning, though the word in the original is Mt'tvig, 
which in the later literature only means priest. 

9 As the whole of the material world is dissolved, when the 
self is dissevered from the delusion which is the cause of it. 

10 Viz, who moves about on the waters, as above stated. 

N 2 


The being which is the inner self, and which is of 
the size of a thumb \ is always migrating in con- 
sequence of the connexion with the subtle body 2 . 
The deluded ones do not perceive that praiseworthy 
lord, primeval and radiant, and possessed of creative 
power 8 . That eternal divine being is perceived by 
devotees. Leading mortals to destruction by their 
own action 4 , they conceal themselves like serpents 
in secret recesses 5 . The deluded men then become 
more deluded 6 . The enjoyments afforded by them 
cause delusion, and lead to worldly life 7 . That 
eternal divine being 8 is perceived by devotees. 
This 0 seems to be common to all mankind — 
whether possessed of resources 10 or not possessed 
of resources — it is common to immortality and the 
other n . Those who are possessed (of them) 12 attain 
there to the source of the honey 13 . That eternal 
divine being is perceived by devotees. They go, 

1 iSVeta^vatara, pp. 330-355 ; Taitt. Ara;/. p. 858, and comments 

2 The life-winds, the ten organs or senses, mind, and under- 
standing. See the same word similarly interpreted at .SVetajvatara, 
p. 306, and Sahkhya-sutra III, 9. 

3 According to .Sankara, he who makes the distinct entities, after 
entering into them ; he alludes apparently to A'Mndogya, p. 407. 

4 Namely, that of giving the poison of sensuous objects. 

5 I.e. the eye, ear, &c, like the holes of serpents. 

6 I. e. can appreciate nought but those sensuous objects. 

7 One reading is, Mead to danger ' = which means 4 to hell,' 
according to Nilaka;z//fo. 

8 Scil. delusion about whom leads to ' danger ' or ' worldly life.' 
0 The quality of being one with the Brahman in essence. 

10 Self-restraint, tranquillity, &c. 

11 I. e. whether in the midst of worldly life, or in the state of perfect 
emancipation. 12 Viz. the resources spoken of before. 

13 Viz. the supreme Brahman. c There ' *Sahkara takes to mean ' in 
the supreme abode of Vishnu.' See Introduction. 



pervading both worlds by knowledge *. Then the 
Agnihotra though not performed is (as good as) 
performed 2 . Your (knowledge) of the Brahman, 
therefore, will not lead you to littleness 3 . Know- 
ledge is (his) 4 name. To that the talented ones 
attain. That eternal divine being is perceived by 
devotees. The self of this description absorbing 
the material cause 5 becomes great. And the self 
of him who understands that being is not degraded 
here 6 . That eternal divine being is perceived by 
devotees. One should ever and always be doing 
good. (There is) no death, whence (can there be) 
immortality 7 ? The real and the unreal have both 
the same real (entity) as their basis. The source of 
the existent and the non-existent is but one 8 . That 
eternal divine being is perceived by devotees. The 

1 .Sankara does not explain this. Nilakaw//;a says pervading = 
fully understanding; both worlds = the self and the not-self. Is 
the meaning something like that of the passage last cited by 
-Sankara under Vedanta-sutra IV, 2, 14? 

2 He obtains the fruit of it, -Sankara. See as to Agnihotra, 
A'Mndogya, p. 381 seq. ; and Vedanta-sutra IV, 1, 16. 

3 I.e. this mortal world, as action &c. would do. 

4 I.e. of one who understands himself to be the Brahman. 
See Aitareya-upanishad, p. 246. 

5 -Sankara says, ' the cause in which all is absorbed.' Cf. a 
similar, but not identical, meaning given to Vai^vanara at A7/an- 
dogya, p. 264 ; and see Vedanta-sutra I, 2, 24. Becomes great= 
becomes the Brahman, -Sankara. 

6 Even in this body, -Sankara; degradation he takes to mean 
departure from the body, citing Br/hadara//yaka, p. 540. 

7 There is no worldly life with birth and death for one who does 
good, and thinks his self to be the Brahman ; hence no emancipa- 
tion from such life either. 

8 The Brahman is the real, and on that the unreal material world 
is imagined. Cf. Taittiriya, p. 97, and -Sankara' s comments there, 
which are of use in understanding this passage. 



being who is the inner self, and who is of the 
size of a thumb, is not seen, being placed in the 
heart 1 , lie is unborn, is moving about day and 
night, without sloth. Meditating on him, a wise 
man remains placid 2 . That eternal divine being 
is perceived by devotees. From him comes the 
wind 8 ; in him, likewise, is (everything) dissolved. 
From him (come) the fire and the moon ; and from 
him comes life 4 . That is the support (of the uni- 
verse) ; that is immortal ; that is all things per- 
ceptible 5 ; that is the Brahman, that glory. From 
that all entities were produced ; and in that (they) 
are dissolved °. That eternal divine being is per- 
ceived by devotees. The brilliant (Brahman) sup- 
ports the two divine principles 7 and the universe, 
earth and heaven, and the quarters. He from whom 
the rivers flow in (various) directions, from him were 
created the great oceans 8 . That eternal divine being 
is perceived by devotees. Should one fly, even after 
furnishing oneself with thousands upon thousands 
of wings, and even though one should have the 
velocity of thdlight 9 , one would never reach the 
end of the (great) cause 10 . That eternal divine 

1 Cf. KaMa, pp. 130, 157; and Br/hadarawyaka, p. 360. 

2 Cf. SveULrvatara, p. 342; Ka/^a, pp. 100, 107; Maitn, p-. 134. 
?> Cf. Taittinya, p. 67 ; KaMa, p. 146; Mu;/</aka, p. 293. 

4 Ka///a, p. 298; Mu^aka, p. 288. 

■' See p. 180, note 7. 6 See p. 180 supra. 

7 ' The individual soul, and God,' say the commentators, the 
latter being distinct from the supreme self. 'The universe,' says 
Nilaka;//^a, ' means earth/ &c, by which I suppose he means earth, 
heaven, quarters, mentioned directly afterwards. 

8 Ka//$a, p. 293. 

9 This figure is implied in the Ijopanishad, p. 10. 

10 ' Therefore it is endless,' says -Sankara ; and as to this, cf. 
Taittiriya, p. 51. 



being is perceived by devotees. His form dwells 
in the unperceived 1 ; and those whose understand- 
ings are very well refined 2 perceive him. The 
talented man who has got rid (of affection and 
aversion) perceives (him) by the mind. Those who 
understand him 3 become immortal. When one 
sees this self in all beings stationed in various 
places 4 , what should one grieve for after that 5 ? 
The Brahma/^a has (as much interest) in all beings, 
as in a big reservoir of water, to which waters flow 
from all sides 6 . I alone am your mother 7 , father ; 

1 'In a sphere beyond the reach of perception/ says -Sahkara, 
who also quotes Ka//£a, p. 149, or ^veta^vatara, p. 347, where 
the same line also occurs. 

2 The original for understandings is sattva, which -Sahkara 
renders to mean anta/^karawa. ' Refined,' he says, ' by sacrifices 
and other sanctifying operations/ In the Ka//$a at p. 148 sattva is 
rendered by -Sahkara to mean buddhi — a common use of the word. 

3 ' As being,' says .Sahkara, ' identical with themselves.' It will 
be noted that the form of expression is slightly altered here. It 
is not 4 those who understand this.' 

4 I.e. in different aggregates of body, senses, &c. Cf. Gita, 
pp. 104 and 124; also A'Mndogya, pp. 475-551. 

5 Cf. Brzliadarawyaka, p. 882 ; -Sahkara also refers to t«?opa- 
nishad, p. 14. 

6 The words are pretty nearly the same as at Gita, p. 48. -Sah- 
kara says, the Brahmaz/a ' who has done all he need do ' has no 
interest whatever in any being, as he has none in a big reservoir, 
and he cites Gita, p. 54, in support of this. One copy of -Sahkara, 
however, differs from this ; that runs thus : 'As a person who has 
done all he need do, has no interest in a big reservoir of water, so 
to a Brahmawa who sees the self in all beings, there is no interest 
in all the actions laid down in the Vedas, &c. ; as he has obtained 
everything by mere perception of the self.' NtlakawMa's reading is 
exactly the same as at Gita, p. 48. 

7 -Sahkara says that Sanatsu^ata states here his own experiences, 
like Vamadeva (about whom there is a reference at Br/hadarawyaka, 
p. 216) and others, to corroborate what he has already said. Cf. 
also Gita, p. 83, as to the whole passage. 



and 1 too am the son. And I am the self of all 
this -that which exists and that which does not 
exist (I am) the aged grandfather of this, the 
lather, and the son, O descendant of Bharata ! 
You dwell in my self only 2 . You are not mine, 
nor 1 (yours). The self only is my seat 3 ; the self 
too is (the source of) my birth 4 . I am woven 
through and through 5 (everything). And my seat 
is free from (the attacks of) old age 6 . I am 
unborn, moving about day and night, without 
sloth. Knowing (me), verily, a wise man remains 
placid 7 . More minute than an atom 8 , possessed of 
a good mind 9 , I am stationed within all beings 10 . 
(The wise) know the father of all beings to be 
placed in the lotus n (-like heart of every one). 

1 See Gita, p. 84. NilakawMa takes what exists to mean 
1 present,' and what does not exist to mean ' past and future.' Cf. 
A7/andogya, p. 532. 

2 See Gita, p. 82, where there is also a similar apparent contra- 

3 Cf. AMndogya, p. 518. 

4 That is to say he is ' unborn,' says NilakawMa. £ankara seems 
to take 'my' with 'seat' only, and not with birth; for he says, 
' everything has its birth from the self.' 

5 Cf. Mu?z</aka, p. 298 ; Maitn, p. 84, and comment there. 
0 Cf. Gita, pp. 77, 109, and A^andogya, pp. 535, 550. 

7 See p. 192, note 2. 

8 Cf. Gita, p. 78, and note 3 there. 

9 I.e. a mind free from affection and aversion, hatred, &c, 

10 Cf. Gita, p. 113, and note 3 ; and also Jj-opanishad, p. 12. 

11 A^andogya, p. 528; and cf. Gita, p. 113. 





Like the Bhagavadgita and the Sanatsu^atiya, the Anu- 
gita is one of the numerous episodes of the Mahabharata. 
And like the Sanatsu^atiya, it appears here for the first 
time in an English, or, indeed, it is believed, in any European 
garb. It forms part of the A^vamedha Parvan of the Maha- 
bharata, and is contained in thirty-six chapters of that 
Parvan. These chapters — being chapters XVI to LI — to- 
gether with all the subsequent chapters of the Aj-vamedha 
Parvan, form by themselves what in some of our copies is 
called the Anugita Parvan — a title which affords a parallel 
to the title Bhagavadgita Parvan, which we have already 
referred to. The Anugita is not now a work of any very 
great or extensive reputation. But we do find some few 
quotations from it in the Bhashyas of 5ankara^arya, and 
one or two in the Sankhya-sara of Vi^/zana Bhikshu,to which 
reference will be made hereafter. And it is included in the 
present volume, partly because it affords an interesting 
glimpse of sundry old passages of the Upanishad literature 
in a somewhat modified, and presumably later, form ; and 
partly, perhaps I may say more especially, because it pro- 
fesses to be a sort of continuation, or rather recapitulation, 
of the Bhagavadgita. At the very outset of the work, we 
read, that after the great fratricidal war of the Mahabharata 
was over, and the Pa72^avas had-become sole and complete 
masters of their ancestral kingdom, Krishna, and Ar^una — 
the two interlocutors in the Bhagavadgita — happened to 
take a stroll together in the great magical palace built for 
the Pa^avas by the demon Maya. In the course of the 
conversation which they held on the occasion, Knsh;/a 
communicated to Ar^una his wish to return to his own 
people at Dvaraka, now that the business which had called 


him away from them was happily terminated. Ar^una, of 
course, was unable to resist the execution of this wish ; but 
he requested Krishna., before leaving for Dvaraka, to repeat 
the instruction which had been already conveyed to him on 
' the holy field of Kurukshetra,' but which had gone out of 
his 1 degenerate mind.' "Krishna, thereupon protests that he 
is not equal to a verbatim recapitulation of the Bhagavad- 
giti, but agrees, in lieu of that, to impart to Ar^una the 
same instruction in other words, through the medium of 
a certain ' ancient story ' — or puratana itihasa. And the 
instruction thus conveyed constitutes what is called the- 
Anugita, a name which is in itself an embodiment of this 

Now the first question which challenges investigation 
with reference to this work is, if we may so call it, the 
fundamental one — how much is properly included under the 
name ? The question is not one quite easy of settlement, 
as our authorities upon it are not all reconcilable with one 
another. In the general list of contents of the Awamedha 
Parvan, which is given at the end of that Parvan in the 
edition printed at Bombay, we read that the first section 
is the Vyasa Vakya, and the second the Sa;;/vartamaruttiya. 
With neither of these have we aught to do here. The list 
then goes on thus : ' Anugita, Vdsudevagamana, Brahma?za 
Gita, Guriii-ishyasa;;zvada, Uttankopakhyana,' and so forth. 
With the later sections, again, we are not here concerned. 
Now let us compare this list with the list which may be 
obtained from the titles of the chapters in the body of the 
work itself. With the sixteenth chapter, then, of the Asva.- 
medha Parvan, begins what is here called the Anugita 
Parvan ; and that chapter and the three following chapters 
are described as the sixteenth, seventeenth, eighteenth, and 
nineteenth chapters respectively of the Anugita Parvan, 
which forms part of the A^vamedha Parvan. The title 
of the twentieth chapter contains a small, but important, 
addition. It runs thus, ' Such is the twentieth chapter 
of the Anugita Parvan, forming part of the A^vamedha 
Parvan — being the Brahma Gita.' This form is con- 
tinued down to the thirty-fourth chapter, only Brahma;/a 


Gita being substituted for Brahma Gita. At the close of the 
thirty-fifth chapter, there is another alteration caused by 
the substitution of Guriuishyasawvada for Brahma//a Gita ; 
and this continues down to the fifty-first chapter, where the 
thread of the narrative is again taken up — the philosophical 
parenthesis, if I may so say, having come to an end. With 
the fifty-first chapter our present translation also ends. Now 
it appears from the above comparison, that the list of con- 
tents set out above is accurate, save in so far as it mentions 
Vasudevagamana as a distinct section of the A^vamedha 
Parvan. No such section seems to be in existence. And 
there appears to be nothing in the A.svamedha Parvan to 
which that title could be appropriately allotted. The 
edition printed at Madras agrees in all essential particulars 
with the Bombay edition ; with this difference, that even at 
the close of the twentieth chapter, the name is Brahma/^a 
Gita, and not Brahma Gita as it is in the Bombay edition. 
The Calcutta edition also agrees in these readings. Turning 
now to a MS. procured for me by my excellent friend Pro- 
fessor Aba^i Vish;/u Kathava/e at Ahmedabad, and bearing 
date the 15th of Phalguna Vadya 1823, Sunday, we find 
there at the end of the A^vamedha Parvan a list of contents 
like that which we have seen in the printed edition. The 
relevant portion of that list is as follows : ' Sa/^vartamarut- 
tiya, Anugita, Gunuishyasawvada, and Uttankopakhyana.' 
Here we find neither the erroneous entry of Vasudevaga- 
mana, nor the correct entry of Brahma Gita, which are both 
contained in the other list. In another MS. which I have 
now before me, and which has been lent me by Professor 
Bha^arkar, who purchased it in Pu;/a for the Government 
of Bombay — in this MS., which contains the commentary 
of Ar^una Mi>ra, the earlier chapters are described not as 
chapters of the Anugita Parvan, but of the Anugita con- 
tained in the A^vamedha Parvan, and they are numbered 
there as they are numbered in our translation, not con- 
tinuously with the numbering of the previous chapters of 
the A^vamedha Parvan. At the close of chapter IV, we 
have an explicit statement that the Anugita ends there. 
Then the Brahma Gita begins. And the first chapter is 


described as a chapter of the Brahma Gita. in the Ajvamedha 
Parvan. The numbering of each of these chapters of the 
1 Mali ma (fit ft is not given in the copy before us — the titles 
and descriptions of the various chapters being throughout 
incomplete. Some of the later chapters arc described as 
chapters of the Brahma Gita, and some as chapters of the 
Brahma#a Gita ; but this discrepancy is probably to be put 
to the account of the particular copyist who wrote out the 
copy used by us. With what is chapter XX in our num- 
bering the GuriLvishyasa;//vada begins. This MS. omits all 
reference to any Anugita Parvan, and fails to number the 
various chapters. Its list of sections agrees with that in 
the Bombay edition. It bears no date. 

So much for what may be described as our primary 
sources of information on this subject. Let us now glance 
at the secondary sources. And, first, Nilaka;//#a in com- 
menting on what is, according to his numbering, chapter 
XV, stanza 43, apparently distinguishes that chapter from 
what he speaks of as the Brahmazza Gita and Guru^ishya- 
sawvada, which, as he implies, follow after that chapter — 
thus indicating that he accepted in substance the tradition 
recorded in the passages we have already set forth, viz. that 
the first four chapters of our translation form the Anugita, 
the next fifteen the Brahmawa Gita, and the last seventeen 
the Guru^ishyasa;;/vada. This is also the view of Ar^una 
MLsra. At the close of his gloss on chapter IV, he distinctly 
states that the Anugita ends at that chapter ; and again at 
the close of the gloss on chapter XIX, he explicitly says 
that the Brahma/za Gita ends there. He also adds the 
following interesting observation : ' The feminine form (Gita, 
namely) is used in consequence of (the word) Upanishad 
being feminine.' The full title of that part of the Maha- 
bharata would then be, according to this remark of Ar^nna 
MLsra, ' the Upanishads sung by the Brahma/za,' a title 
parallel to that of the Bhagavadgita, £ the Upanishads sung 
by the Deity.' It is to be further remarked, thac the last 
chapter of the Guiomshyasawvada is called in this com- 
mentary the eighteenth chapter of the Gurujishyasa;;/vada, 
a fact which seems to indicate that Ar^una MLrra either 



found in the MS. which he used, or himself established, 
a separate numbering for the chapters in the several 
sections 1 of which the A^vamedha Parvan is made up. 

Although the information here set out from these various 
sources is not easily to be harmonised in all its parts, the 
preponderance of testimony seems to be in favour of re- 
garding the portion of the A^vamedha Parvan embraced in 
our translation as containing three distinct sections, viz. 
the Anugita, the Brahma;/a Gita, and the Guru.yishyasa//z- 
vada. And some indirect support for this conclusion may 
be derived from one or two other circumstances. In the 
Sankhya-sara of Vi^ana Bhikshu — a work which, as we 
shall see in the sequel, expressly mentions the Anugita — 
we have a passage cited as from the ' Bharata 2 ' which 
coincides almost precisely with a passage occurring in 
chapter XXVII of our translation (see p. 335). And in the 
Bhashya of vSankaraMrya on the Bhagavadgita, chapter XV, 
stanza 1, we have a citation as from a ' Pura/za ' of a passage 
which coincides pretty closely with one which occurs in 
chapter XX of our translation (see p. 313). If the dis- 
crepancies between the quotations as given by Vi^ana 
Bhikshu and vSankara, and the passages occurring in our 
text, may be treated merely as various readings— and 
there is nothing inherently improbable in this being the 
case — it may be fairly contended, that neither 5ankara nor 
Vi^Tzana Bhikshu would have used the vague expressions, 
' a Puraz/a,' or even ' the Bharata,' if they could have cor- 
rectly substituted in lieu of them the specific name Anu- 
gita. And this, it may be said, is a contention of some 
weight, when it is remembered, that both 6ankara and 
Vi^ana show, in other parts of their writings, an acquaint- 
ance with this very Anugita. If this reasoning is correct, 

1 In the beginning of his gloss on the Anugita he says, that he proposes to 
explain difficult passages in the Anugita, &c. — Anugitadishu. And at the 
outset of his gloss on the whole Parvan he says, that in the Anugita we have 
a statement of the miseries of birth, &c. as a protest against worldly life ; in the 
Brahma Gita we have a recommendation of Pra/zayama, &c. ; and in the Guru- 
.rishyasa/«vada we have a eulogium on the perception of the self as distinct from 
Prakrzti or nature, and incidentally a protest against Pravrz'tti or action. 

2 P. 21. 



the conclusion to be derived from it must be, that Saiikara 
and Vign&na must have eonsidcred the chapters of the 
Ajvamedha Pai*van from which their respective quotations 
are taken as not forming part of the Anugita. 

The testimony we have thus collected is apparently of 
considerable weight. Against it, however, we have to weigh 
some testimony which appears to me to be entitled, upon 
the whole, to even greater weight. In the Saiikhya-sara 
of Vi^ana Bhikshu, to which we have already referred, 
we have two quotations 1 from the Anugita which are 
distinctly stated to be taken from that work. The first 
occurs in our translation at p. 332, the second at p. 313. 
Now, if we adopt the conclusion above referred to, regarding 
the correct titles of the thirty-six chapters which we have 
translated, it is a mistake to attribute the passages in ques- 
tion to the Anugita. They would, on that view, form part 
of the Gurujishyasa?;/vada. Again, in his commentary on 
the Sanatsu^-atiya, vSankara refers to sundry passages which 
he expressly says are taken from the Anugita, but which 
arc not contained in the Anugita as limited by the evidence 
we have considered above. One of the passages referred to 
is taken from chapter XI of our translation, and others are 
contained in the comments on Sanatsu^atiya I, 6, and on 
I, 20 and I, 41 2 . It is difficult to resist the conclusion to 
which this positive evidence leads. One cannot possibly 
explain this evidence upon the view which we have first 
stated ; while, on the other hand, the points which appa- 
rently support that view are capable of some explanation 
on the theory that the Anugita includes all the chapters 
here translated. And that in this wise. The passages 
which we have referred to as cited by Sankara and Vi^ana 
from a Pura;/a and from the Bharata may have been actually 
taken from some other work than the Anugita. Even waiv- 
ing the fact that the readings are different,— though in 
regard especially to the quotation given by vSankara it is 
not one to be entirely lost sight of, — there is this fact which 
is of great and almost conclusive weight on such a point as 

1 Pp. 15,21. The latter corresponds to Ankara's quotation above referred to. 

2 See p. 206 note. 



this, namely, that we have many instances of passages com- 
mon, almost verbatim et literatim, to the Mahabharata 
and other works. For one instance, take the very passage 
on which a chronological argument has been founded by us 
in the Introduction to the Sanatsu^atiya \ It ought to 
have been there pointed out, that the stanza about a young 
man being bound to rise to receive an elderly person, occurs 
in the Manu Smrzti 2 also in exactly the same words. The 
omission to note this circumstance in its proper place in the 
Introduction to the Sanatsu^atiya was due to a mere inad- 
vertence. But the conclusion there hinted at was expressed 
in very cautious language, and with many qualifications, 
out of regard to circumstances such as those which we are 
now considering. Similar repetitions may be pointed out 
in other places. The passage about the Kshetra^/za and 
Sattva and their mutual relations (see p. 374) occurs, as 
pointed out in the note there, in at least two other places 
in the Mahabharata. The passage likewise which occurs 
in Gita, p. 103, about the ' hands, feet, &c, on all sides/ is 
one which may be seen, to my own knowledge, in about half 
a dozen places in the Mahabharata. Such cases, I believe, 
may be easily multiplied ; and they illustrate and are illus- 
trated by Mr. Freeman's proposition respecting the epic age 
in Greece, to which we have already alluded. It follows, 
consequently, that the quotations from 5ankara and 
Vi^;/ana, to which we have referred above, do not militate 
very strongly against the final conclusion at which we 
have arrived. The testimony of the MSS. and the com- 
mentators is of considerably greater force. But Nilaka;////a, 
whatever his merits as an exegete — and even these are often 
marred by a persistent effort to read his own foregone con- 
clusions into the text he comments on — Nilaka;////a is but 
an indifferent authority in the domain of historical criticism. 
In his commentary on the Sanatsu^fitiya, for instance, he 
tells us that he has admitted into his text sundry verses 
which were not in the copy used by Sankara, and for which 
he had none but a very modern voucher, and he very naively 
adds that he has done so on the principle of collecting all 

1 P. 139, and cf. p. 176 with Vish«u XXX, 44 seq. 2 See II, 120. 

[«] o 



good things to a focus. Aigima Misra is a very much 
more satisfactory commentator. But he is not likely to 
be a w riter of a very remote date. I assume, that he must 
be more recent than .Vankara/'arya, though I cannot say 
that I have any very tenable ground for the assumption. 
But assuming that, I think it more satisfactory to adopt 
Sankai u/arya's nomenclature, and to treat the thirty-six 
chapters here translated as constituting the Anugita. It 
is not improbable, if our assumption is correct, that the 
division of the thirty-six chapters in the manner we have 
seen may have come into vogue after the date of Vi^ana 
Bhikshu, who, according to Dr. F. E. Hall, ' lived in all 
probability in the sixteenth or seventeenth century, and 
whom there is some slight reason for carrying back still 
further V 

Do these thirty-six chapters, then, form one integral 
w ork ? Are they all the work of one and the same author ? 
These are the questions which next present themselves for 
consideration. The evidence bearing upon them, however, 
is, as might be expected, excessively scanty. Of external 
evidence, indeed, we have really none, barring vSankara's 
statement in his commentary on the Br/hadara;/yaka- 
upanishad 2 that the verse which he there quotes from 
the Anugita has Vyasa for its author. That statement 
indicates that .Sahkara accepted the current tradition of 
Vyasa's authorship of the Anugita ; and such acceptance, 
presumably, followed from his acceptance of the tradition 
of Vyasa's authorship of the entire Mahabharata. If that 
tradition is incorrect, and Vyasa is not the author of the 
Anugita, we have no means of ascertaining who is the 
author. And as to the tradition in question, it is difficult, 
in the present state of our materials, to form any satis- 
factory judgment. We therefore proceed at once to 
consider whether the Anugita is really one work. And 
I must admit at the outset that I find it difficult to answer 
this question. There are certainly some circumstances 
connected with the work which might be regarded as indi- 
cating a different authorship of different parts of it. Thus 

1 See Preface, Sankhya-sara, p. 37. 

2 P- 234. 


20 5 

in an early portion of the work, we find the first personal 
pronoun is used, where the Supreme Being is evidently 
intended to be signified, and yet the passage is not put 
into the mouth of Kr/sh;/a, but of the Brahma/^a. A similar 
passage occurs a little later on also. Now it must be taken 
to be a somewhat strained interpretation of the words used 
in the passages in question to suppose that the speaker 
there used the first personal pronoun, identifying himself 
for the nonce with the Supreme Being \ Again, in a passage 
still further on, we have the vocative O Partha ! where the 
person addressed is not Ar^una at all, but the Brahma//a's 
wife. Now these lapses are susceptible of two explana- 
tions—either we are to see in them so many cases of 
' Homer nodding,' or we may suppose that they are errors 
occasioned by one writer making additions to the work of 
a previous writer, without a vivid recollection of the frame- 
work of the original composition into which his own work 
had to be set 2 . I own, that on balancing the probabilities 
on the one side and the other, my mind rather leans to the 
hypothesis of one author making a slip in the plexus of 
his own story within story, rather than the hypothesis of 
a deliberate interpolator forgetting the actual scheme of the 
original work into which he was about to foist his own 
additions 3 . And this the rather, that we find a similar 
slip towards the very beginning of the work, where we 
have the Brahma/ja Ka^yapa addressed as Parantapa, or 
destroyer of foes — an epithet which, I think, is exclusively 
reserved for Kshatriyas, and is, in any case, a very inap- 
propriate one to apply to a humble seeker for spiritual 
light. This slip appears to me to be incapable of explana- 
tion on any theory of interpolation 4 . And hence the other 
slips above noted can hardly be regarded as supporting 
any such theory. Another circumstance, not indeed bearing 

1 In fact the Brahmawa is not identified with the Supreme Being afterwards. 
But that fact has not much bearing on the question here. 

2 Cf. Wilson's Da-rakumara/tarita, Introd. p. 22. 

3 The third alternative, that a work independently written was afterwards 
bodily thrown into the Mahabharata, is one which in the circumstances here 
seems to me improbable. 

* See also pp. 235, 252, 299. 

U 2 



out that theory, but rendering interpolations possible, de- 
serves to be noted. The scheme of the Anugita certainly 
lends itself to interpolations. A story might without much 
difficulty be added to the scries of story joined to story 
which it contains. Against this, however, it must not 
be forgotten, that the S&titi Parvan of the Mahabharata 
and the Yogavasish///a exhibit a precisely similar frame- 
work of contents, and that the Pa#£atantra and the Katha- 
saritsagara, among other works, follow the same model. 
And from this fact it may be fairly argued, that while 
there is, doubtless, room for suspecting interpolations in. 
such cases, there is this to be remembered, that with 
respect to any particular one of these cases, such suspicion 
can carry us but a very short way. And further, it is to 
be observed, valeat quantum, that the connexion of the 
several chapters of the Anugita one with the other is not 
altogether a loose one, save at one or two points only, 
while they are all linked on to the main body of the 
narrative, only in what we have treated as the last chapter 
of the Anugita, without any trace of any other connecting 
link anywhere else. Upon the whole, therefore, we here 
conclude, though not without doubt, that the whole of the 
Anugita is the work of one author. 

The next question to be discussed is the important one 
of the age of the work. The quotations already given 
above from 5arikara/£arya's works, and one other which 
is referred to in the note below \ suffice to show that the 
Anugita must have been some few centuries old in the 
time of 6ankara/£arya. For whether we treat the Anu- 
gita as a part of the original Mahabharata or not, it is 
not likely that such a scholar as 5ankara would have 
accepted the book as a genuine part of the Mahabharata, 
and as a work of Vyasa, if it had not been in his day of 
some respectable antiquity, of antiquity sufficient to have 
thrown the real author into oblivion, and to have substi- 

1 See .Sahkara, .Sariraka Bhashya, p. 726. That, however, may be a quotation 
from some other work. It may be noted that the passages quoted in the Bhashya 
on Sanatsi^'atiya I, 20 and I, 41 are not to be traced in our copies, though 
expressly stated there to have been taken from the Anugita. 



tuted in his place Vyasa, who lived at the junction of 
the Dvapara and Kali ages 1 , upwards of thirty centuries 
before the Christian era. The calculation is avowedly 
a very rough one, but I think we may, as the result of it, 
safely fix the third century of the Christian era as the 
latest date at which the Anugita can have been composed. 
Let us now endeavour to find out whether we can fix the 
date as lying within any better defined period. It is 
scarcely needful to say, that the Anugita dates from a 
period considerably subsequent to the age of the Upani- 
shads. The passages relating to the Pra;/asa;;/vada and 
so forth, which occur originally in the Upanishads, are 
referred to in the Anugita as 'ancient stories' — an indica- 
tion that the Upanishads had already come to be esteemed 
as ancient compositions at the date of the latter work. It 
is not necessary, therefore, to go through an elaborate 
examination of the versions of the ancient stories alluded 
to above, as contained in the Upanishads and in the 
Anugita, more especially because it is possible for us to 
show that the Anugita is later than the Bhagavadgita, 
which latter work, as we have seen, is later than the Upa- 
nishads. And to this point we shall now address ourselves. 
We have already observed upon the story referred to at 
the opening of this Introduction, which, historically inter- 
preted, indicates the priority of the Bhagavadgita to the 
Anugita. This conclusion is confirmed by sundry other 
circumstances, which we must now discuss in some detail, 
as they are also of use in helping to fix the position of the 
work in the history of Sanskrit literature and philosophy. 
First, then, it seems to me, that the state of society mirrored 
in the Anugita indicates a greater advance in social evolu- 
tion than we have already seen is disclosed in the Bhaga- 
vadgita. Not to mention decorations of houses and so 
forth, which are alluded to in one passage of the Anugita, 
we are here told of royal oppressions, of losses of wealth 
accumulated with great difficulty, and of fierce captivities ; 
we are told, to adapt the language of a modern English 
poet, of laws grinding the weak, for strong men rule the 

1 Cf. vSariraka Bhashya, p. 913. 


law ; we have references to the casting of images with 
liquefied Iron, and to the use of elephants as vehicles 1 ; 
and we meet with protests against the amusements of music 
and dancing, and against the occupation of artisans 2 . True 
it is, that all these indications put together, fail to constitute 
what, according to the standard of modern times, would be 
called a highly artificial state of society. But it seems to 
me to mark a very perceptible and distinct advance beyond 
the social condition when mankind was divided into four 
castes or classes, with such a division of duties, to put it 
briefly, as that of preparation for a future world, govern- 
ment of this world, agriculture and trade, and service 
respectively 3 . Artisans, it will be observed, are not even 
referred to in the Bhagavadgita, nor is there any trace of 
royal oppressions, or unequal laws. Then as regards 
music, it may be noted, that there are references to it in 
the Br/hadara//yaka and Kaushitaki-upanishads 4 , without 
any indications of disapprobation. The protest against 
music, therefore, and the sister art of dancing, is probably 
to be explained as evoked by some abuses of the two arts 
which must have come into prevalence about the time of 
the composition of the Anugita. A similar protest is found 
recorded in the Dharmai-astras of Manu and Apastamba 
and Gautama 5 . We shall consider in the sequel the chrono- 
logical positions of the Anugita with reference to those 
Dharmaj-astras. But we have already pointed out that the 
Gita stands prior to them both 6 . 

Look again at the views on caste which are embodied 
in the Anugita and the Bhagavadgita respectively. The 
reference to the Kshatriya as representing the quality of 
passion, while the Brahma;/a represents the quality of good- 
ness 7 , seems to place a considerably larger distance between 
the Brahma^a and the Kshatriya than is suggested by the 
Bhagavadgita. and thus marks an advance in the direction 
of the later doctrine on the subject. And in connexion 

1 Cf. Lalita Vistara, p. 17. 2 See pp. 325-365. 3 See Gita, p. 126. 

4 See Br/Tiadarawyaka, p. 454, and Kaushitaki, p. 68. 

: ' See Biihler's Apastamba I, 1, 3, 11, Gautama II, 13, and Manu II, 178. 

6 P. 2 1 seq. 7 P. 329. 



with this, perhaps, the discrepancy between the reading of 
the Bhagavadgita at p. 85, and that of the Anugita at p. 255, 
is not entirely without significance, though much weight 
would not be due to it, if it stood alone. The expression 
■ devoted royal sages,' which we find in the one work, 
makes way for ' well-read Kshatriyas who are intent on 
their own duties' in the other. Again, although the pas- 
sage at p. 353 is undoubtedly susceptible of a different 
interpretation, it seems to me, that the word ' twice-born ' 
there employed, was meant to be interpreted as meaning 
the Brahma//as, and not the three twice-born castes; and 
if this interpretation is correct, we have here the very 
proposition upon the absence of which in the Bhagavad- 
gita we have already made some observations x . That 
twice-born in the passage in question means Brahmawa 
only, is, of course, not a proved fact. But having regard 
to the passages noted above and to the passage at p. 320, 
where reference is made to disparagement of Brahmaz/as — 
it is not twice-born there — and in the same clause with 
disparagement of gods and Vedas, it seems to me that the 
interpretation we have suggested must be taken to be the 
true one. And it is to be further noted, that this conclusion 
is corroborated by a comparison of the passage now under 
consideration with a passage occurring in the 5anti Parvan 2 , 
in the Ra^adharma section of it, where we read that 1 the 
cow is the first among quadrupeds, gold among metals, 
a mantra among words, and the Brahma;/a is the first 
among bipeds.' The cow and gold occur in the passage 
in the Anugita also, very near the clause we are now dis- 
cussing. And it is allowable to argue, that reading the two 
together, twice- born in the Anugita must be interpreted 
to be synonymous with Brahma/za in the Ra^adharma. 
And the same conclusion is, to my mind, confirmed indi- 
rectly by comparing the clause 1 the twice-born among 
men' of the Anugita with 'the ruler of men among men' 
of that Bhagavadgita, the teaching of which the former 
work professes to recapitulate. 

1 P. 24 supra. 

2 See note at p. 353. 

2 ! 0 


A similar inference seems to be derivable from a com- 
parison of the specific doctrines as to the duties of Brah- 
ma which arc enunciated in the Gita and the Anugita. 
In the latter work, the famous six duties are expressly 
mentioned. We have already argued in our Introduction 
to the Gita, that a comparison of the teaching of that work 
upon this point with the teaching of Apastamba and Manu 
shows the former to have been older than the latter. The 
six duties mentioned in the Anugita are those also mentioned 
by Manu and Apastamba. It follows, therefore, that the 
Gita is prior to the Anugita also. Whether the Anugita is- 
prior or subsequent to Manu and Apastamba, is a question 
which will have to be discussed in the sequel. 

The net result of the whole of this comparison appears to 
me to clearly show the Anugita to be a work of considerably 
more recent date than the Bhagavadgita. What interval 
of time lay between the two, is a most interesting, but also 
a most difficult, question. The differences we have noted 
appear to me to indicate a pretty wide interval. If I am 
right in regarding the Gita as a work of what may be called, 
for practical purposes, the age of the older Upanishads, I 
am inclined to think that the interval between the Gita. and 
the Anugita must have been one of larger extent than even 
three or four centuries. For as we have already pointed 
out, the description of the various ' Itihasas ' mentioned in 
the Anugita as 'puratana' — ancient — points to at least 
three or four centuries having elapsed between the close of 
the Upanishad period and the composition of the Anugita. 
It is obvious, however, that this result is not one with 
which we can rest satisfied. Even if it were more precise 
and accurate, it would only fix the age of the Anugita 
with reference to the age of another work itself of unknown 
and unascertained date. We must therefore endeavour to 
compare the Anugita with some other work, the date of 
which is better known. For this purpose, it seems to be not 
of any great use to refer to the Sankhya and Yoga-sutras, 
although it is not improbable that some materials might be 
forthcoming for a useful comparison between them and the 
Anugita. Neither the Sankhya nor the Yoga-sutras can 



be said to have their ages fixed with even any approach to 
accuracy. And in the case of the Sankhya-sutras, there is 
the further difficulty presented by the circumstance, that 
there is room for very serious doubts as to whether the 
current Sutras are really of the authorship of Kapila, or 
whoever else was the original founder of the system. With 
regard to the Yoga, one or two observations from a different 
point of view may not, however, be entirely out of place. 
At p. 248 the Yoga Sastra is referred to eo nomine. What 
5astra is here alluded to ? Is it Pata/^ali's, or some other 
vSastra dealing with similar topics? Or, again, is it an 
entirely different matter that is alluded to, and are we not 
to see in the expression in question an allusion to any sys- 
tem formally propounded ? I own, as stated in the note on 
the passage, that my mind inclines to the last view. There 
is not very much to say on either side of the question, as 
far as I am able to understand it. But the view I incline to 
appears to have one small circumstance in its favour. At 
p. 249 we have an allusion to persons who understand the 
Yoga, and to a certain illustration propounded by them. 
Now who are these persons ? My limited knowledge of 
Yoga literature has not enabled me to trace the illustration 
anywhere else than in the Ka///opanishad, and in the Sanat- 
su^atiya. It seems to me very unlikely, that the illustration 
can have been put forward in any work older than the 
Ka///opanishad. And we may, I think, assume it as most 
probable that the Sanatsu^-atiya borrowed it from that work. 
If so, it is not likely that the Anugita can have referred to 
any other master of the Yoga than the author of the Ka///o- 
panishad. And then it would seem to follow, that the 
Anugita must have been composed at a time when, although 
the Upanishads were looked on with reverence and as works 
of authority, they were not yet regarded as part and parcel of 
the Vedic revelation 1 . It is impossible not to perceive, that 
the train of reasoning here is at every stage hedged round 
with difficulties and doubts. And the inference therefore to 
which we are led by it must be accepted with proportionate 

1 This seems to be also the implication of the passage at p. 309, where the 
rules for final emancipation are alluded to. 

2 i 2 


caution. But if the reasoning is correct, it seems to be 
certain, that the Anugita belongs to some period prior to the 
second, and probable, that it belongs to some period prior 
to the third century, before Christ. For in the second 
cent ui \' before Christ was composed the Mahabhashya of 
Pata^ali, in which Rahasyas — which is another name for 
Upanishads— are mentioned as forming part of the Vedic 
literature. And in Apastamba's Dharma-sutras, which are 
older than Pata/T^-ali, Upanishads 1 are mentioned in the 
same way. I am aware that it may be said, that because 
Upanishads as a class of works are mentioned by Pata/^ali 
and Apastamba, it does not follow that any particular Upa- 
nishad, such as the Ka//*a, for instance, also existed at that 
time. This is quite true. But without going now into the 
general question, it is sufficient to point out, that our argu- 
ment here is concerned merely with the recognition of the 
Upanishads as a class of works forming part of the Vedic 
canon. Such recognition must have come later than the 
period at which the Anugita could speak of a passage in 
the Ka///a-upanishad as the utterance of Yogavids, or 
persons who understood the Yoga. 

Turning now to the materials available for ascertaining 
the relative chronological positions of the Anugita and 
the rise of Buddhism, we have again to complain of their 
unsatisfactory character. We will briefly note the two or 
three circumstances which appear to have a bearing upon 
this question. In the first place, we have the word Nir- 
vana used in one passage of the Anugita in the sense of 
the highest tranquillity, and there the simile of the ex- 
tinction of the fire is expressly adduced. On this it may 
be argued, that if the term Nirva/^a had become the well- 
understood property of Buddhism, such a use of it as we 
find here would probably not have occurred. Again, we 
have the injunction that an ascetic must dwell in a 
town only for one day and no more, while he may stay 
at one place during the rains. This is very similar to an 
injunction prescribed by the Buddhistic teachers also. But 

1 They are also referred to in the Buddhistic Lalita Vistara, p. 65. 



this fact furnishes, I think, no safe ground for a chronolo- 
gical inference, more especially because, as pointed out by 
Dr. Biihler, the Buddhistic injunction is itself only borrowed 
from the Brahminical rules on the subject 1 . It is impos- 
sible, therefore, to say that the Anugita borrowed its 
doctrine from Buddhism. It is, of course, equally impos- 
sible on the other hand to say, that Buddhism borrowed 
its rule from the Anugila. And, therefore, we can build 
no safe inference upon this fact either. We have next the 
very remarkable passage at chapter XXXIV, where various 
contradictory and mutually exclusive views of piety are 
stated, or rather passingly and briefly indicated — a passage 
which one most devoutly wishes had been clearer than it 
is. In that passage I can find no reference to Buddhism. 
True it is that Nilaka/////a's commentary refers some of 
the doctrines there stated to Buddhistic schools 2 . But that 
commentary, unsatisfactory enough in other places, is par- 
ticularly unsatisfactory here. And its critical accuracy 
may be judged from its reference to Saugatas and Yoga- 
/£aras apparently as two distinct schools, whereas in truth 
the Saugatas are Buddhists, and YogaHras one of the 
four principal Buddhist sects. And it must be further 
remembered, that the interpretations of Nilakaw/Z/a, upon 
which his specifications of the different schools are based, 
are by no means such as necessarily claim acceptance. If 
then we do not find any reference to Buddhism in this 
passage, that fact becomes certainly a remarkable one. 
Still, on the other hand, I am not prepared to apply the 
' negative argument ' here, and to say that inasmuch as 
Buddhism is not referred to where so many different 
opinions are referred to, Buddhism cannot have come 
into existence at the date of the Anugita. It seems to 
me that the argument will here be a very hazardous one, 
because if the author of the Anugita was, as we may assume 
he was, an orthodox Hindu, he might well have declined, 
although not unacquainted with Buddhism, to put into the 
mouths of the seven sages even as a possible view, that 

1 Sec Gautama, pp. lv and 191. 2 See also the gloss on chap. XXXIV, st. 14. 

~ I .} 

which was the view of a school esteemed heretical by the 
author and his co-religionists. This passage, therefore, 
also fails to furnish any tangible ground for a chronological 
inference, at all events in the present state of our knowledge. 
Lastly, we come to the allusion to those who indulge in con- 
slant talk in disparagement of Vedas and Brahma//as,the two 
being thus bracketed together in the original. That seems, 
at the first blush, to be a somewhat more distinct allusion 
to Buddhism than any of those we have noted above. But 
even that is not unambiguous. If the stanzas quoted by Ma- 
dhava/'arya, in his Sarvadai\?anasangraha in its first section, 
are the composition of the original founder of the A"arvaka 
school, or even if they correctly represent the earliest 
opinions of that school, it is at least quite as likely that 
the A'arvakas were the target for the denunciations of 
the Anugita in the passage in question as that the 
Buddhists were so. To me, indeed, it appears to be more 
likely. For Buddha's opinion with regard to the Vedas is, 
that they are inadequate ; with regard to the Brahma//as, 
that they are in no sense the chosen of God as they claim 
to be. The opinion of the TTarvakas, on the other hand, is 
a far more aggressive one, so to say. According to Madha- 
va^arya, they taught that the Vedas were either simple 
fatuity or imposture, and that the Brahma;/as were im- 
postors. It seems to me much more likely, that this, 
which I have called a comparatively aggressive attitude, was 
the one at which the remarks of the Anugita were levelled ; 
and more especially does this appear to be correct when 
we remember, that the view taught by Gautama Buddha 
regarding the Vedas and the Brahma/zas was propounded 
by him only in its strongest form ; and that even before 
his time, the doctrine of the inadequacy of the Vedas for the 
purpose of securing the sum mum bonum of humanity 
had been taught by other teachers. It is further to be 
recollected, that we have evidence showing that other 
thinkers also than Buddha, or Brzhaspati, had in early 
days attacked the authority of the Vedas. Kautsa is the 
name of one who was probably the most distinguished 
among them. It is certainly possible that his followers 



were the people branded as of ' the dark quality ' by the 
Anugita in the passage in question. We have, therefore, 
at least two different recognised bodies of thinkers, and 
one individual thinker, to whom the words under dis- 
cussion may apply, and it is plainly unsafe, under these 
circumstances, to draw any chronological inference based 
on the hypothesis of one particular body out of those 
three being the one intended by the author. Before 
closing this part of the investigation, it may be interesting 
to note, that the phrase ' turning the wheel/ a phrase now 
so familiar to us as one of the household words of Buddhism, 
is used in the Anugita with respect to king kanaka. I do 
not think, however, that either alone, or even coupled with 
the word Nirvana, that phrase can be made the basis of any 
legitimate deduction in favour of the priority of the Anugita 
to Buddhism. At the outside, the only deduction admissible, 
if any deduction were admissible, would be, that the Anu- 
gita was composed prior to the recognition, of Nirvana and 
A'akrapravartana as specially Buddhistic words. But 
priority to such recognition is not, I apprehend, necessarily 
synonymous with priority to the rise of Buddhism. 

The net result of this part of the investigation appears 
to be, that we have pretty strong grounds for holding the 
Anugita to belong to a period very considerably removed 
from the period of the Upanishads and the Bhagavadgita ; 
but that we have no tangible grounds on which to base any 
deduction regarding its priority or otherwise to the Sankhya 
and Yoga systems of philosophy, or to the great movement 
of Gautama Buddha. There is only one other point, which 
we can establish in a not entirely unsatisfactory way, and 
which enables us to draw closer the limits within which 
the Anugita must have been composed. That point is the 
position of the Anugita with reference to Apastamba's 
Dharma-sutra. I need not say again, that I accept here 
the proposition about the age of Apastamba which has been 
laid down by Dr. Buhler, as a sufficiently satisfactory work- 
ing hypothesis. And accepting that proposition, I venture 
to suggest the fourth century B. C. as a not unlikely date 
for the Anugita. It appears to me, that a comparison of 

2 l6 


the Anugita and the rules of Apastamba upon one impor- 
tant point which they both deal with shows the priority of 
the former work. I allude to the rules and regulations 
touching the four A^ramas or orders contained in the Anu- 
gitS and in the Dharma-sutra of Apastamba. One circum- 
stance strikes us at once on comparing the two works on 
this point. Apastamba goes into a very great deal of 
minute details more than the Anugita, although the latter 
work docs not deal with the topic in any very summary 
mode. Taking all the differences between the two works 
together, and the fact that the Anugita sets about the dis- 
cussion of the topic in a manner which seems intended to 
be — not, indeed, absolutely exhaustive, but still — very full, 
I am very strongly inclined to attribute the differences to 
an actual development and progress of doctrine. I will 
endeavour to illustrate this view by means of a few detailed 
instances And let us first take the order of householders 
to which the Anugita gives precedence over the others. 
One of the injunctions laid down by the Anugita is that the 
householder should always be devoted to his wife. Against 
this simple precept, we have a very minute series of rules 
prescribed by Apastamba, which it is not necessary to refer 
to specifically, but which may be seen in several of the 
Sutras contained in the first Khaz^a of the first Pa/ala of 
the second Prajna. Compare again the excessive minute- 
ness of the rules regarding the Bali-offering or the reception 
of guests, as given by Apastamba, with the simple statement 
of the Anugita that the five great sacrifices should be per- 
formed. There again, I think, we are to see in this difference 
of treatment the result of a pretty long course of ceremonial 
progress. Proceeding to the rules regarding the Brahma- 
kkrin or student, an analogous phenomenon meets us there. 
Taking first the subject of food, we have a considerable 
number of detailed injunctions in Apastamba, compared with 
the simple rule of the Anugita, that the student should, with 
the leave of his preceptor, eat his food without decrying it. 
Again with regard to alms, whereas the Anugita simply 

1 Cf. pp. 358, 360 infra with Apastamba, pp. 9 seq., 103 seq., 114 seq. 



says that the student should take his food out of the alms 
received by him, Apastamba has an elaborate catena of 
rules as to how the alms are to be collected, and from whom, 
and so forth. Take again the provisions in the two works 
regarding the description of the cloth, staff, and girdle of the 
student. Apastamba refers to various opinions on this 
subject, of which there is not even a trace in the Anugita l . 
It appears that even before Apastamba's time, distinctions 
had been laid down as to the description of girdle staff and 
cloth to be used by the different castes — distinctions of which 
there is no hint in the Anugita, where all students, of what- 
ever caste, are spoken of under the generic name. These 
distinctions appear to me to point very strongly to that 
ceremonial and doctrinal progress of which we have spoken 
above. The tendency is visible in them to sever the Brah- 
ma/ms from the other castes — by external marks. And that 
tendency, it seems to me, must have set in, as the merits 
which had given the Brahma;/a caste its original position at 
the head of Hindu society were ceasing to be a living reality, 
and that caste was intrenching itself, so to say, more behind 
the worth and work of the early founders of its greatness, than 
the worth and work of their degenerating representatives. 
These comparisons, taken together, appear to me to warrant 
the proposition we have already laid down with regard to 
the priority of the Anugita to Apastamba. If we have not 
referred to the rules relating to the two other orders of 
forester and ascetic, it is because the scope for a comparison 
of those is very limited. Those rules alone would scarcely 
authorise the inference drawn above ; but I can perceive 
nothing in them to countervail the effect of the comparisons 
already made. And it must be remembered, that the rules 
as to foresters and ascetics would be less apt to undergo 
change than those as to students and householders. 

It appears to me that the view we have now expressed 
may be also supported by a comparison of the doctrines of 
the Anugita and Apastamba touching the duties of Brah- 
ma/;as. According to Apastamba, the occupations lawful 

1 Cf. also Biihler's Gautama, p. 175. 



to Br&hmaaas arc the famous six referred to in our Intro- 
duction to the Bhagavadgita, and two others superadded, 
namely; inheritance and gleaning corn in the fields. These 
last are not mentioned in the Anugita, or in Manu either, 
and arc, even according to Apastamba, common to Brah- 
ma/*as with Kshatriyas and Vai.?yas. But as regards 
the six above referred to, it is worthy of note, that the 
Anugita apparently groups them into two distinct sets of 
three. The first set of three consists of those which, in our 
Introduction to the Bhagavadgita, we have characterised as 
constituting rather the rights than the duties of Brahma/^as, 
and which the Anugita describes as ' means of livelihood for 
Brahmaz/as.' The other set of three consists of real duties, and 
these the Anugita speaks of as ' pious duties.' This grouping 
appears to me to furnish powerful corroboration of the view 
put forward in our Introduction to the Bhagavadgita. It 
would seem, that the possession of the moral and spiritual 
merits which, according to the Gita, constituted the duty of 
Brahma/zas, in the simple and archaic society there disclosed, 
was developed, in a more advanced and artificial state of 
society,into the performance of the 'pious duties' of the Anu- 
gita and the duties which are ' the means of livelihood.' Then 
in the further social evolution, in the course of which the old 
spiritual view began to be forgotten, and the actual facts of 
the past began to be transmuted into the dogmatic rules of 
the future, the occupations of receiving presents, imparting 
instruction, and officiating at sacrifices, became the special 
occupations of the Brahma;/as, and the distinction between 
these occupations from their higher duties was thrown into 
the background ; and accordingly we find no allusion to any 
such distinction in Apastamba or Manu, or, as far as I know, 
in any other later embodiment of the current ideas on the 
subject 1 . If all this has been correctly argued, the conclusion 
derivable from it is in entire accord with that which we have 
already drawn, namely, that the Bhagavadgita, the Anugita, 
and the Dharma-sutra of Apastamba, belong t^> different 

1 In Gautama X, 1-3, the 'pious duties' are called 'obligatory,' the others 
: additional for Eiahmawas.' See the note on the passage in Biihler's edition, 
and cf. Gautama VIII, 9, 10. 


stages of ancient Indian history, and that the stage to 
which the Gita belongs is the earliest, and that to which 
Apastamba belongs, the latest of such stages. 

I am unable to find anything else in the way of internal 
evidence bearing upon the date of the Anugita. It appears 
to me, that the date to which the investigation we have 
now gone through leads us, is one which, in the present 
state of our information, may be fairly accepted as a pro- 
visional hypothesis. It does not appear to me to conflict 
with any ascertained dates, while it is pointed to as pro- 
bable by the various lines of testimony which we have here 
considered. We now proceed to discuss one or two other 
points which may have a bearing upon this topic, but which 
at present cannot yield us any positive guidance in our 
search for the date of the Anugita. And first among these, 
let us consider the various names of deities that occur 
in different parts of the work. We have, then, Vishnu, 
Sarnbhu, 67ish//u, Soma, Aditya, Siirya, Mitra, Agni, 
/Sandra, Rudra, Siva., Varu//a, Pra^apati, Maghavat, 
Purandara, Indra, Brahman, Satakratu, Dharma, Naraya;/a, 
Vayu, Yama, Tvash^/7, Hari, Isvara, and lastly Uma under 
three different names, namely, Uma, Maheyvari, and Par- 
vati. Now, leaving aside for the moment the three names 
of Uma, which appear from the passage where they are 
used to be all three the names of the same goddess, there 
is no doubt that in the list above set out, some of the names 
are merely used in different passages, but still to indicate 
the same being. Thus, Indra, 5atakratu, Purandara, and 
Maghavat are really the names of one and the same deity. 
But when Soma is mentioned as the deity presiding over 
the tongue, and A'andtamas as the deity presiding over 
the mind, it becomes doubtful whether the two names 
do really indicate the same deity, albeit in later Sanskrit 
Soma and A^andramas both signify the moon. Similarly, 
when Arka is said to be the deity presiding over the eye, 
and Mitra over another organ, it seems open to question 
whether Arka and Mitra both signify the sun there, as 
they undoubtedly do in classical Sanskrit. True it is, that 
even in such a recent work as the Satikhya-sara, this mention 
[8] P 

AM (ilTA. 

of Arka and Mitra as presiding deities of two several 
organs does occur. But it is plain, that that circumstance 
cm have no bearing on the inquiry before us, for the 
Sankhya-sara is avowedly a compilation based on older 
authorities, and in the particular part under consideration, 
really reproduces a passage from some older work. It can- 
not, therefore, be argued, that because Arka and Mitra were 
identified with one another at the time of the Sankhya-sara, 
and yet are mentioned as deities of two separate organs, 
therefore, they must have also been regarded as one in 
the older original work where they are also mentioned as 
deities of two separate organs. And it may, perhaps, be 
remarked here in passing, that the Vedanta Paribhasha has 
MWtyu instead of Mitra, which would get rid of the diffi- 
culty here altogether ; while as regards Soma and A^andra- 
mas, the passage in the Sankhya-sara reads Pra^etas instead 
of Soma, which would get rid of the other difficulty above 
pointed out. Whether these discrepancies are owing to any 
tampering with the lists of organs and deities, at a time 
when the later identifications between different deities took 
place, or whether they are to be explained on some other 
theory, it is impossible at present to say. And, therefore, 
it is also unnecessary to pursue the inquiry here any further. 
It must suffice for the present to have drawn attention to 
the matter. 

Akin to this point, though quite distinct from it, is one 
which arises on a passage where the emancipated being 
is identified with Vishnu, Mitra, Agni, Varu;/a, and Pra^a- 
pati l . Now it is reasonable to suppose, that the deities thus 
specified here must have been among those held in highest 
repute at the time, the whole significance of the passage 
where they are mentioned requiring that that should be 
so. But in our Pantheon as disclosed by our later litera- 
ture, Mitra and Agni and Varu;/a occupy but a very sub- 
ordinate position. Even in Kalidasa^, the subordination 
of these deities to our celebrated Trinity seems to be quite 

1 See p. 345. 

2 See inter alia, Kumara II, 20 seq.,and VII, 44 seq., and cf. our Bhaitr/hari 
(Bombay Sanskrit Classics), Introd. p. xix. 


22 1 

fully established. But, on the other hand, in the Vedic 
theogony, they are among the most prominent deities. In 
the Taittiriya-upanishad, we have in the very first sentence 
Mitra, Varu«a, Vish;/u, and Brahman (who may be iden- 
tified with Pra^apati) all mentioned together, and their 
blessings invoked. This does not help in fixing a date for 
the Anugita; but it lends some support to the conclusion 
already arrived at on that point, by showing that the 
theogony of the Anugita is not yet very far removed from 
the theogony of the Vedic times, while it is separated by 
a considerable interval from the theogony disclosed in the 
works of even such an early writer of the classical period 
as Kalidasa. 

Another point of similar bearing on our present investi- 
gation is the mode in which the story of Paraj-urama is 
dealt with in the Anugita. There is in the first place no 
allusion to his being an incarnation of Vishnu, nor to the 
encounter between him and his namesake, the son of 
Da^aratha and the hero of the Ramaya;/a. We have, on 
the contrary, an explicit statement, that after the advice 
of the i Pitrzs ' he entirely abandons the slaughter of the 
Kshatriyas, and resorting to penance thereby achieves 
final emancipation. We have elsewhere argued 1 , that the 
theory of Paraj-urama being an incarnation of Vish;/u, must 
have probably originated prior to the time of Bhartrzhari, 
but later than the time of Kalidasa. The allusion to 
Paraj-urama in the work before us does not, however, enable 
us to judge of its chronological position with reference to 
Kalidasa. But the last point discussed renders it unnecessary 
to consider this question further. It may be noted, by the 
way, that the Anugita represents Para^urama, although 
living in the Ajrama or hermitage of his father, who was 
a Rishiy as mounting a chariot for the purpose of sweeping 
away the kinsmen of Kartavirya. Whence he obtained a 
chariot in a hermitage, the Anugita does not explain. 

In connexion with the episode of Parajurama, may be 
noted the list which occurs in the course of it, of the 

1 See ' Was the Ramaya#a copied from Homer?' pp. 56, 57. 
P 2 


degraded Kshatriya tribes, of Dravii/as, Sabaras, &c. I ;im 
unable to see that those names can give us any further 
help in our present investigation than in so far as they 
show that, at the time of the Anugita, there must have 
been some information about the south of India available 
in the districts where the author of the Anugita lived. 
Some of the tribes mentioned appear to have been located 
far in the south of the Indian peninsula. But this is a 
point on which we shall have to say something more in 
discussing the next item of internal evidence to which we 
shall refer. Here it is enough to point out that some of 
the tribes mentioned in the Anugita are also referred to 
in no less a work than the Aitareya-brahma//a K 

We come next to the enumeration of the principal 
mountains which is contained in one passage of the Anu- 
gita. Those mountains are the Himalaya, the Pariyatra, 
the Sahya, the Vindhya, the Triku/avat, the 5veta, the 
Nila, the Bhasa, the KoshY/zavat, the Mahendra, the Malya- 
vat, and perhaps the Guruskandha. I am not sure whether 
the last name is intended to be taken as a proper name, 
or only as an epithet of Mahendra. Now compared with 
the mountains mentioned in the Bhagavadgita, this is cer- 
tainly a remarkable list. The Gita mentions only Meru 2 
and Himalaya ; while here we have in the Anugita the 
Sahya, and Malaya, and Triku/avat, and Nila (the same, 
I presume, with the modern Nilgiri, the Sanatorium of the 
Madras Presidency), which take us far to the west and 
south of the Indian peninsula ; and the Mahendra and 
Malyavat, which, coupled with the mention of the river 
Ganges, cover a considerable part of the eastern districts. 
The Pariyatra and Vindhya occupy the regions of Central 
India. The Anugita, therefore, seems to belong to that 
period in the history of India, when pretty nearly the whole, 

1 Haug's ed., p. 183. And see generally on these tribes, Wilson's VishzmPunu/a 
[Hall's ed.), vol. ii, p. 170 seq., and *Santi Parvan (Moksha), chap. 207, st. 42. 

2 This is also mentioned in the Anugita, but in a different passage. The Nila 
is said by Professor Wilson to be a mountain in Orissa. But our suggestion has, 
I find, been already made by Dr. F. E. Hall also; see on this, and generally, 
Wilson's Yish/m Purawa, vol. ii, p. 141 seq. (ed. Hall). See also Indian 
Antiquary, VI, 133 seq. 



if not absolutely the whole, of the Indian continent was 
known to the Sanskrit-speaking population of the country. 
When was this knowledge reached ? It is difficult to fix 
the precise period ; and even if it could be fixed, it would 
not help us to fix satisfactorily any point of time to which 
the Anugita could be attributed. But it may be pointed 
out here, that in Pata;7^"ali's Mahabhashya we have evidence 
of such knowledge having been possessed by the Aryas in 
the second century B.C. In truth, the evidence available 
in the Mahabhashya is even fuller than this in the Anu- 
gita. For Pata//£*ali tells us of a town or city in the south 
named Ka///Hpura 1 ; he speaks of the dominions of the 
Pa;7^ya kings, and of the A"ola and Kerala districts 2 ; 
he refers also to the large tanks of the south ; and he 
makes allusions to linguistic usages current in the southern 
and other provinces 3 . Before Pata/^ali's time there 
had taken place Mahendra's invasion of Ceylon, and the 
invading army must have penetrated through the southern 
provinces. And there had been also put up the great 
Inscriptions of Aj-oka, which have attracted so much in- 
terest, and are proving such prolific sources of information 
in various departments of knowledge. One of these inscrip- 
tions was at Ga/^am, which is not very far from the 
Mahendra mountain alluded to in the Anugita 4 . All these 
facts support the conclusion drawn by General Cunningham 
from the correctness of the information given to Alexander 
the Great by the Hindus of his time, namely, that ' the 
Indians, even at that early date in their history, had a very 
accurate knowledge of the form and extent of their native 
land V And not only do they support that conclusion, 
they show that the knowledge covered other facts regarding 

1 Banaras ed., p. 74 (IV, 2, 2). 

2 P. 60 (IV, 1,4).' See also p. 65. 

3 See Mahabhashya, p. 82 (I, 1, 5), p. 16 (I, 1, 1); and cf. Muir, Sanskrit 
Texts, vol. ii, pp. 152. 355. 

1 See Cunningham's Corpus Inscriptionum, I, p. 1. 

5 See Ancient Geography of India, p. 3. And compare also the information 
collected in the Periplus of the Eurythrysean Sea (translated by Mr. McRindle), 
pp. 1 12-136, where a large number of ports is mentioned as existing on the Indian 
coasts. The Periplus seems to date from about 90 A. D. (see ibid. p. 5). 

22 A 


their native land than its form and extent. It follows con- 
sequently that this enumeration of mountains does not 
require the date of the Anugita to be brought down to 
a later period than the fourth century B.C., and leaves it 
open to us 3 therefore, to accept whatever conclusion the 
other evidence available may seem to justify. On the 
other hand, it is plain also, that it affords no positive 
information as to when the Anugita was composed, and 
therefore wc need not dwell any further upon the point 
on the present occasion. 

There arc a few other points which arise upon the contents 
of the Anugita, but which are not, in the present condition 
of our knowledge, capable of affording any certain guidance 
in our present investigation. Thus we have the story of 
Dharma appearing before king kanaka disguised as a Brah- 
ma;/a. I am not aware of any case of such disguises occur- 
ring in any of the Upanishads, although there are numerous 
parallel instances throughout the Puranik literature \ It is, 
however, difficult to draw any definite chronological infer- 
ence from this fact. There is further the reference to the 
attack of Rahu on the sun. It is difficult, in the present 
state of our knowledge, to say for certain, when the theory 
of eclipses there implied was prevalent. In the AV/andogya- 
upanishad 2 we have the emancipated self compared to the 
moon escaped from the mouth of Rahu. And a text of the 
Rig-veda, quoted by Mr. Ya^esvara Gastrin in his Arya- 
vidyasudhakara 3 , speaks of the demon Rahu attacking the 
sun with darkness. Here again we have another matter of 
some interest ; but I cannot see that any safe deduction can 
be derived from it, without a more ample knowledge of 
other relevant matters than is at present accessible. Take 
again the references to certain practices which look very 
much like the practices of the Cainas of the present day. 
Is the Anugita, then, earlier or later than the rise of the 
6'aina system ? It is not safe, I think, to found an answer 
to this question upon the very narrow basis afforded by the 

1 And see, too, Kalidasa Kumara V, st. 84. 2 P. 622. 

3 P. 26. In Kalidasa's Raghuva#wa the true explanation of eclipses is 
alluded to. See Canto XIV, 40. 



passage referred to. But it may be observed, that the pre- 
cepts laid down in the passage in question are laid down as 
precepts for orthodox Hindus, and not as the doctrines of 
a heretical sect. They are also very general, and not so 
minute as those which the (S'ainas of the present day observe 
as binding upon them. If, therefore, any conclusion is to be 
drawn from these precepts, it must be that the Anugita 
must have been composed prior to the rise of £ainism ; and 
that 6ainism must have appropriated and developed this 
doctrine which it obtained from the current Brahmanism 1 . 
If this is so, the Anugita must be a very ancient work 
indeed. It is not, however, necessary to further work out 
this line of argument, having regard to the opinions recently 
expressed by Mr. Thomas 2 , rehabilitating the views enun- 
ciated long ago by Colebrooke and others. If those views 
are correct, and if £ainism was a dominant system in this 
country prior even to the time of Gautama Buddha, and if, 
further, we are right in the suggestion — for it is no more, 
it must be remembered — that the Anugita dates from a 
period prior to the rise of £ainism, then it would seem to 
follow that the Anugita belongs to some period prior to the 
sixth century B. c. All this, however, is at present very 
hypothetical, and we draw attention to it only that the 
question may be hereafter considered when fuller materials 
for expressing a final judgment upon it become accessible. 
Meanwhile, having regard to the views above alluded to as 
so elaborately put forward by Mr. Thomas, it is possible 
for us still to hold that, in the present state of our know- 
ledge, the third or fourth century B.C. is not too early 
a date to assign to the Anugita, even on the assumption 
that the precepts contained in that work regarding the care 
to be taken of worms and insects were borrowed by it from 
the £aina system. With this negative result, we must for 
the present rest contented. 

One other fact of similar nature to those we have now 

1 As the Buddhists did in sundry instances. Cf. inter alia Biihler's Gautama, 
pp. lv and 191. And cf. also ' Was the Ramayawa copied from Homer?' pp. 48, 49. 

2 See Mr. Thomas's very elaborate discussion of the whole subject in the 
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (New Series), vol. ix, p. 155 seq- 



dealt with may, perhaps, be also noticed here. We allude 
to the stanzas which we find in the Aniigita and also in the 
Santi Parvan of the Mahabharata and in the Manusmrz'ti. 
There is also one which the Anugita has in common with 
the Parmsh/a of Y&ska's > Nirukta 1 . It is not possible, I 
conceive, to say finally whether one of these works borrowed 
these stanzas from the other of them ; while, on the other 
hand, it is quite possible, as already argued by us in the 
Introduction to the Gita, that all these works were only repro- 
ducing from some entirely different work, or that the stanzas 
in question were the common property of the thinkers of 
the time. We have no means available for deciding between 
these conflicting hypotheses. 

We have thus noticed all the salient points in the evidence, 
external and internal, which is available for determining the 
position of the Anugita in our ancient literature. Nobody 
who has seen even a little of the history of that literature 
will be surprised at the quantity or quality of that evidence, 
or the nature of the conclusions legitimately yielded by it. 
We have endeavoured to express those conclusions in 
language which should not indicate any greater certainty 
attaching to them than can fairly be claimed for them. 
The net result appears to be this. The Anugita may be 
taken with historical certainty to have been some centuries 
old in the time of the great 5aiikaraMrya. It was very 
probably older than the Dharma-sutras of Apastamba, but 
by what period of time we are not in a position at present 
to define. It was, perhaps, older also than the rise of 
Buddhism and 6ainism, and of the Yoga philosophy ; but 
on this it is impossible to say anything with any approach 
to confidence. It is, on the other hand, almost certain that 
it belongs to a period very considerably removed from the 
older Upanishads; probably removed by a distance of some 
centuries, during which ' stories ' not contained in the Upa- 
nishads had not only obtained currency, but also come to be 
regarded as belonging to antiquity 2 . And yet the period to 

1 Cf. Anugita I, 36 with Yaska (ed. Roth), p. 190. 

2 Some of the Puratana Itihasas, e.g. that of Narada and Devamata, are 
not traceable in any Vedic work known to us. Devamata's name I do not find 
referred to anywhere else. 



which the work belongs was one in which the Upanishads 
were only reverenced as the authoritative opinions of emi- 
nent men, not as the words of God himself 1 . In this respect, 
it may be said that the Anugita seems rather to belong to 
an earlier stratum of thought than even the Sanatsu^atiya, 
in which a £#anaka//^/a, as forming a part of the Vedic 
canon, seems to be recognised 2 . But it is abundantly clear, 
that the Anugita stands at a very considerable chronological 
distance from the Bhagavadgita. 

Such are the results of our investigation. We have not 
thought it necessary to discuss the verse or the language of 
the work. But it must in fairness be pointed out, that upon 
the whole, the verse and language are both pretty near the 
classical model. There are, it is true, a few instances of the 
metrical anomalies we have noticed elsewhere, but having 
regard to the extent of the work, those instances are far 
from being very numerous. The language and style, too, 
are not quite smooth and polished ; though, judging 
from them alone, I should rather be inclined to place the 
Sanatsu^atiya prior to the Anugita. But that suggests a 
question which we cannot now stop to discuss. 

One word, in conclusion, about the translation. The text 
used has been chiefly that adopted in the commentary of 
Ar^una Mi.fra, a commentary which on the whole I prefer 
very much to that of Nilaka;///^a, which has been printed in 
the Bombay edition of the Mahabharata. Ar^una MLsra, 
as a rule, affords some explanation where explanation is 
wanted, and does not endeavour to suit his text to any fore- 
gone conclusion. His comments have been of the greatest 
possible help to me ; and my only regret is that the only 
copy of his commentary which was available to me, and the 
use of which I owe to the kindness of my friend Professor 
Bha/^/arkar, was not as correct a one as could be desired. 
I have also looked into the Vishamaj-loki, a short work 
containing notes on difficult passages of the Mahabharata. 

1 See p. 2 1 1 supra. 

2 See p. 146 supra. The Buddhists seem to have borrowed the division of 
Karma and GH&nak&ndas. See Dr. Ra^endralala Mitra's Lalita Vistara (transl.), 
p. 21. The division, therefore, was probably older than the first century B. C. 



The MS. of it belonging to the Government Collection 
of MSS. deposited in Decern College was lent me also by 
Professor Bha*i/arkar. The principles adopted in the trans- 
lation and notes have been the same as those followed in 
the other pieces contained in this volume. 

P. S. I take this opportunity of stating that it is not at 
all certain that Ar^una MLsra is the name of the author of 
the commentary which I have used. I find that in sup- 
posing Ar^una MiVra to be the author, I confounded that 
commentary, which does not mention its author's name, 
with the commentary on another section of the Maha- 
bharata which does give its author's name as Ar^-una Mhsra, 
and which is also among the MSS. purchased by Professor 
Bha^arkar for the Government of Bombay. (See with 
regard to these MSS. Professor Bha//^arkar's Report on 
the Search for Sanskrit MSS. of 7th July, 1880.) 

A N U G I T A. 

Chapter I. 

(^aname^aya 1 said : 

What conversation, O twice-born one 2 ! took 
place between the high-souled Kei-ava and Ar^una, 
while they dwelt in that palace 3 after slaying their 
enemies ? 

Vai^ampayana said : 
The son of Prztha, after becoming possessed of 
his kingdom (in an) undisturbed (state), enjoyed 
himself in the company of Krishna, full of delight 
in that heavenly palace. And once, O king ! they 
happened to go, surrounded by their people, and 
rejoicing, to a certain portion of the palace which 
resembled heaven. Then Ar^una, the son of Pa/^u, 
having surveyed with delight that lovely palace, in 
the company of Krishna, spoke these words : ' O 
you of mighty arms ! O you whose mother is 
Devaki 4 ! when the battle was about to commence, 
I became aware of your greatness, and that divine 

1 This is the prince to whom the Mahabharata, as we have it, 
purports to have been related. 

2 I.e. Vaisampayana, who relates the Mahabharata to Crana- 

:i This appears to have been situated at Indraprastha, and to 
have been the one built for the PaWavas by the demon Maya, as 
related in the Sabha Parvan. 

4 This is a rather unusual form of address. 



form oi yours '. But that, O Ke.rava! which through 
affection (for me) yon explained before 2 , has all dis- 
appeared, () tiger-like man! from my degenerate 
mind. Again and again, however, I feel a curiosity 
about those topics. But (now), O Madhava ! you 
will be going at no distant date to Dvaraka.' 

V ai <rampayana said : 
Thus addressed, that best of speakers, Krzsrma, 
possessed of great glory, replied in these words after 
embracing Ar^'una. 

Vasudeva said : 
From me, O son of Pf/tha ! you heard a mystery, 
and learnt about the eternal 3 (principle), about 
piety in (its true) form, and about all the everlasting 
worlds 4 . It is excessively disagreeable to me, that 
you should not have grasped it through want of 
intelligence. And the recollection (of it) now again 
is not possible (to me). Really, O son of Fandu ! 
you are devoid of faith and of a bad intellect. And, 
O Dhana^aya ! it is not possible for me to repeat 
in full (what I said before). For that doctrine was 
perfectly adequate for understanding the seat 5 of the 
Brahman. It is not possible for me to state it again 
in full in that way. For then accompanied by my 
mystic power °, I declared to you the Supreme 
Brahman. But I shall relate an ancient story upon 

1 Cf. Bhagavadgita, chapters X and XI passim. 

2 I.e. in the Bhagavadgita. 

?> This may also be taken with piety thus : ' and learnt about the 
eternal piety in (its true) form/ 

4 As to the plural, see .Sarikara on Muw^/aka, p. 320. 

5 Cf. Gita, p. 78. For 'understanding' here we might, perhaps, 
substitute ' attaining.' The original word means both understanding 
and attaining. 0 Cf. Gila, p. 82. 

CHAPTER I, 2 1. 

that subject, so that adhering to this knowledge, you 
may attain the highest goal. O best of the sup- 
porters of piety ! listen to all that I say. (Once), O 
restrainer of foes ! there came from the heavenly 
world and the world of Brahman 1 , a Brahma;/a 
difficult to withstand 2 , and he was (duly) honoured 
by us. (Now) listen, without entertaining any mis- 
givings, O chief of the descendants of Bharata ! O 
son of Pn'tha ! to what he said on being interrogated 
by us according to heavenly rules 3 . 

The Brahma/^a said : 

0 Krishna. ! O destroyer of Madhu ! I will explain 
to you accurately what you, out of compassion for 
(all) beings 4 , have asked me touching the duties (to 
be performed) for final emancipation. It is destructive 
of delusion, O Lord ! Listen to me with attention 5 , 
as I relate it, O Madhava ! A certain Brahma^a 
named Ka^yapa, who had performed (much) penance, 
and who best understood piety, approached a certain 
twice-born (person) who had learnt the Scriptures 
relating to (all) duties 6 , having heard (of him, as 
one) who had over and over again gone through all 
knowledge and experience about coming and going 7 , 
who was well versed in the true nature of all worlds 8 , 

1 This seems to mean not the Supreme Brahman, but the Creator. 

2 Cf. Sanatsu^atiya, p. 161, 'not to be shaken.' 

3 I suppose this to mean according to the forms proper in the 
case of such a being as the one in question. Cf. Gita, p. 62, 
and note there. 

4 This is not easy to understand. Perhaps the allusion is to the 
doctrine at Gita, pp. 54, 55. 5 Cf. B/7'hadara;zyaka, p. 447. 

6 I.e. all prescribed acts of piety. 

7 As to knowledge and experience, cf. Gita, p. 57 ; and as to 
coming and going, cf. ibid. p. 84. 

8 I.e.asstated,forinstance,atGita,p.79,or Br/hadara;/yaka,p. 613. 



who knew about happiness and misery 1 , who knew 
the truth about birth and death 2 , who was con- 
versantwith merit and sin, who perceived the migra- 
tions of embodied (souls) of high and low (degrees) 
in consequence of (their) actions, who moved about 
like an emancipated being, who had reached per- 
fection 3 , who was tranquil, whose senses were re- 
strained, who was illumined with the Brahmic 
splendour 4 , who moved about in every direction, 
who understood concealed movements 5 , who was 
going in company of invisible Siddhas and celestial 
singers G , and conversing and sitting together (with 
them) in secluded (places), who went about as he 
pleased, and was unattached (anywhere) like the 
wind. Having approached him, that talented ascetic 
possessed of concentration (of mind), that best of 
the twice-born, wishing to acquire piety, fell at his 
feet, after seeing that great marvel. And amazed on 
seeing that marvellous man, the best of the twice- 
born, Kasyapa, pleased the preceptor by his great 
devotion. That was all appropriate 7 , (being) joined 
to sacred learning and correct conduct. And, O 
terror of your foes ! he pleased that (being) by (his 
purity of) heart and behaviour (suitable) towards 
a preceptor 8 . Then being satisfied and pleased, he 
spoke to the pupil these words, referring to the 

1 Cf. infra, p. 245. 2 Cf. Gila, pp. 48, 103. 

z Cf. Gita, passim. 4 Cf. Sanatsu^atiya, p. 162. 

5 I.e. moving about so as not to be seen by everybody. 

,; Literally, ' holders of wheels/ which Ar^una Mura interprets to 
mean ' A'arawas/ At -Santi Parvan (Moksha Dharma) CCXLIV, 26 
Nilaka«/^a renders ^akradhara by Aakravartin or Emperor. 

7 I.e. as Ka^yapa was possessed of Vedic lore, and behaved as 
he ought to behave in his capacity of pupil, it was natural that the 
other should be pleased. 8 See p. 176 seq. supra. 



highest perfection. Hear (them) from me, O 
c7anardana ! 

The Siddha said : 
Mortals, O dear friend 1 ! by their actions which 
are (of) mixed (character), or which are meritorious 
and pure, attain to this world as the goal, or to 
residence in the world of the gods 2 . Nowhere is 
there everlasting happiness ; nowhere eternal resi- 
dence 3 . Over and over again is there a clown- 
fall from a high position attained with difficulty. 
Overcome by lust and anger, and deluded by desire, 
I fell into uncomfortable and harassing states (of 
life), in consequence of (my) committing sin. Again 
and again death, and again and again birth 4 . I ate 
numerous (kinds of) food, sucked at various breasts, 
saw various mothers, and fathers of different sorts; and, 
O sinless one! (I saw) strange pleasures and miseries. 
Frequently (I suffered) separation from those I loved, 
association with those I did not love. Loss of 
wealth also came on me, after I had acquired that 
wealth with difficulty ; ignominies full of affliction 
from princes and likewise from kinsmen ; excessively 
poignant pain, mental and bodily. I also underwent 
frightful indignities, and fierce deaths and captivities ; 
(I had a) fall into hell, and torments in the house of 
Yama 5 . I also suffered much from old age, continual 
ailments, and numerous misfortunes flowing from the 
pairs of opposites G . Then on one occasion, being 
much afflicted with misery, I abandoned the whole 

1 The same word as at Gita, p. 72. 

2 Cf. A'Mndogya-upanishad, pp. 356-359, and Gita, p. 84. 
8 See Gita, p. 76, and cf. KaMa, p. 90. 

1 For the whole of this passage, cf. Maitri-upanishad, p. 8. 
5 See Manu VI, 61. c See Gita, p. 48. 


course of worldly life, through indifference (to worldly 
objects), and taking refuge with the formless (prin- 
ciple) '. 1 [aving learnt about this path in this world, 
1 exercised myself (in it), and hence, through favour 
of the self 2 , have I acquired this perfection : \ I shall 
not come here again 4 ; I am surveying the worlds, 
and the happy migrations 5 of (my) self from the 
creation of beings to (my attaining) perfection. 
Thus, O best of the twice-born ! have I obtained 
this highest perfection. From here I go to the 
next 6 (world), and from there again to the still 
higher (world) — the imperceptible seat of the Brah- 
man. Have no doubt on that, O terror of your 
foes 7 ! I shall not come back to this mortal world. 
1 am pleased with you, O you of great intelligence ! 
Say, what can I do for you ? The time is now 
come for that which you desired in coming to me. 
I know for what you have come to me. But I shall 
be going away in a short time, hence have I given 

1 Taking refuge, says Nilaka;///2a, in the belief of my being 
identical with the Brahman, which is to be comprehended by means 
of the profound contemplation called Asampra^wata Samadhi. 

2 I.e., says Nilaka////*a, the mind, and he cites Maitri, p. 179. Cf. 
Ka//*a, p. 108. The rendering at p. 192 supra will also suit (through 
the self becoming placid). This placidity is defined at -Santi Parvan 
(Moksha Dharma) CCXLVII, 11, with which cf. Gita, p. 69. See 
Gila, p. 51. 

3 As above described. 

4 Cf. A^andogya, p. 628; see also ibid. p. 282. 

h He calls them happy because they have ended happily, I pre- 
sume. ' Surveying the worlds' NilakawMa takes to be an index of 
omniscience. Cf. Sanatsug-atiya, p. 174. See also Yoga sutras III, 
25, and commentary there. 

6 I.e. the world of Brahman, or the Satyaloka; and the next 
step is assimilation into the Brahman. 

7 So read all the copies I have seen, though Ka^yapa is the 
person addressed. 



this hint to you. I am exceedingly pleased, O clever 
one ! with your good conduct. Put (your) questions 
without uneasiness, I will tell (you) whatever you de- 
sire. I highly esteem your intelligence, and greatly 
respect it, inasmuch as you have made me out 1 ; 
for, O Kasyapa ! you are (a) talented (man). 

Chapter II. 

Vasudeva 2 said : 

Then grasping his feet, Kasyapa asked questions 
very difficult to explain, and all of them that (being), 
the best of the supporters of piety, did explain. 

KeUyapa said : 
How does the body perish, and how, too, is it 
produced ? How does one who moves in this 
harassing course of worldly life become freed ? And 
(how) does the self, getting rid of nature, abandon 
the body (produced) from it 3 ? And how, being freed 
from the body, does he attain to the other 4 ? How 
does this man enjoy the good and evil acts done 
by himself ? And where do the acts of one who is 
released from the body remain ? 

The Brahma/za said : 
Thus addressed, O descendant of VWshm ! that 
Siddha answered these questions in order. Hear 
me relate what (he said). 

1 This was difficult, as the Siddha possessed extraordinary powers, 
such as that of concealed movement, &c. 2 Sic in MSS. 

s Cf. as to getting rid of nature, Gita, pp. 75-106. As to the 
body produced from nature, cf. ibid. p. 112, and pp. 317-318 infra. 

4 I.e. the Brahman, says Nilaka«//za. 

[8] Q 



The Siddha said : 
W he n those actions, productive of long life and 
fame which a man performs here, are entirely 
exhausted, after his assumption of another body, 
he performs (actions of an) opposite character, his 
self being- overcome at the exhaustion of life 2 . And 
his ruin being impending, his understanding goes 
astray. Not knowing his own constitution 3 , and 
strength, and likewise the (proper) season, the man 
not being self-controlled, does unseasonably what is 
injurious to himself. When he attaches himself to 
numerous very harassing (actions) ; eats too much 4 , or 
does not eat at all; when he takes bad food, or meat 5 , 
or drinks, or (kinds of food) incompatible with one 
another, or heavy food in immoderate quantities, or 
without (previously taken food) being properly di- 
gested ; or takes too much exercise, or is incontinent; or 
constantly, through attachment to action, checks the 
regular course (of the excretions 0 ) ; or takes juicy food 7 ; 
or sleeps by day 8 ; or (takes food) not thoroughly 
prepared ; (such a man) himself aggravates the dis- 

1 One reading omits 1 fame/ as to which cf. Taittiriya-upanishad, 
p. 129 ; ^andogya, pp. 122-227. As to long life, cf. -ffMndogya, 
p. 272 ; exhausted, i.e. by enjoyment of fruit in another world. 

2 Cf. -Sariraka Bhashya, p. 753 seq., where we have a slightly 
different view. 

8 Ar^una Mijra renders the original, sattva, by svabhava. 

4 Cf. for all this, Gita, pp. 62,69, 1 18, which passages, however, are 
from a slightly different point of view. See also .A'Mndogya, p. 526. 

8 A various reading here excludes meat. But cf. Apastamba I, 
1, 2, 23; Gautama II, 13. 6 So says Nilaka»Ma. 

7 I. e. which turns to juice in digestion, much juice being a cause 
of indigestion, say the commentators. 

8 This is doubtful. The sense may be, ' who takes juicy or not 
thoroughly prepared food by day and night.' But see A^valayana 
Gr/hya-sutra, p. 90; Apastamba I, 1, 2, 24; Gautama II, 13. 


2 37 

orders (in the body) when the time comes 1 . By 
aggravating the disorders (in) his own (body), he 
contracts a disease which ends in death, or he even 
engages in unreasonable (acts), such as hanging 2 
(oneself). From these causes, the living 3 body of 
that creature then perishes. Learn about that 
correctly as I am about to state it. Heat being 
kindled in the body, and being urged by a sharp 
wind 4 , pervades the whole frame, and, verily, checks 
the (movements of all the) life-winds. Know this 
truly, that excessively powerful heat, if kindled in 
the body, bursts open the vital parts — the seats of 
the soul 5 . Then the soul, full of torments, forthwith 
falls away from the perishable (body). Know, O 
best of the twice-born ! that (every) creature leaves 
the body, when the vital parts are burst open, its self 
being overcome with torments. All beings are con- 
stantly distracted with birth and death ; and, O chief 
of the twice-born! are seen abandoning (their) bodies, 
or entering the womb on the exhaustion of (their 
previous) actions G . Again, a man suffers similar tor- 
ments, having his joints broken and suffering from 

1 The time of destruction, says Ar^una MLrra. 

2 Which, say the commentators, leads to death, even without 
any disease. 

3 So I construe the original, having regard to the question, ' how 
does the body perish ? ' The other reading, which is in some respects 
better, is equivalent to 1 the life falls away from the body of that 

4 This is different, as the commentators point out, from the 
ordinary life-winds. 

5 The original here is giva, not atman, which we have rendered 
' self.' This refers rather to the vital principle. As to the seats, 
cf. YagT/avalkya Smrzti III, 93 seq. 

c I adopt the reading karmawam, which I find in one of the MSS. 
I consulted. I think it probable that that was the reading before 
the commentators. The other reading is marmawam. 

Q 2 



cold, in consequence of water'. As the compact 
association of the five elements is broken up, the 
\\ ind in the body, distributed within the five elements 2 , 
between the upward and downward life-winds, being 
aggravated by cold, and urged by a sharp wind 3 , goes 
upwards 4 , abandoning the embodied (self) in con- 
sequence of pain. Thus it 5 leaves the body, which 
appears devoid of breath. Then devoid of warmth, 
devoid of breath, devoid of beauty, and with con- 
sciousness destroyed, the man, being abandoned by 
the Brahman 6 , is said to be dead. (Then) he ceases 
to perceive (anything) with those very currents 7 
with which the supporter of the body 8 perceives 
objects of sense. In the same way, it is the eternal 
soul which preserves in the body the life-winds which 
are produced from food 9 . Whatever (part of the 
body) is employed in the collection 10 of that, know 

1 Having spoken of heat, he now speaks of the effects of cold. 
I am not sure if the water here refers to the water of the ' juicy ' 
substances before referred to. 

2 This means, I presume, within the dissolving body, Cf. Maitri- 
upanishad, p. 42. 

See note 4, last page. 4 To the head, Ar^una Mwra. 

E That is, the wind, I suppose, and then the breath departs from 
the body, and the man is said to die. ' Devoid of beauty,' further 
on, means, disfigured in the state of death. 

c ' I. e. the mind, Ar§-una MLrra. 

7 The senses. Cf. -SVetawatara, p. 288. 

8 See and cf. p. 262 infra. 

9 This, says Ar^una Mijra, is in answer to the possible question 
why this ' sharp wind ' does not work with the life-winds. The 
answer is, that such working requires the presence of the soul, which 
Arg-una Mijra says here means ' mind.' As to c production from 
food/ cf. A^andogya, p. 421 seq., and Taittiriya Arawyaka, p. 893. 

10 Collection of that = turning the food into semen, says Ar^una 
Mijra, who adds, ' in those vital parts, which are useful for this 
purpose, the life-wind dwells/ 



that to be a vital part, for thus it is seen (laid down) 
in the Scriptures. Those vital parts being wounded, 
that (wind) directly comes out therefrom, and entering 
the bosom of a creature obstructs the heart r . Then 
the possessor of consciousness knows nothing 2 . 
Having his knowledge enveloped by darkness 3 , 
while the vitals are still enveloped, the soul 4 , being 
without a fixed seat, is shaken about by the wind. 
And then he heaves a very deep and alarming gasp, 
and makes the unconscious body quiver as he goes 
out (of it). That soul, dropping out of the body, is 
surrounded on both sides by his own actions 5 , his 
own pure and meritorious, as also his sinful (ones). 
Brahma^as, possessed of knowledge, whose con- 
victions are correctly (formed) from sacred learning, 
know him by (his) marks as one who has performed 
meritorious actions or the reverse. As those who 
have eyes see a glow-worm disappear here and there 
in darkness, so likewise do those who have eyes 
of knowledge. Such a soul, the Siddhas see with 
a divine eye, departing (from the body), or coming 
to the birth, or entering into a womb 6 . Its three 
descriptions 7 of seats are here learnt from the Scrip- 
tures. This world is the world of actions 8 , where 

1 Arg-una Mijra renders this to mean ' mind/ 

2 As the mind is obstructed, says Arg-una Mijra. The possessor 
of consciousness = the self, Ar^una. 

3 I. e. pain, Ar^una MLrra. 

4 I.e. mind, Arg-una Mura. 5 Cf. B/Yhadara;/yaka, p. 843. 

6 See Aitareya-upanishad, p. 222, and Ankara's commentary 
there. The coming to the birth is the coming out of the womb 
into the world. Cf. also Gita, p. 112. 

7 As stated further on, viz. this world, the next world, and the 
womb. With this compare AV^andogya, p. 359. 

8 Cf. our Bhartr/hari (Bombay series), Notes (Nttijataka), p. 27. 



creatures dwell. All embodied (sclfs), having here 
performed good or evil (actions), obtain (the fruit). 
It is here they obtain higher or lower enjoy- 
ments by their own actions. And it is those whose 
actions here are evil, who by their actions go to hell. 
Harassing is that lower place where men are tor- 
mented. Freedom from it is very difficult, and the 
self should be specially protected from it. Learn 
from me now the seats in which creatures going 
up 1 dwell, and which I shall describe truly. Hearing 
this, you will learn the highest knowledge, and 
decision regarding action 2 . All (the worlds in) the 
forms of stars, and this lunar sphere 3 , and also this 
solar sphere which shines in the world by its own 
lustre, know these to be the seats of men who 
perform meritorious actions. All these, verily, fall 
down again and again in consequence of the ex- 
haustion of their actions 4 . And there, too, in 
heaven, there are differences of low, high, and 
middling 5 . Nor, even there, is there satisfaction, 
(even) after a sight of most magnificent splendour. 
Thus have I stated to you these seats distinctly. 
I will after this (proceed to) state to you the pro- 
duction of the foetus 6 . And, O twice-born one ! 
hear that attentively from me as I state it. 

1 Cf. on this and 'lower place,' Gita, p. 109 ; Sahkhya Karika, 44. 

2 The readings here are most unsatisfactory. The meaning of 
the printed reading adopted above would seem to be, 1 decision as 
to what actions should be performed/ &c. 

3 Cf. Gita, p. 81, and Sanatsu^atiya, p. 158. 4 Cf. GM, p. 84. 

5 Ar^una Mwra says, ' In heaven in the next world, low= infe- 
rior (?), high = heaven, and middling = the space below the skies 
(antariksha).' For the three degrees of enjoyment in heaven, see 
YogavasisbMa I, 35 seq. 

r ' This is the third of the three seats above referred to. 

chapter in, 7. 


Chapter III. 

There is no destruction here of actions good or 
not good l . Coming to one body after another they 
become ripened in their respective ways 2 . As a 
fruitful (tree) producing fruit may yield much fruit, 
so does merit performed with a pure mind become 
expanded 3 . Sin, too, performed with a sinful mind, is 
similarly (expanded). For the self engages in action, 
putting forward this mind 4 . And now further, hear 
how 5 a man, overwhelmed with action, and enveloped 
in desire and anger Renters a womb. Within the womb 
of a woman, (he) obtains as the result of action a body 
good or else bad 7 , made up of virile semen and blood. 
Owing to (his) subtlety and imperceptibility, though 
he obtains a body appertaining to the Brahman, he 
is not attached anywhere ; hence is he the eternal 
Brahman 8 . That is the seed of all beings ; by that 

1 Cf. Maitn-upanishad, p. 53, and Muw</aka, p. 270. And see 
generally as to this passage, -Sanraka Bhashya, pp. 751-760. 

2 I.e. they yield their respective fruits; cf. Maitri, p. 43, and 
^Mndogya, p. 358. 

3 This explains, say the commentators, how even a little merit or 
sin requires sometimes more than one birth to enjoy and exhaust. 

4 As a king performs sacrifices ' putting forward ' a priest, Ar^-una 
Mi.rra; and cf. Dhammapada, the first two verses. 

5 Ar^una Mura has tatha, ' in the same way,' instead of this, 
and renders it to mean ' putting forward ' the mind. 

6 Hence he does not get rid of birth and death. 

7 Good = of gods or men; bad = of the lower species of creatures, 

8 He, in the preceding sentences, according to Ar^una Mijra, 
means the self, through the mind, or ' putting forward ' the mind, 
as said above. In this sentence, he takes ' he ' to mean the mind 
itself; Brahman = the self; and the mind, he says, is called the 
Brahman, as it, like the self, is the cause of the Aaitanya, intelli- 
gence, in all creatures. 

2. 1 2 


all creatures exist. That soul, entering all the limbs 
of the tu tus, part by part, and dwelling in the seat 
of the life-wind 1 , supports (them) with the mind 2 . 
Then the fetus, becoming possessed of consciousness, 
moves about its limbs. As liquefied iron being 
poured out assumes the form of the imaged such 
you must know is the entrance of the soul into the 
foetus. As fire entering a ball of iron, heats it, such 
too, you must understand, is the manifestation of 
the soul in the fetus. And as a blazing lamp shines 
in a house, even so does consciousness light up 
bodies 4 . And whatever action he performs, whether 
good or bad, everything done in a former body must 
necessarily be enjoyed (or suffered). Then 5 that is 
exhausted, and again other (action) is accumulated, 
so long as the piety which dwells in the practice 
of concentration of mind for final emancipation 6 has 
not been learnt. As to that, O best (of men ) ! I will 
tell you about that action by which, verily, one going 
the round of various births, becomes happy. Gifts, 
penance, life as a Brahma/§arin, adherence to pre- 
scribed regulations, restraint of the senses 7 , and also 

1 I.e. the heart. 

2 Ar^una Mifra says that the soul at the beginning of the 
sentence means the mind, and mind here means knowledge or 
intelligence. Cf. p. 238 supra. 

3 In the mould of which, that is to say, it is poured. 

4 Cf. Gita, p. 106. The three similes, says NilakawMa, show 
that the soul pervades the whole body, is yet imperceptible, and 
also unattached to the body. Ar^una Misra's explanation is 
different, but I prefer Nilaka/z/^a's. 

5 I. e. by the enjoyment or suffering. 

B I. e. while he does not possess the knowledge which leads to 
the piety necessary as a preliminary for final emancipation, and 
which ultimately destroys action. Cf. Gita, p. 62. 

7 I. e. keeping the senses of hearing &c. from all operations 



tranquillity, compassion to (all) beings, self-restraint, 
and absence of cruelty, refraining from the appro- 
priation of the wealth of others, not acting dishonestly 
even in thought towards (any) being in this world, 
serving mother and father, honouring deities and 
guests, honouring preceptors, pity, purity, constant 
restraint of the organs \ and causing good to be 
done ; this is said to be the conduct of the good 2 . 
From this is produced piety, which protects people 
to eternity. Thus one should look (for it) among 
the good, for among them it constantly abides. The 
practice to which the good adhere, points out (what) 
piety (is) 3 . And among them dwells that (course of) 
action which constitutes eternal piety. He who 
acquires that, never comes to an evil end 4 . By this 
are people held in check from making a slip in the 
paths of piety 5 . But the devotee who is released 6 
is esteemed higher than these. For the deliver- 
ance from the course of worldly life of the man who 
acts piously and well, as he should act, takes place 
after a long time 7 . Thus a creature always meets 
with (the effects of) the action performed (in a) 
previous (life). And that 8 is the sole cause by which 
he comes here (in a) degraded (form). There is 

save those relating to the Brahman. Tranquillity is the same thing 
as regards the mind. 

1 This I take to mean restraint of the active organs, such as 
speech, &c. ' Self-restraint ' is rendered by Nilaka;///za to mean 
' concentration of mind.' 

2 Cf. Maitri, p. 57 ; ^7/andogya, p. 136 ; and Gita, pp. 103, 119. 

3 Cf. Apastamba I, 1, 1, 2 ; I, 7, 20, 7 ; -Sakuntala, p. 30 (Williams). 

4 Cf. Gita, p. 72. 

5 By this, i. e. by the practice of the good, Ar^una Mm-a. 

fi From delusion, Ar^una Mura; emancipated by force of his 
devotion, Nilaka;/Ma. 

7 Cf. Gita, p. 73; A7zandogya, pp. 136, 137. 8 Scil. the action. 

-I \ 

ANUG 1T.\ . 

iii tin* world a doubt as to what originally was the 
source from which he became invested with a body. 
And that I shall now proceed to state. Brahman, the 
grandfather of all people, having made a body for 
himself, created the whole of the three worlds, mov- 
ing and fixed \ From that he created the Pradhana, 
the material cause of all embodied (selfs), by which all 
this is pervaded, and which is known in the world as 
the highest 2 . This is what is called the destructible 3 ; 
but the other 4 is immortal and indestructible. And 
Pra^apati, who had been first created, created all 
creatures and (all) the fixed entities, (having) as 
regards the moving (creation), a pair separately for 
each 5 (species)". Such is the ancient (tradition) 
heard (by us). And as regards that, the grandsire 
fixed a limit of time, and (a rule) about migrations 
among (various) creatures, and about the return 6 . 
What I say is all correct and proper, like (what 
may be said by) any talented person who has in 

1 I. e. animate and inanimate. ' A body for himself ' = undeveloped 
Akiua, Nilaka////$a. But see Sarikhya-sara, p. 19, and Sankhya Prav. 
Bhashya I, 122, and III, 10. 

2 Cf. inter alia Gita, p. 58 and note, and Sahkhya-sara, p. n. 
As to the words at the beginning of this sentence, ' from that,' cf. 
Taittiriya-upanishad, p. 67, where everything is derived from Aka«ya, 
mentioned in the last note, and Aka^a from the Brahman. 

3 Cf. Gita, p. 113, where there are three principles distinguished 
from each other. 

4 I. e. the self, Ar^una Mura. 

5 A pair, i. e. a male and female for each species, such as man, &c, 
Ar^una Mura. 

6 Pra^apati fixed the limit of life for every ' moving ' creature, and 
the rule as to going from one species of body into another, and 
as to going from one world to another. As to a part of 'the 
ancient tradition,' the first stanza of the MuWaka-upanishad may 
be compared. 



a former birth perceived the self 1 . He who properly 
perceives pleasure and pain to be inconstant, the 
body to be an unholy aggregate 2 , and ruin to be 
connected with action 3 , and who remembers that 
whatever little there is of happiness is all misery 4 , 
he will cross beyond the fearful ocean of worldly 
life, which is very difficult to cross. He who under- 
stands the Pradhana 5 , (though) attacked by birth 
and death and disease, sees one (principle of) con- 
sciousness in all beings possessed of consciousness 6 . 
Then seeking after the supreme seat, he becomes 
indifferent to everything 7 . O best (of men) ! I will 
give you accurate instruction concerning it. Learn 
from me exhaustively, O Brahma^a ! the excellent 
knowledge concerning the eternal imperishable seat, 
which I am now about to declare. 

Chapter IV. 

He who becoming placid 8 , and thinking of nought, 
may become absorbed in the one receptacle 9 , aban- 
doning each previous (element), he will cross beyond 

1 Ar^una Mura says the strength of the impression in the former 
birth would give him this knowledge in the subsequent birth. 

2 Cf. Sanatsu^-atiya, p. 155. 3 Cf. inter alia p. 256 infra. 
4 Cf. Gita, p. 79. 5 Otherwise called Prakn'ti, or nature. 

G Cf. GM, p. 124. 7 Cf. Gita, p. in. 

8 We now begin, as Nilaka/////a points out, the answer to the 
question put above by Kajyapa about the emancipation of the self. 
Placid, Ar^una Mijra renders to mean ' silent, taciturn/ See p. 234 

9 The path of knowledge, says Ar^una Mi^ra; the Brahman, 
says Nilaka«///a. Abandoning each element = absorbing the gross 
into the subtle elements, and so forth, Nilaka/z///a ; abandoning 
each elementary mode of worship till one reaches that of contem- 
plating the absolute Brahman, Ar^una Mi^ra. 

2. 1 6 


(all) bonds. A man who is a friend of all, who en- 
dures all, who is devoted to tranquillity *, who has 
subdued his senses, and from whom fear and wrath 
have departed, and who is self-possessed 2 , is re- 
leased. I le who moves among all beings as if they 
were like himself", who is self-controlled, pure, free 
from vanity 4 and egoism, he is, indeed, released 
from everything. And he, too, is released who is 
equable towards both life and death 5 , and likewise 
pleasure and pain, and gain and loss, and (what is) 
agreeable and odious 6 . He who is not attached to 
any one, who contemns no one, who is free from 
the pairs of opposites, and whose self is free from 
affections 7 , he is, indeed, released in every way. 
He who has no enemy, who has no kinsmen, who 
has no child, who has abandoned piety, wealth, and 
lust altogether, and who has no desire, is released. 
He who is not pious and not impious 8 , who casts off 
(the merit or sin) previously accumulated, whose 
self is tranquillised by the exhaustion of the primary 
elements of the body 9 , and who is free from the pairs 
of opposites, is released. One who does no action 10 , 
and who has no desire, looks on this universe as 

1 This, in the terminology of the Vedanta, means keeping the 
mind from everything save 'hearing' &c. about the Brahman. 

2 One who has his mind under his control. But see Gita, p. 63. 

3 Cf. Gita, p. 71. 

4 I. e. the desire to be honoured or respected, Ar^una MLrra. 
Cf. Sanatsu^atiya, p. 161. 

5 Who does not care when death comes. 6 Cf. p. 151 supra. 
7 Cf. Gita for all this, pp. 1 01, 103, 125, &c. 8 Cf. KaMa, p. 10 1. 

9 Nilaka«/^a says this means the constituents of the body. 
Ar^una Mijra says, ' Prawa or life-wind/ &c. They are seven. See 
gloss on A^andogya-upanishad, p. 441, and p. 343 infra. 

10 Because, says Ar^una Mirra, he has no desire. Nilaka;///za 
says this means an ascetic, sannyasin. See p. 257 infra, note 1. 



transient, like an Asvattha tree \ always full of birth, 
death, and old age '\ Having his understanding 
always (fixed) upon indifference to worldly objects, 
searching for his own faults 3 , he procures the release 
of his self from bonds in no long time. Seeing the 
self void of smell 4 , void of taste, void of touch, 
void of sound, void of belongings, void of colour, 
and unknowable, he is released. He who sees the 
enjoyer of the qualities 5 , devoid of qualities, de- 
void of the qualities of the five elements G , devoid 
of form, and having no cause, is released. Aban- 
doning by the understanding 7 all fancies bodily and 
mental 8 , he gradually obtains tranquillity 9 , like fire 
devoid of fuel. He who is free from all impres- 
sions 10 , free from the pairs of opposites, without 
belongings, and who moves among the collection of 
organs with penance n , he is indeed released. Then 
freed from all impressions, he attains to the eternal 

1 Cf. Gita, p. in, where *Sankara explains the name to mean 
' what will not remain even till to-morrow/ 

2 Cf. Gita, p. 109, and other passages. 

3 Ar^una MLrra has a different reading, which means ' particu- 
larly observing the evils of (the three kinds of) misery.' 

4 Cf. Ka/^a, p. 119 ; Mu;^aka, p. 267 ; and MaWukya, p. 371. 

5 Cf. Gita, pp. 104, 105, and Ka//£a, p. 112. 

G NilakawMa says this refers to the gross elements, the next 
expression to the subtle ones, and being free from these two, he is 
' devoid of qualities/ viz. the three qualities. 7 Cf. Gita, p. 65. 

8 I. e. those which cause bodily and mental activity. 

9 Cf. Maitri, p. 178. The original is the famous word ' Nirvaz/a.' 

10 Scil. derived from false knowledge, says Ar^una Mura. Nila- 
kantha. says all impressions from outside oneself which are destroyed 
by those produced from concentration of mind, &c. See p. 391 infra. 

11 I. e. all those operations by which the internal man is rendered 
pure and free from all taints; see below, p. 2 48, where Nilaka;//^a ren- 
ders it as 'the performance of one's duty which is called penance.' But 
see, too, pp. 74, 119, 166 supra. The meaning seems to be that the 



Supreme Brahman, tranquil, unmoving, constant, in- 
destructible l . After this I shall explain the science 
of concentration of mind, than which there is nothing 
higher, (and which teaches) how devotees concentrat- 
ing (their minds) perceive the perfect self 2 . I will 
impart instruction regarding it accurately. Learn 
from me the paths 3 by which one directing the self 
within the self perceives the eternal 4 (principle). 
Restraining the senses, one should fix the mind, 
on the self ; and having first performed rigorous 
penance 5 , he should practise concentration of mind 
for final emancipation. Then the talented Brah- 
ma//a, who has practised penance, who is constantly 
practising concentration of mind, should act on (the 
precepts of) the science of concentration of mind G , 
seeing the self in the self by means of the mind 7 . 
If such a good man is able to concentrate the self 
on the self, then he, being habituated to exclusive 
meditation 8 , perceives the self in the self. Being 

man in question lets his senses work, but does not permit himself to 
be in any way identified with their operations. Cf. Gita, p. 64. 

1 Cf. the expressions at Gita, p. 45. ' Unmoving/ which occurs 
at La, p. 10, is there explained by Sankara to mean ' always the same.' 
The same sense is given by Mahidhara. Weber's -Satapatha, p. 980. 

2 ' Perfect ' would seem to mean here free from all bonds or 
taints, the absolute. 

3 I. e. sources of knowledge, says Ar^una Mma. 

4 Cf. as to 'directing the self within the self/ Gita, p. 69. Nila- 
ka;/Ma says, ' paths, means of mental restraint, the self, mind ; in 
the self, in the body.' 

See p. 247, note 11. NilakawMa's note there referred to occurs 
on this passage. See also p. 166, note 1 supra. 

c It is not easy to say what this science is. Is it Pata;7^ali's 
system that is meant? No details occur to enable one to identify 
the 'science/ But, probably, no system is alluded to. 

7 See note 4 above. 

8 Nilakaw/^a has a very forced explanation of the original word, 



self-restrained and self-possessed *, and always con- 
centrating his mind, and having his senses subju- 
gated, he who has achieved proper concentration of 
mind 2 sees the self in the self. As a person having 
seen one in a dream, recognises him (afterwards), 
saying, ' This is he ; ' so does one who has achieved 
proper concentration of mind perceive the self 3 . 
And as one may show the soft fibres, after extracting 
them from the Muz^a, so does a devotee see the 
self extracted from the body. The body is called 
the Mui^a ; the soft fibres stand 4 for the self. This 
is the excellent illustration propounded by those 
who understand concentration of mind. When an 
embodied (self) properly perceives the self con- 
centrated 5 , then there is no ruler over him, since he 
is the lord of the triple world 6 . He obtains various 
bodies as he pleases ; and casting aside old age and 
death, he grieves not and exults not. The man who 

which also occurs further on; he takes the meaning to be, 'he 
who is habituated to that by which the One is attained, viz. medi- 

1 The original is the same as at Gita, p. 63. 

2 That is to say, one who has got the power of concentrating 
his mind as he pleases ; and the words ' always concentrating ' &c, 
just before, would mean ' one who always exercises that power.' 

3 I. e. having perceived the self in the state of concentration, he 
sees the whole universe to be the self in this state when the concen- 
tration has ceased, Nilaka/zZ/fa. Ar^una Mijra says, ' having per- 
ceived the self at the time of concentration, he recognises it as the 
same at the time of direct perception/ meaning, apparently, the 
time of final emancipation. 

4 I. e. the reality, which in this simile forms the substratum of 
what are called the fibres ; the simile is in the Ka///a-upanishad ; 
see, too, Sanatsu^-atiya, p. 176. 

6 I. e. on the supreme self, as above explained. 
c Cf. Sanatsu^atiya, p. 161; -SVetlrvatara, p. 290; and Brz'hadara- 
wyaka, p. 2 1 8 ; A7/andogya,p. 523; Aitareya, p.26; Kaushitaki, p.126. 



has acquired concentration of mind, and who is self- 
rest rained, creates for himself even the divinity 
oi the gods 1 ; and abandoning- the transient body, 
lie attains to the inexhaustible Brahman. When 
(all) beings are destroyed, he has no fear ; when (all) 
beings are afflicted, he is not afflicted by anything 2 . 
He whose self is concentrated, who is free from 
attachment, and of a tranquil mind, is not shaken 
by the fearful effects of attachment and affection 3 , 
which consist in pain and grief 4 . Weapons do not 
pierce him 5 ; there is no death for him ; nothing can 
be seen anywhere in the world happier than he. 
Properly concentrating his self, he remains steady 
to the self ; and freed from old age and grief, he 
sleeps at ease. Leaving this human frame, he as- 
sumes bodies at pleasure. But one who is practising 
concentration should never become despondent (i . 
When one who has properly achieved concentration 
perceives the self in the self, then he forthwith 
ceases to feel any attachment to Indra himself 7 . 

1 I do not quite understand the original. The other reading, 
dehatvam for devatvam, is not more intelligible. But comparing 
the two, the meaning seems to be, that the divinity of the gods, i. e. 
their qualities and powers as gods, are within his reach, if he likes 
to have them. 

2 Cf. Gita, p. 107. 

3 Affection is the feeling that a thing is one's own ; attachment 
is the feeling of liking one has for a thing acquired with difficulty, 
Ajgnna Mura. 

1 Pain appears to be the feeling immediately following on hurt or 
evil suffered ; grief is the constant state of mind which is a later result. 
5 Cf. Yoga-sutra Bhashya, p. 208. 

f: Cf. Gita, p. 70. Despondency is the feeling that one has not 
acquired ' concentration ' after much practice, and that therefore 
the practice should be abandoned. 

7 The other reading here may be rendered, ' Then forthwith 
Indra himself esteems him highly.' 



Now listen how one habituated to exclusive medita- 
tion attains concentration. Thinking 1 of a quarter 
seen before, he should steady his mind within and 
not out of the city in which he dwells. Remaining 
within (that) city, he should place his mind both in 
its external and internal (operations) in that habita- 
tion in which he dwells. When, meditating in that 
habitation, he perceives the perfect one, his mind 
should not in any way wander outside. Restraining 
the group of the senses, in a forest 2 free from noises 
and unpeopled, he should meditate on the perfect one 
within his body with a mind fixed on one point. He 

1 This is all rather mystical. Nilaka////$a takes ' city ' to mean 
' body,' and ' habitation ' to mean the muladhara, or other similar 
mystic centre within the body, where, according to the Yoga philo- 
sophy, the soul is sometimes to be kept with the life-winds, &c. 
' Thinking of a quarter/ &c, he explains to mean 1 meditating on 
the instruction he has received after studying the Upanishads/ 
I do not understand the passage well. ' City ' for ' body ' is a 
familiar use of the word. Cf. Gita, p. 65. The original word for 
habitation occurs at Aitareya-upanishad, p. 199, where .Sankara 
explains it to mean 1 seat/ Three ' seats ' are there mentioned, — 
the organs of sight, &c. ; the mind ; and the Akara in the heart. 
There, too, the body is described as a ' city/ and Anandagiri 
explains habitation to mean ' seat of amusement or sport.' Here, 
however, the meaning seems to be that one should work for con- 
centration in the manner indicated, viz. first fix the mind on the 
city where one dwells, then on the particular parts of it oftenest seen 
before, then one's own habitation, then the various parts of one's 
body, and finally one's own heart and the Brahman within it. Thus 
gradually circumscribed in its operations, the mind is better fitted 
for the final concentration on the Brahman. As to external and 
internal operations, cf. note 8, p. 247. The perfect one is the 
Brahman. Cf. Sanatsu^atiya, p. 171. As to avasatha, which we 
have rendered by ' habitation/ see also Ma»</ukya, p. 340 ; B/Yhada- 
rawyaka, p. 751; and the alternative sense suggested by Sankara 
on the Aitareya, loc. cit. 

2 Cf. Maitri-upanishad, p. 100. 




should meditate on his teeth 1 , palate, tongue, neck, and 
throat likewise, and also the heart, and likewise the 
seat of the he art. That talented pupil, O destroyer 
of Madhu ! having been thus instructed by me, pro- 
ceeded further to interrogate (me) about the piety 
(required) for final emancipation, which is difficult 
to explain. ' How does this food eaten from time 
to time become digested in the stomach ? How 
does it turn to juice and how also to blood ? And 
how, too, do the flesh, and marrow, and muscles, and 
bones — which all (form) the bodies for embodied 
(selfs) — develop in a woman as that (self) develops ? 
How, too, does the strength develop ? (And how is 
it also) about the removal of non-nutritive (sub- 
stances) 2 , and of the excretions, distinctly ? How, 
too, does he breathe inwards or outwards ? And 
what place does the self occupy, dwelling in the 
self 3 ? And how does the soul moving about carry 
the body ? And of what colour and of what 
description (is it when) he leaves it ? O sinless 
venerable sir ! be pleased to state this accurately 
to me/ Thus questioned by that Brahma^a, O 
Madhava ! I replied 4 , ' O you of mighty arms ! O 

1 Nilaka///^a cites numerous passages from works of the Yoga 
philosophy in illustration of this. He takes 1 heart 1 to mean the 
Brahman seated in the heart (cf. A^andogya, p. 528), and 'the seat 
of the heart ' to mean the one hundred and one passages of the 
heart. The latter expression Ar^una Mijra seems to render by 
1 mind/ See also generally on this passage, Maitri-upanishad, 
p. 133, and Yoga-sutra III, 1 and 28 seq., and commentary there. 

2 Literally, ' those which are void of strength/ I adopt Ar^una 
Miyra's reading. The other reading literally means ' obstructions/ 

3 The self here means the body, I take it. See p. 248 supra. 

4 The reply does not appear here. Nilaka«Ma says that the suc- 
ceeding chapters contain it. Ar^una MLrra seems to say that the 
answer has been already given. The context here is obscure. 


2 53 

restrainer of (your) foes ! according to what (I had) 
heard. As one placing any property in his store-room 
should fix his mind on the property \ so placing 
one's mind in one's body, and (keeping) the passages 
confined, one should there look for the self and 
avoid heedlessness 2 . Being thus always assiduous 
and pleased in the self, he attains in a short time 
to that Brahman, after perceiving which he under- 
stands the Pradhana :! . He is not to be grasped 
by the eye, nor by any of the senses. Only by the 
mind (used) as a lamp is the great self perceived 4 . 
He has hands and feet on all sides ; he has eyes, 
heads, and faces on all sides ; he has ears on all 
sides ; he stands pervading everything in the world 5 . 
The soul sees the self 6 come out from the body ; 
and abandoning his body, he perceives the self, — 
holding it to be the immaculate Brahman, — with, 
as it were, a mental smile 7 . And then depending 
upon it thus, he attains final emancipation in me 8 . 

1 Nilaka////$a says the original means household effects ; Ar^una 
Mura says wealth, and adds, the mind is fixed on it from fear of 
others finding it out. 

2 Cf. Sanatsu^atiya, p. 152. Here, however, the sense is the 
ordinary one. 

3 I. e. all nature, that from which the universe is developed. 

4 Cf. Ka/^a, pp. 1 1 7-130. See £anti Par van (Moksha) CCXL, 16. 

5 Cf. Gita, p. 103. The stanza occurs often in the Bharata. This, 
says Ar^-una Mura, answers the question ' how the soul carries the 
body.' The soul can do that as it is all-pervading. 

6 The individual soul, which has acquired true knowledge, per- 
ceives the self to be distinct from the body. See p. 249 supra. 

7 I. e. at the false notions which he entertained. Nilaka/////a 
says, ' smile, i. e. amazement that he should have been deceived 
by the mirage-like course of worldly life.' 

8 I. e. final emancipation and assimilation with the supreme ; 
' depending upon it thus ' = taking refuge with the Brahman in 
the way above stated. 

R 2 

25 1 AN U GIT A. 

This whole mystery I have declared to you, O best 
of Brahmaftas 1 ! I will now take my leave, I will go 
away; and do you (too) go away, O Brahmawa ! 
according to your pleasure.' Thus addressed by me, 
C) Krishna ! that pupil, possessed of great penance, 
■that Brahma//a of rigid vows, — went away as he 

Vasudeva said : 
Having spoken to me, O son of IV/tha ! these 
good words relating to the piety (required) for final 
emancipation, that best of Brahma;/as disappeared 
then and there. Have you listened to this, O son 
of Pr/tha ! with a mind (fixed) on (this) one point 
only 2 ? For on that occasion, too, sitting in the 
chariot you heard this same (instruction). It is my 
belief, O son of Prz'tha ! that this is not easily under- 
stood by a man who is confused, or who has not 
acquired knowledge with his inmost soul purified 3 . 
What I have spoken, O chief of the descendants of 
Bharata ! is a great mystery (even) among the gods. 
And it has never yet been heard by any man in this 
world, O son of Prz'tha. ! For, O sinless one ! there 
is no other man than you worthy to hear it. Nor 
is it easily to be understood by (one whose) in- 
ternal self (is) confused. The world of the gods 4 , 
O son of Kuntl ! is filled by those who perform 

1 Ar^una Mma says, the only questions among those stated 
above, which are of use for final emancipation, have been here 
answered. The others should be looked for elsewhere. 

2 The original words here are identical with those at Gita, p. 139. 

3 I adopt Nilakazz/^a's reading here. Ar^una Mijra reads 
' vi^agdhena,' which he explains to mean ' one who eats kinds 
of food incompatible with one another.' A third reading is 
' k/Vtaghnena,' ungrateful ! 

4 See Gita, p. 84. 



actions. And the gods are not pleased with a 
cessation of the mortal form \ For as to that 
eternal Brahman, O son of Pntha ! that is the highest 
goal, where one, forsaking the body, reaches immor- 
tality and is ever happy. Adopting this doctrine, 
even those who are of sinful birth, women, Vausyas, 
and .5udras likewise, attain the supreme goal. What 
then (need be said of) Brahma^as, O son of Pmha 2 ! 
or well-read Kshatriyas, who are constantly intent on 
their own duties, and whose highest goal is the world 
of the Brahman ? This has been stated with reasons ; 
and also the means for its acquisition ; and the fruit 
of its full accomplishment, final emancipation, and 
determination regarding misery 3 . O chief of the 
descendants of Bharata ! there can be no other 
happiness beyond this. The mortal, O son of 
Fandul who, possessed of talents, full of faith, and 
energetic 4 , casts aside as unsubstantial the (whole) 
substance of this world 5 , he forthwith attains the 
highest goal by these means. This is all that is 
to be said, there is nothing further than this. Con- 
centration of mind comes to him, O son of Pntha ! 
who practises concentration of mind constantly 
throughout six months 6 . 

1 Cf. Brz'hadarawyaka, p. 234, where -Sankara quotes the original 
stanza, but with a reading which means, ' And the gods are not 
pleased at mortals rising above (them).' That is a better reading. 

2 See Gita, pp. 85, 86, where the words are nearly identical 
with those in the text. 

8 This is not quite clear. Does ' determination regarding 
misery/ the original of which is du//khasya X-a viniiv/aya//, mean 
' conclusion of all misery' ? Comp. Gita, p. 79. 

4 Aro-una Mura says this means assiduous. 

r ' I. e. wealth and so forth, says Nilaka;////a. Cf. ' human 
wealth' at Sanatsu^atiya, p. 161. 

c Cf. Maitri-upanishad, p. 154. The copy of Ar^una Mura's 


Chapter V. 

On this too, C) chief of the descendants of Bha- 
rata ! they relate this ancient story, (in the form of) a 
dialogue, which occurred, O son of Pmha ! between 
a husband and wife. A Brahma^a's wife, seeing 
the Br&hmatta her husband, who had gone through 
all knowledge and experience 2 , seated in seclusion, 
spoke to him (thus) : ' What world, indeed, shall I go 
to, depending on you as (my) husband, you who live 
renouncing (all) action, and who are harsh and un- 
discerning 3 . We have heard that wives attain to 
the worlds acquired by (their) husbands. What goal, 
verily, shall I reach, having got you for my husband?' 
Thus addressed, that man of a tranquil self, spoke 
to her with a slight smile : ' O beautiful one ! O 
sinless one ! I am not offended at these words of 
yours. Whatever action there is, that can be caught 
(by the touch) 4 , or seen, or heard, that only do the 
men of action engage in as action. Those who are 
devoid of knowledge only lodge 5 delusion in them- 
selves by means of action. And freedom from action 
is not to be attained in this world even for an 

commentary which I have used, says that the Anugita ends here. 
But, as we have shown, there is a verse coming further on, which 
.S'ankara/'arya cites as from the Anugita. In the printed copies of 
the Mahabharata the next chapter is called the Brahmawagita. 

1 I.e. the questions at p. 252, NtlakawMa; more probably, per- 
haps, the 'doctrine' mentioned at p. 254 is what is alluded to. 

2 Cf. Gita, p. 57 and note. 

3 Nilaka;///^a says this means ' ignorant that the wife has no 
other support.' Ar^una Mifra interprets kina^a to mean 1 indi- 
gent ' instead of ' harsh/ 

4 So Ar^una Mijra. Nilaka;///m's reading and his interpretation 
of the passage are different. 

6 I follow Ar^una MLrra ; the original literally means ' restrain/ 



instant 1 . From birth to the destruction of the body, 
action, good or bad, by act, mind or speech 2 , does 
exist among (all) beings. While the paths 3 (of 
action), in which the materials are visible, are de- 
stroyed by demons 4 , 1 have perceived by means of the 
self the seat abiding in the self 5 — (the seat) where 
dwells the Brahman free from the pairs of opposites, 
and the moon together with the fire 6 , upholding (all) 
beings (as) the mover of the intellectual principle 7 ; 
(the seat) for which 8 Brahman and others concen- 
trating (their minds) worship that indestructible 
(principle), and for which learned men have their 
senses restrained, and their selfs tranquil, and 
(observe) good vows. It is not to be smelt by 
the nose, and not to be tasted by the tongue. It 
is not to be touched by the sense of touch, but 
is to be apprehended by the mind. It cannot be 

1 Cf. Gita, pp. 52, 53; see also, as lo freedom from action, 
Gila, p. 127. 

2 I.e. thought, word, and deed. I have in the text kept to a 
more literal rendering. 

3 This is NilakawMa's reading and interpretation. Aiguna Mi^ra 
reads ' actions visible and invisible.' 

4 Cf. inter alia Kumara-sambhava II, 46. 

0 I. e. says Ar^una Mura, the safe place, within the body ; and 
says NilakawMa, the seat called Avimukta, between the nose and 
the brows; as to which cf. Gita, p. 67. In the Kenopanishad 
(p. 220) the word ayatana is used to signify a means to the 
attainment of the Brahman. 

c The moon and fire constitute the universe, says Ar^una 
Mura. Cf. Gita, p. 113. Nilaka«//ta interprets this more mystically 
as referring to the I</a and Pihgala arteries. 

7 So NilakawMa, but he takes it to stand for ' vayu ' or wind, as 
a distinct principle. The sense is by no means clear. But. the 
moon being the deity of the mind also may, perhaps, be described 
as she is here, on that account. 

8 This is Arg-una Mura's interpretation of the original locative. 



conquered by the eyes, and is entirely beyond the 
senses of hearing. It is devoid of smell, devoid of 
taste and touch, devoid of colour and sound, and 
imperishable 1 . (It is that) from which (this whole) 
expanse- (of the universe) proceeds, and on which 
it rests. From this the Pra^a, Apana, Samana, 
Vyana, and Udana also proceed, and into it they 
enter ; . Between the Samana and the Vyana, the 
Pra»a and the Apana moved. When that 4 is 
asleep, the Samana and Vyana also are absorbed 5 .; 
and between the Pra/za and the Apana dwells the 
Udana pervading (all). Therefore the Pra/za and 
the Apana do not forsake a sleeping person. That 
is called the Udana, as the life-winds are controlled 0 
(by it). And therefore those who study the Brahman 
engage in penance 7 of which I am the goal 8 . In 

1 Cf. note 4, p. 247 supra, and p. 253. 

2 Ar^una Mfcra says this means the five great elements, the 
eleven organs (active and perceptive, and the mind), the life-wind, 
and the individual soul. 

3 The Prawa is at the nose, the Apana at the arms, the Sa- 
mana at the navel, the Vyana pervades the whole body, and the 
Udana is at all the joints ; cf. Yoga-sutra III, 38 seq. Nilakaw///a 
says this explains how the ' expanse ' (meaning, he says, the opera- 
tions of the creation, &c.) ' proceeds ' from the Brahman. See on the 
life-winds, Br/hadarawyaka, p. 667; A^andogya, pp. 42-188 ; Sah- 
khyatattvakaumudi, p. 96 ; Vedanta Paribhasha, p. 45 ; p. 271 infra. 

4 The self, Ar^una Mlrra. Nilaka«//$a says, ' the Pra;/a accom- 
panied by the Apana.' 

6 I. e. into the Prawa and Apana, Ar^una Mijra. 

6 Nilaka«//^a derives the word thus, utkarshewa anayati. 

7 I. e. the subjugation of the life-winds as indicated at Gita, p. 61. 

8 The meaning of the passage as a whole is not very clear, 
and the commentators afford but little help. The sense appears 
to be this : The course of worldly life is due to the operations of 
the life-winds which are attached to the self and lead to its manifes- 
tations as individual souls. Of these, the Samana and Vyana are 



the interior 1 , in the midst of all these (life-winds) 
which move about in the body and swallow up one 
another 2 , blazes the Vaisvana lire 3 sevenfold. The 
nose, and the tongue, and the eye, and the skin, 
and the ear as the fifth, the mind and the under- 
standing, these are the seven tongues 4 of the blaze 
of Vai^vanara. That which is to be smelt, that 
which is to be drunk, that which is to be seen, that 
which is to be touched, and likewise that which is 
to be heard, and also that which is to be thought 
of, and that which is to be understood, those are 
the seven (kinds of) fuel for me". That which 
smells, that which eats, that which sees, that which 
touches, and that which hears as the fifth, that which 
thinks, and that which understands, these are the 
seven great officiating priests 0 . And mark this always, 

controlled and held under check by the Pra//a and Apana, into 
which latter the former are absorbed in sleep. The latter two 
are held in check and controlled by the Udana. which thus 
controls all. And the control of this, which is the control of all 
the five, and which is otherwise called penance, destroys the 
course of worldly life, and leads to the supreme self. 

1 I. e. within the body. 2 As explained in note 8, p. 258. 

3 This, says Nilaka/////a, explains the word 1 1 ; in the sentence 
preceding. VaiVvanara is a word often used to denote the self. 
The Vishamaj-loki derives it thus, 'that which saves all beings 
from hell;' see the Prajna-upanishad, pp. 167-188 (where seven 
tongues are also referred to) ; Muw</aka, p. 292 ; AVjandogya. 
p. 364; Ma/^ukya, p. 341. 

4 Cf. Taittiriya-ara//yaka, p. 802. 

B L e. the Yauvanara. Cf. Taittiiiya-ara;;yaka, p. 803 and gloss. 

c These I take to be the powers of hearing, &c, which are 
presided over by the several deities; or, better, perhaps, they 
may mean the soul distinguished as so many with reference to 
these several powers; cf. Br/hadarawyaka, p. 169; Maitri, p. 96; 
Pra.rna, pp. 214, 215 ; Kaushitaki, p. 96; Aitareya, p. 187; A7/an- 
dogya, p. 616. The latter sense is accepted by Aiguna Mirra. 



0 beautiful one! The learned sacrificers throwing 
(in) due (form) the seven offerings into the seven 
tires in seven ways, produce them in their wombs 1 ; 
(namely), that which is to be smelt, that which is 
to be drunk, that which is to be seen, that which 
is to be touched, and likewise that which is to be 
heard, that which is to be thought of, and also that 
which is to be understood. Earth, air, space, water, 
and light as the fifth, mind and understanding, these 
seven, indeed, are named wombs. All the qualities 
which stand 2 as offerings are absorbed in the 
mouth of the fire 3 ; and having dwelt within that 
dwelling are born in their respective wombs 4 . And 
in that very (principle), which is the generator of all 
entities, they remain absorbed during (the time of) 
deluge. From that 5 is produced smell ; from that 
is produced taste ; from that is produced colour ; 
from that touch is produced ; from that is produced 
sound ; from that doubt 0 is produced ; from that 
is produced determination. This (is what) they know 
as the sevenfold production. In this very way was 
it 7 comprehended by the ancients. Becoming per- 
fected by the perfect sacrifice 8 , they were perfectly 
filled with light.' 

1 The next clause explains this ; that which is to be smelt is 
earth, and so on throughout. The men who sacrifice all sensuous 
objects, get such powers that they can create the objects whenever 
they like. As to 'in their wombs/ see Yoga Bhashya, p. 108. 

2 I. e. are so treated in the above allegory. 
'■' I. e. the Brahman. 

4 I.e. when the sacrificer wishes, as stated in note i. 
■' That principle — viz. the Brahman. 

6 This is the operation of the mind, see Gita, p. 57 note. 

7 The Brahman, Ar^una MLsra. Or it may be the 'sevenfold 

8 The wholesale sacrifice of all sensuous perceptions. The 



Chapter VI. 

The Brahma^a said : 

On this, too, they relate this ancient story. Learn 
now of what description is the institution of the ten 
sacrificial priests 1 . The ear 2 , the skin, the two eyes, 
the tongue, the nose, the two feet, the two hands, 
speech, the genital organ, and the anus, these, verily, 
are ten sacrificial priests, O beautiful one ! Sound, 
touch, colour, and taste, smell, words, action, motion, 
and the discharge of semen, urine, and excrement, 
these are the ten oblations. The quarters, wind, 
sun, moon, earth and fire, and Vish/m also, Indra, 
Pra^apati, and Mitra, these, O beautiful one ! are 
the ten fires 3 . The ten organs are the makers 
of the offering ; the offerings are ten, O beautiful 
one ! Objects of sense, verily, are the fuel ; and they 
are offered up into the ten fires. The mind is the 
ladle 4 ; and the wealth is the pure, highest know- 
ledge 5 . (Thus) we have heard, was the universe 
duly divided c . And the mind, which is the instru- 

root corresponding with perfect occurs three times in the original, 
hence the repetition of perfect above. 

1 Cf. Taittinya-brahmawa, p. 411, and Arawyaka, p. 281. 

2 Cf. B/Yhadara^yaka, p. 459. The reading in the printed edition 
of Bombay is defective here. 

8 See p. 337 seq., where all this is more fully explained. And 
cf. the analogous Buddhistic doctrine stated at Lalita Vistara (Trans- 
lation by Dr. R. Mitra), p. 11. 

4 See Taittiriya-ara^yaka loc. cit., and cf. Gita, p. 61. 'The 
wealth ' probably means the Dakshka to be given to the priests, 
which is mentioned at Gita, p. 119. 

5 The 'priests' here being the senses, the knowledge would 
accrue to them, as to which cf. Gita, p. 108. 

c See note 3. 



tnent oi knowledge, requires everything knowable 1 
(as its offering). The mind is within the body the 
upholder of the frame, and the knower is the upholder 
of the body -. That 3 upholder of the body is the 
Garhapatya fire ; from that another is produced, 
and the mind which is the Ahavaniya; and into this 
the offering is thrown. Then the lord of speech 
was produced 4 ; that (lord of speech) looks up to 
the mind. First, verily, are words produced ; and 
the mind runs after them. 

1 Each sense can only offer up its own perceptions — the mind 
offers up all knowledge whatever. 

2 Ar^una Mura says this is an implied simile, the mind is an 
upholder of the body as the ' knower ' or self is. 

3 Ar^-una Mura says this means ' the mind/ I think it better 
to take it here as the self (see p. 238 supra), to which the ' mind' 
and the ' other/ mentioned further on, would be subordinate ; the 
' other ' Ar^una Mijra renders by the ' group of the senses/ The 
senses are compared to fires at Gita, p. 61. The passage at 
Taittiriya-arawyaka above cited refers only to the Garhapatya and 
Ahavaniya fires. Nilaka^Ma's text and explanation of this passage 
are, to my mind, not nearly so satisfactory as Ar^una Mora's. 

4 In the Taittinya-brahma^a and Ara^yaka loc. cit., the equi- 
valent of the original word for ' lord of speech ' here occurs, viz. 
Vakpati for Vatepati here ; but that is there described as the 
Hot;Y priest, and speech itself as the Vedi or altar. The com- 
mentator there interprets ' lord of speech ' to mean the wind 
which causes vocal activity, and resides in the throat, palate, &c. 
As to mind and speech, see also .Oandogya, pp. 285-441, and 
comments of -Sankara there. The meaning of this passage, 
however, is not by any means clear to my mind. The Dajahotr/ 
mantras in the Taittiriya are stated to be the mantras of the Ish/i, 
or sacrifice, performed by Pra^apati for creation. It is possible, 
then, that the meaning here is, that speech which is to be learnt 
by the pupil, as stated further on — namely, the Vedas — was first 
produced from that Ish/i (cf. Kulluka on Manu I, 21). But to 
understand that speech, mind is necessary ; hence it is said to look 
up to the mind. The Brahmawa's wife, however, seems to under- 
stand speech as ordinary speech, hence her question. 



The Brahma/za's wife said : 
How did speech come into existence first, and 
how did the mind come into existence afterwards, 
seeing that words are uttered (after they have been) 
thought over by the mind ? By means of what 
experience does intelligence come to the mind, 
and (though) developed, does not comprehend 1 ? 
What verily obstructs it ? 

The Brahma^a said : 
The Apana becoming lord changes it into the 
state of the Apana in consequence. That is called 
the movement of the mind, and hence the mind is 
in need (of it) 2 . But since you ask me a question 
regarding speech and mind, I will relate to you 
a dialogue between themselves. Both speech and 
mind went to the self of all beings 3 and spoke 
(to him thus), ' Say which of us is superior; destroy 
our doubts, O lord ! ' Thereupon the lord positively 
said to speech, ' Mind (is superior).' But speech there- 
upon said to him, ' I, verily yield (you) your desires V 

1 This, again, is to my mind very hard to understand. The 
original word for ' intelligence ' is mati, which at JTAandogya, 
p. 514, .Sankara interprets thus: 'intelligence is pondering, ap- 
plication to (literally, respect for) the subject of thought.' The 
original for 'developed/ Ar^una Mura renders by ' mixed or assimi- 
lated with ; ' and ' does not comprehend/ he takes to mean ' does 
not understand — speech or words/ This question appears to be 
suggested by the last words of the previous speech. 

2 These two sentences are again very obscure. Nilaka;///za, as 
usual, deserts his original, giving peculiar meanings to the words 
without producing any authority. Ar°ama Mi.yra is very meagre, 
and besides the MS. is very incorrect. See p. 264, note 5 infra. 

3 I. e. Pra^apati, says Anuria Mura, which seems to be justified 
by the sequel. NilakazzMa takes it to mean the individual self, 
which doubtless is its meaning elsewhere, e.g. Maitri, p. 56. 

• I.e. speech conveys information on all matters, Ar^una Mura; 

26. i 


The Br&hma#a 3 said: 
Know, that (in) my (view), there are two minds 2 , 
immovable and also movable. The immovable, 
verily, is with me ; the movable is in your dominion. 
Whatever mantra, or letter, or tone goes to your 
dominion, that indeed is the movable mind 3 . To 
that you are superior. But inasmuch, O beautiful 
one ! as you came personally to speak to me (in the 
way you did) 4 , therefore, O Sarasvati ! you shall 
never speak after (hard) exhalations 5 . The goddess 
speech, verily, dwelt always between the Pra/^a and 
Apana °. But, O noble one ! going with the Apana 

as the means of acquiring desired fruit, visible or invisible, is 
learnt by speech, Nilaka//Ma. Cf. as to all this, Br/hadara«yaka- 
upanishad, pp. 50 seq. and 261. 

1 I. e. Nilaka/////a says, ' the Brahma/za named mind,' alluding 
apparently to p. 310 infra. But the reading of some of the 
MSS.. viz. Brahman for the Brahma«a, seems preferable, having 
regard to what follows. Apparently, the Brahma/za's own speech 
should begin at •' The goddess speech ' further on. 

2 Nilakaw/Aa says, immovable = to be understood by the external 
senses; movable = not perceptible by senses, such as heaven, &c, 
which is not quite intelligible. Ar^una Mijra says, the immovable 
mind is that of the teacher, which is fixed, as it has not to learn or 
acquire anything, while that of the pupil is movable as acquiring 
new impressions and knowledge. 

3 I.e. it is the movable mind which takes cognisance of the 
significations of all mantras (sacred texts), letters, tones, in which, 
I presume, sacred instruction is conveyed. To this mind, speech 
is superior, as that mind only works on what speech places before 
it; but the mind which is 'with' Pra^apati, is superior to speech 
as it is not dependent on speech like the other. 

4 I.e. proudly, about her being the giver of desires to Brahman. 
8 I. e., says Ar^una Mura, the words will not come out with the 

Prawa life-wind and convey any sense to the hearer, but will be 
absorbed down into the Apana life-wind, and not be articulated as 
speech at all. Cf. Kaushitaki, p. 41 ; Ka//fca, p. 184 (with glosses) ; 
and /vVzandogya, p. 42. 

6 I.e., I presume, was dependent on the two life-winds named. 



wind 1 , though impelled, (in consequence of) being 
without the Pra;2a, she ran up to Pra^apati, saying, 
' Be pleased 2 , O venerable sir ! ' Then 3 the Pra;/a 
appeared again nourishing speech. And therefore 
speech never speaks after (hard) exhalation. It is 
always noisy or noiseless. Of those two, the noise- 
less is superior to the noisy 4 (speech). This excel- 
lent (speech), like a cow, yields milk 5 , and speaking 
of the Brahman it always produces the eternal 
(emancipation). This cow-like speech, O you of a 
bright smile ! is divine, with divine 6 power. Observe 
the difference of (its) two subtle, flowing (forms) 7 . 
The Brahma;/a's wife said : 
What did the goddess of speech say on that 
occasion in days of old, when, though (she was) 
impelled with a desire to speak, words could not 
be uttered ? 

The Brahma;/a said : 
The (speech) which is produced in the body by 

Cf. p. 353 infra. For this sense of the word ' between/ see p. 258 
supra, and A'Mndogya-upanishad, p. 623. 

1 And not with the Prawa, so as to be articulated. Cf. p. 264. 

2 I. e. to withdraw the ' curse ' pronounced, as above stated. 

3 After the curse was withdrawn, says Arg-una MLrra. Cf. 
Br/hadaraf/yaka, p. 317. 

4 Since, says Argnna Mijra, noiseless speech is the source of all 
words — Vahmaya. Perhaps we may compare Aitareya-brahma;/a 
(Haug), p. 47. 

6 Viz. Vahmaya ; milk, as a source of pleasure. 

6 I. e. enlightening, Ar^una Mijra. But, perhaps, the translation 
should be, ' has powers divine and not divine/ As to this, cf. Sah- 
khya Bhashya on III, 41, and Sahkhyatattvakaumudi, p. 118, and 
Wilson's Sankhya Karika, p. 37 (Sanskrit), and 6Vetlrvatara, 
p. 284 (gloss). 

7 Argnna Mura refers to a ' -Satapatha text' in praise of the 
subtle speech. I cannot trace the text. But see Nirukta (Roth), 
pp. 167-187. 



means of the Prawa 1 , and which then o-oes into the 
A I una, and then becoming assimilated with the 
I Mini leaves the body 2 , and with the Vyana 
envelopes all the quarters 3 , then (finally) dwells in 
the Samana 4 . So speech formerly spoke. Hence 
the mind is distinguished by reason of its being 
immovable, and the goddess distinguished by reason 
of her being movable 5 . 

Chapter VII. 
The Brahma/^a said : 
On this, too, O beautiful one! they relate this 
ancient story, (which shows) of what description is 
the institution of the seven sacrificial priests 6 . The 

1 Cf. AVzandogya, p. 285, and the passage there quoted by £ari- 
kara as well as Anandagiri's gloss. And see, too, p. 353 infra. 

2 Viz. the part of it which specially appertains to speech — the 
throat, &c. 

3 All the naV/is or passages of the body, Ar^una Mura. 

1 I. e. at the navel in the form of sound, as the material cause of 
all words. There and in that condition speech dwells, after going 
through the body, as above stated. There, adds Ar^-una Mura, 
devotees are to meditate on speech. 

5 This is not quite clear, but the meaning seems to be, that the 
merit of the immovable mind consists in its unchangeability, and 
that of speech in being the cause of variations in the movable 
mind by conveying new knowledge and new impressions. Cf. on 
this result, A'Mndogya-upanishad, p. 482. 

6 Ar^una Mwra says, the last chapter explained Pra;/ayama, and 
this explains Pratyahara. Pra;/ayama is the restraint of the life- 
winds, Pratyahara that of the senses, according to the Yoga 
philosophy (see the quotation in the commentary at Yoga-sutra III, 
1, and see also pp. 141-145). Cf. also Gita, p. 61. The Sapta- 
hot/Y-vidhana as taught in the Taittinya-brahma^a and Arawyaka 
is to be found a few pages after the pages referred to for the 
Da^ahotrz'-vidhana at p. 261 supra. And the other Vidhanas also 
are to be found in the same parts of those books. 



nose, and the eye, and the tongue, and the skin, and 
the ear as the fifth, mind and understanding, these 
are the seven sacrificial priests separately stationed. 
Dwelling in a minute space, they do not perceive 
each other. Do you, verily, O beautiful one ! learn 
about these sacrificial priests, (which are) seven 
according to (their several) natures. 

The Brahma^a's wife said : 
How (is it) these do not perceive each other, 
dwelling (as they do) in a minute space ? What 
are their natures, O venerable sir ? Tell me this, 
O lord ! 

The Brahma^a said : 
Not knowing the qualities (of anything) is igno- 
rance (of it). Knowledge of the qualities is know- 
ledge. And these never know the qualities of each 
other. The tongue, the eye, the ear likewise, 
the skin, the mind, and the understanding also, do 
not apprehend smells, the nose apprehends them. 
The nose, the eye, the ear likewise, the skin, the 
mind, and the understanding also, do not apprehend 
tastes, the tongue apprehends them. The nose, the 
tongue, the ear likewise, the skin, the mind, and 
the understanding also, do not apprehend colours, the 
eye apprehends them. The nose, the tongue, and 
next the eye, the ear, the understanding, the mind 
likewise, do not apprehend (objects of) touch, the skin 
apprehends them. The nose, the tongue, and the 
eye, the skin, the mind, and the understanding also, 
do not apprehend sounds, the ear apprehends them. 
The nose, the tongue, and the eye, the skin, the 
ear, and the understanding also, do not apprehend 
doubt, the mind apprehends it. The nose, the 
tongue, and the eye, the skin, the ear, and the mind 
[8] " S 



also, do not apprehend final determination, the under- 
standing apprehends it. On this, too, they relate 
this ancient story, — a dialogue, O beautiful one! 
between the senses and the mind. 

The mind said : 
The nose smells not without me, the tongue does 
not perceive taste, the eye does not take in colour, 
the skin does not become aware of any (object of) 
touch. Without me, the ear does not in any way 
hear sound. I am the eternal chief among all 
elements \ Without me, the senses never shine, like 
an empty dwelling, or like fires the flames of which 
are extinct. Without me, all beings, like fuel half 
dried and half moist, fail to apprehend qualities or 
objects, even with the senses exerting themselves 2 . 

The senses said : 
This would be true as you believe, if you, without 
us, enjoyed the enjoyments (derived from) our objects 3 . 
If when we are extinct, (there is) pleasure and support 
of life, and if you enjoy enjoyments, then what you 
believe is true ; or if when we are absorbed 4 , and 
objects are standing, you enjoy objects according 
to their natures by the mere operation of the mind. 

1 Cf. Kaushitaki-upanishad, p. 93; jOandogya, p. 297; Maitri, 
p. 158; and Bnhadara7/yaka, p. 284. The passages in the last two 
works seem to be identical ones. 

2 I. e. in their respective operations. 

3 The implication, of course, is, as Ar^una Misra says, that this 
is not so, as what is not perceived by the senses cannot be the 
object of the mind's operations, — a proposition which reminds 
one of the maxim, ' Nihil est in intellectu quod non merit in sensu/ 
apparently without Leibnitz's limitation of it. Cf. Archbishop 
Thomson's Laws of Thought, p. 52. 

4 As in asleep, &c. 



If again you think your power over our objects 
is constant 1 , then take in colours by the nose, take 
in tastes by the eye, take in smells by the ear, take 
in (objects of) touch by the tongue, and take in sounds 
by the skin, and also (objects of) 2 touch by the under- 
standing. For those who are powerful have no rules 
(to govern them) ; rules are for the weak. You 
should accept enjoyments unenjoyed before ; you 
ought not to enjoy what has been tasted 3 (by others). 
As a pupil goes to a preceptor for Vedic learning, 
and having acquired Vedic learning from him, per- 
forms the directions of the Vedic texts, so you treat 
as yours 4 objects shown 5 by 11 s, both past and 
future ,; , in sleep and likewise wakefulness. Besides, 
when creatures of little intelligence are distracted 
in mind, life is seen to be supported, when our 
objects 7 perform their functions. And even after 
having carried on numerous mental operations, and 
indulged in dreams, a creature, when troubled by 
desire to enjoy, does run to objects of sense only. 
One entering upon enjoyments, resulting from mental 
operations (alone), and not connected with objects 

1 I.e. if you can enjoy objects independently of the senses, 
whenever you choose to perform your operations. This, says 
Ar^una Mijra, meets an objection which might be made, that the 
mind at the time stated does not desire objects. 

2 Sic in original. It comes twice. 

3 Eating what has been tasted by another is a cause of degrada- 
tion. Cf. A'Mndogya, p. 81 ; Maitn, p. 103 ; and p. 363 infra. 

4 You incorrectly attribute to yourself the quality of appre- 
hending them. 

8 'I. e. presented before you by us. 

8 This is not quite clear. Aignna Mijra has, ' not past, not 
future ; ' literally, ' not come, not gone.' 

7 Viz. smell, sound, &c. ; not by the mere operations of the 
mind, but by obtaining the objects, is life supported. 

S 2 


of sense, (which is) like entering a house without 
a door 1 , always meets death, on the exhaustion of 
the life-winds as a fire which is kindled (is extin- 
guished) on the exhaustion of fuel. Granted, that 
we have connexions with our (respective) qualities, 
and granted that we have no perception of each 
others qualities ; still, without us, you have no 
perception ;? , and so long no happiness can accrue 
to you. 

Chapter VIII. 

The Brahma/za said : 

On this, too, they relate an ancient story, O 
beautiful one ! (showing) of what description is the 
institution of the five sacrificial priests. The learned 
know this to be a great principle, that the Pra^a 
and the Apana, and the Udana, and also the Samana 
and the Vyana, are the five sacrificial priests. 

The Brahma^a's wife said : 

My former belief was that the sacrificial priests 
were seven by (their) nature 4 . State how the great 
principle is that there are verily five sacrificial priests 5 . 

1 The senses are the doors of the house here, as they are among 
the doors of the city at Gita, p. 65. 

2 Owing to the want of food, &c. Cf. Maitri, p. 112, and KMn- 
dogya, p. 422. 

3 Perception of pleasure, says Ar^-una Mi^ra; but he takes the 
subsequent clause to mean this, ' and without you no pleasure 
accrues to us either/ The text is here in an unsatisfactory state. 

4 As stated in the last chapter ; some MSS. read 'your' for ' my ' 
at the beginning of the sentence. 

5 Ar^una Mura says that in this Pa^ahot/V-vidhana the five 
chief Hotn's only are stated for briefly explaining the Pra;?ayama. 



The Brahmawa said : 
The wind prepared by the Pra/^a afterwards be- 
comes the Apana. The wind prepared in the Apana 
then works as the Vyana. The wind prepared by the 
Vyana works as the Udana. And the wind prepared 
in the Udana is produced as Samana 1 . They for- 
merly went to the grandsire, who was born first, and 
said to him, ' Tell us which is greatest among us. 
He shall be the greatest among us 2 .' 

Brahman said : 
He, verily, is the greatest, who being extinct, all 
the life-winds in the body of living creatures become 
extinct; and on whose moving about, they again move 
about. (Now) go where (you) like. 

The Pra/*a said : 
When I am extinct, all the life-winds in the body 

1 Ar^una Mijra says, ' The wind going to the Prawa, and being 
obstructed in upward progress by the Prawa, goes to the Apana, 
and then unable to go upwards or downwards, enters the passages 
or naVis of the body and becomes Vyana. In the same way Udana, 
by the collision of the two, produces sound in the throat, and de- 
pends on Piazza and Apana ; so, too, the Samana dwelling in the 
navel and kindling the gastric fire is also dependent on those two.' 
The meaning seems to be that one life-wind is distributed in the 
different places, and gets different names, as stated, in the order 
mentioned. See Maitrt, p. 28. 

2 A similar visit on the part of the Pra/zas (who, however, are not 
there the life-winds only, but the Pra/za life-wind and the active 
organs) to Pra^apati is mentioned at Brzhadarazzyaka-upanishad, 
p. 1016, and A'Mndogya, p. 297. Cf. also Prajna, p. 178; Bri- 
hadarazzyaka, p. 317 ; and Kaushitaki, p. 63. See also, generally, as 
to the life-winds and their functions, Bz'z'haddrazzyaka, p. 280, and 
•Sankara's comment there; Yoga-sutras III, 38, and comment; 
Cowell's note at Maitri, p. 247; -Santi Parvan (Moksha Dharma), 
chap. 184, st. 24-25 ; chap. 185, st. 1 seq. ; and p. 258 supra. 



oi livingcreatures become extinct; and on my moving 
about, they again move about. 1 am the greatest. 
See I am extinct. 

The Brahma//a said : 
Then the Pr&na. became extinct, and again moved 
about. Then the Samana and Udana also 1 , O 
beautiful one ! spoke these words, ' You do not per- 
vade all this here as we do. You are not the greatest 
among us, O Pra/^a, because the' Apana is subject 
to you V The Pra/^a again moved about 3 , and the 
Apana 1 said to him. 

The Apana said : 
When I am extinct, all the life-winds in the body 
of living creatures become extinct; and on my moving 
about, they again move about. I am the greatest. 
See I am extinct ! 

The Brahma/^a said : 
Then the Vyana and the Udana addressed him 
who was speaking (thus) : ' You are not the greatest, 
O Apana ! because the Pra^a is subject to you.' 
Then the Apana moved about, and the Vyana spoke 
to him : ' I am the greatest among (you) all. Hear 
the reason why. When I am extinct, all the life- 
winds in the body of living creatures become extinct. 

1 Ar^una MLrra says, Vyana and Apana also by force of the two 
' ands ' which occur in the original ; and so in other places too. 

2 Ar^-una MLsra says on this, ' The Prawa moves upwards through 
the help of the Apana. If it moved downwards, it would be simply 
absorbed into the Apana.' 

3 I. e. recommenced its proper operation in its proper place. 

4 And the other life-winds also, Ar^-una Mbra says, the name 
Prawa being merely ' indicative/ as the phrase is, of the class to 
which it belongs. 



And on my moving about, they again move about. 
I am the greatest. See I am extinct ! ' 

The Brahma^a said : 
Then the Vyana became extinct, and again moved 
about. And the Pra/^a and Apana,and the Udana, and 
the Samana, spoke to him, ' You are not the greatest 
among us, O Vyana! because the Samana 1 is subject 
to you.' The Vyana moved about again, and the 
Samana spoke again. ' I am the greatest among 
(you) all. Hear the reason why. When I am extinct, 
all the life-winds in the body of living creatures 
become extinct ; and on my moving about, they again 
move about. I am the greatest. See I am extinct!' 
Then the Samana moved about, and the Udana said 
to him ; ' I am the greatest among (you) all. Hear the 
reason why. When I am extinct, all the life-winds 
in the body of living creatures become extinct ; and 
on my moving about, they again move about. I am 
the greatest. See I am extinct ! ' Then the Udana 
became extinct, and again moved about. And the 
Pra#a and Apana, and the Samana, and the Vyana 
also, spoke to him : ' O Udana ! you are not the 
greatest. The Vyana 2 only is subject to you.' 

The Brahma/za said : 
Then Brahman, the lord of (all) creatures, said to 
them who were assembled together : ' You are all 
greatest, and not greatest 3 . You are all possessed 

1 Because the Samana helps in the digestion of the food which 
afterwards goes to the Vyana for distribution through the naV/is. 

2 Because the Udana is able to generate sound after the na^/is 
are filled up by the Vyana. 

3 'Not greatest' because none of them is independent of the 
other. ' Greatest ' Arguna MLrra renders by ' superior to objects/ 


of one another's qualities '. All arc greatest in their 
own spheres, and all support one another. There 
is one unmoving 2 (life-wind). There are others 
moving about, (which are) five, owing to (their) speci- 
fic qualities. My own self is one only 3 , (but) accumu- 
lated in numerous (forms). Being friendly with one 
another, and pleasing one another, go away happily. 
Welfare be to you ! Support one another.' 

Chapter IX. 

The Brahma;/a said : 
On this, too, they relate this ancient story, a 
dialogue between Narada and the sage Devamata. 

Devamata said : 
When a creature is about to be born, what comes 
into existence first, his Pra/za, or Apana, or Samana, 
or Vyana, or else Udana ? 

Narada said : ■ 
By whichever the creature is produced, that which 
is other than this first comes to him. And the pairs 
of the life-winds should be understood, which (move) 
upwards, or downwards, or transversely. 

1 This is not quite clear. I presume it means that each one has 
the generic qualities which make the others great in their own 
spheres ; but the specific qualities are different. 

2 The one life-wind is supposed here to be generally unmoving, 
but its distribution among the different parts of the body as spe- 
cified, for instance, in the commentary on the Yoga-sutra III, 38, 
gives it the different names. The expression does not seem to be 
quite accurate for this, which nevertheless seems to be the true, sense. 

3 Another reading is, ' That one is my own self.' Cf. Maitri, 
pp. 28 seq., 105, and Br/'hadarawyaka, p. 169. 



Devamata said : 
By which (of the life-winds) is a creature produced ? 
and which (of them) first comes to him ? Explain 
to me also the pairs of the life-winds, which (move) 
upwards, or downwards, or transversely. 

Narada said : 
Pleasure is produced from a mental operation \ 
and (it) is also produced from a sound, (it) is also 
produced from taste, and (it) is also produced from 
colour, and (it) is also produced from touch, and 
(it) is also produced from smell. This is the effect 2 
of the Udana; the pleasure is produced from union 3 . 
From desire the semen is produced ; and from the 
semen is produced menstrual excretion. The semen 
and the blood are produced by the Samana and the 
Vyana in common 4 . From the combination of the 
semen and the blood, the Pra;za comes first into 
operation ; and the semen being developed by the 
Pra/za, the Apana then comes into operation. The 
pair Pra/za and Apana go upwards and downwards, 
and the Samana and Vyana are called the pair 
(moving) transversely. It is the teaching of the 

1 I. e. desire. ' Sound ' = recollection of a woman's voice ; ' taste/ 
scil. of chastity; ' colour ' = the beauty of a woman, Ar^-una Mura. 
Cf. Apastamba I, 2, 7, 8, and Lalita Vistara, p. 19. 

2 Literally, ' form,' which Arg-una Mi^ra interprets to mean effect, 
and adds, ' The Udana causes mental activity, and by mental acti- 
vity sound &c. are apprehended.' 

3 I. e. of Udana and mind, Ar^una Mwra ; adding, 1 the result is 
that a creature is produced by the Udana.' 

4 Or, perhaps, generally, that is to say, the store of them, the 
specific semen being produced from desire, as before stated. The 
Samana' s function is the digestion of food, and that of the Vyana 
is the distribution of the digested food to the whole body through 
the na</is, hence the proposition in the text. 


Veda, that the fire verily is all the deities 1 , and 
knowledge (of it) arises among Brahma/zas, being 
accompanied by intelligence 2 . The smoke of that 
(fire), which is of excellent glory, (appears) in the 
shape of (the quality of) darkness ; (its) ashes, (the 
quality of) passion ; and (the quality of) goodness 
is that in connexion with it :5 , in which the offering 
is thrown. Those who understand the sacrifice under- 
stand the Samana and the Vyana as the principal 
(offering). The Pra/^a and Apana are portions 4 of 
the offering of clarified butter, and between them 
is the fire. That is the excellent seat of the Udana 
as understood by Brahma^as 5 . As to that which 
is distinct from these pairs 6 , hear me speak about 

1 Cf. inter alia, Aitareya-brahma;/a (Haug's ed.), p. i. 

2 Ar^una Mijra says intelligence means £ discussion, or argument/ 
The connexion of this with what has gone before, according to 
Ar^una Mijra, is this, that the author having first stated the five 
Hot/Ys fully, now explains in what the Pra^a and Apana are to be 
offered up for acquiring the Pra/zayama. The fire he takes to mean 
the self. Cf. what has been said about VaLrvanara above, p. 259. 

3 That is to say, the flame, I take it. He is drawing out here 
the figure of the fire. 

4 These are only a subordinate part of the offering, called A^-ya- 
bhaga. They are called subordinate, I suppose, as the operations 
of the Samana and Vyana are more practically important for vital- 
ity. The fire is the self. The place of the principal offering is 
between the A^yabhagas, as stated by Ar^-una MLrra. 

5 The Udana is here treated as the life-wind into which the 
others are to be offered up. See p. 258, and note 8 there. 

6 The next three sentences seem to indicate what is to be de- 
stroyed in common with the life-winds. One has to get rid of all 
notions about day and night, good and evil, existence and non- 
existence, and then final emancipation is reached. The fire, which 
is common to all the passages, stands for the self; into that appa- 
rently all the ideas of time, and good and evil, and so forth, are to 
be offered as the life-winds are ; and that fire stands in the place of 
the Udana, for this purpose, as into the last all the other life-winds 



that. Day and night are a pair, between them 
is the fire. That is the excellent seat of the Udana 
as understood by Brahmawas. That which exists 
and that which does not exist are a pair, between 
them is the fire. That is the excellent seat of the 
Udana as understood by Brahma/zas. The two — 
good and evil — are a pair, between them is the 
fire. That is the excellent seat of the Udana as 
understood by Brahma//as. First 1 , the Samana and 
Vyana, their function 2 is performed : then, secondly, 
the Samana comes into operation again. Then the 
Vamadevya 3 for tranquillity, and tranquillity is the 
eternal Brahman. This is the excellent seat of the 
Udana as understood by Brahma^as. 

Chapter X. 

On this, too, they relate an ancient story (showing) 
of what nature is the institution of the Aaturhotra 4 . 
The due performance of it in its entirety is now 
taught. Hear me, O good woman ! state this won- 

have to be offered. As to that which exists, &c, cf. Gita, p. 103, 
and p. 370, note 9 infra. As to good and evil and generally, cf. 
.A^andogya, p. 60; Kaushitaki, p. 19. They are nothing to one 
who knows the Brahman. Day and night Ar^una Mijra takes to 
mean the Ida. and Pihgala naY/Js, between which is the Sushunwa, 
as they are connected with the sun and moon. But the sense of 
the whole passage is far from clear. 

1 Ar^una Mijra understands these to be three Savanas. 

2 Of taking into the na^/is the food digested in the night, this is 
the morning Savana ; the afternoon Savana is the kindling of the 
gastric fire for digesting new food. 

3 The Vamadevya is a sukta beginning ' Kaya nas X'itra ' (Rv. IV, 
31, 1). The singing of it is the third Savana, Ar^una MLyra. And 
see Taittinya-ara^yaka, p. 889. 

4 Cf. Aitareya-brahma^a (Haug), pp. 132, 133. 


derful mystery, The instrument, the action, the 
agent, and emancipation these, indeed, O you of 
a (pure 4 ) heart ! are the four Hotrzs by whom this 
universe is enveloped. Hear also the assignment 
of causes exhaustively *-. The nose, and the tongue, 
and the eye, and the skin, and the ear as the fifth, 
mind and understanding, these seven should be un- 
derstood to be the causes of (the knowledge of 3 ) 
qualities. Smell, and taste, and colour, sound, and 
touch as the fifth, the object of the mental opera- 
tion and the object of the understanding 4 , these 
seven are causes of action. He who smells, he who 
eats, he who sees, he who speaks, and he who hears 
as the fifth, he who thinks, and he who understands, 
these seven should be understood to be the causes 
of the agents 5 . These 6 , being possessed of qualities 7 , 
enjoy their own qualities, agreeable and disagree- 
able. And I am here devoid of qualities. Thus 
these seven are the causes of emancipation 8 . And 
among the learned who understand (everything), the 

1 Cf. as to the three first, Gita, p. 123. They are the four categories, 
to one or other of which everything in the world may be referred. 

2 The texts here differ. Ar^una Mora's reading he interprets 
to mean ' the subjugation of these Hotr/s/ The reading followed 
in the text seems to some extent to be supported by the sequel. 
But the passage altogether is not very clear. 

3 So Ar^una Mijra — through these the knowledge of the quali- 
ties of objects of sense is acquired. 

4 The sensations, or perceptions, referred to lead to action. 

5 This seems to mean, that the powers of smelling, &c, when 
attributed to the self, make him appear as an agent, as an active 

8 I. e. action, agent, and instrument, Ar^una Mijra. 

7 I. e. the three, goodness, passion, and darkness. 

8 It is these seven from which the self is to be emancipated. 
' I ' must mean the self, not the Brahmawa who speaks. 


qualities 1 which are in the position of the deities, each 
in its own place, always enjoy the offering according 
to prescribed rules. To him who is not learned, eating 
various (kinds of) food, the (feeling of this or that 
being) mine adheres. And cooking food for him- 
self, he, through the (feeling of this or that being) 
mine, is ruined 2 . The eating of that which should 
not be eaten, and drinking of intoxicating drinks also 
destroys him. He destroys the food, and destroying 
that food he is destroyed in return. The learned 
man, being (himself) a ruler, destroying this food 
again produces it 3 . And not even a trifling obstacle 4 
arises to him from that food. Whatever is thought 
by the mind 5 , whatever is spoken by speech, what- 
ever is heard by the ear, whatever is seen by the 
eye, whatever is touched by the sense of touch, and 
whatever is smelt by the nose, absorbing all these 
offerings from all sides, together with those (senses) 
which with the mind are six 6 , my fire 7 of (high) 
qualifications 8 , shines dwelling within the body. My 
sacrifice of concentration of mind is in progress, the 
performance of which yields the fire 9 of knowledge ; 

1 I. e., I presume, the senses. Cf. Gita, p. 55. The learned do not 
suppose their self to have aught to do with them. Cf. Gita, p. 64. 

2 Cf. Gita, p. 53 ; Manu III, 118. 

3 His knowledge gives him this power. He is not ' destroyed ' 
by the food as the other man is. NilakawMa compares Bn'hadara- 
wyaka, p. 884. See, too, p. 260, note 1 supra. 

4 I. e. mischief owing to the destruction of life necessary for 
getting food, says Nllakaw//za quoting Brz'hadara/jyaka, p. 913. 

5 This includes the operation of the understanding also. Nila- 
ka^Ma says this verse explains what the word ' food ' means here. 

6 For the phrase cf. Gita, p. 112. 

7 That is to say, my self, Ar^una Mura. See p. 259, note 3 supra. 

8 As the objects of sense &c. are all absorbed into it. 

0 It is called 'fire/ as it burns up all action, Cf. Gita, p. 62. 

2 SO 


the Stotra in which, is the upward life-wind; the 
5astra, the downward life-wind ; and which is very 
beneficial on account of the abandonment of every- 
thing 1 ; the Brahman priest in which, is the coun- 
sellor in all action-; the Hotrz priest, the self ; the 
Adhvaryu priest, (the self) whose hymn of praise ' 5 is 
the offering ; the 6astra of the Prasastrz, truth ; and 
the Dakshi/za, final emancipation. On this, too, Rik 
verses are recited by the men who understand 
Naraya//a 1 — the god Naraya;/a to whom they for- 
merly offered animal 5 (offerings). On that Saman 
hymns 6 are sung, of which an illustration is stated 7 . 

1 Ar^una Mijra's commentary is not intelligible here, so I follow 
Xilaka;////a, but diffidently. 

2 I. e. the mind, say the commentators. ' Manta* simply is given 
among the synonyms of Ahankara at Sarikhya-sara, p. 16. 

:! I. e. the actions performed for knowledge of the truth, Arg-una 

4 Nilaka;///za refers to a Rik 'Tapa asid-g/Yhapati/z,' and also 
the famous allegory at the end of the Taittiriya-ara;zyaka. These 
are cited, he says, as authorities for this 4 sacrifice (consisting of) 
concentration of mind.' 

5 I. e. the senses, Nilaka;;//;a. Ar^nna Mura compares the whole 
passage with the Purusha Sukta, which are the Rik verses alluded 
to, according to him. He refers for further explanations to his 
own commentary on that sukta of the Rig-veda. 

6 They sing these hymns, out of the gratification produced by 
knowledge of the self, says NilakawMa, and he cites Taittinya- 
arawyaka, p. 749. See also Taittinya-upanishad, p. 138, and An- 
kara's commentary there. 

7 The readings of our texts here are not very satisfactory. The 
illustration is stated, says NilakawMa, whose reading we follow, by 
the Taittiriyas in the passage referred to in the last note. Argrma 
Mijra's reading means 'such as Tahu /'ahu/ which would seem to 
be the words of the Saman hymn referred to. But his commentary 
does not show what the words before him were. The whole figure 
as drawn out in this passage is not quite clear, though the general 
sense is pretty intelligible. Cf. the allegories at Aitareya-brahmawa, 
pp. 132, 133, and at the close of the Taittiriya-ara«yaka. 



O modest one ! understand that god Naraya^a, who 
is the self of everything. 

Chapter XI. 

There is one director 1 ; there is no second di- 
rector. I speak concerning him who abides in the 
heart. This being, the director, dwells in the heart 
and directs (all creatures). Impelled by that same 
(being), I move as I am ordered, like water on a 
declivity. There is one instructor ; there is no 
second (different) from him. I speak concerning 
him who abides in the heart. Taught by that in- 
structor, all snakes whatever are ever hated in 
the world 2 . There is one kinsman ; there is no 
second (different) from him. I speak concerning 
him who abides in the heart. Taught by him 
kinsmen are possessed of kinsmen 3 , (and) the seven 
7?zshis, O son of Prz'tha 4 ! shine in heaven 5 . There 

1 I.e. the Supreme Being, Ar^una Mhsra. Nilaka;///za connects 
this with the preceding chapter by saying that this describes Nara- 
ya«a, who is there mentioned. See £anti Parvan (Moksha Dharma), 
chap. 226, st. 8 (Bombay ed.) 

2 The natural feelings of animosity are caused by the Supreme 
Being within. Such seems to be the meaning. Cf. Gita, pp. 128, 
129. I may remark that Ar^una Mijra seems to interpret the 
original words, which we have rendered by ' I speak concerning 
him,' &c, to mean ' I repeat what has been said by/ &c. This 
does not seem to me to be satisfactory ; and it may be added, too, 
that Ar^-una MLrra's interpretation appears in his gloss not on the 
first verse, about the ' director,' but only on the second, about the 
'instructor.' Hated = full of animosity, Nilaka«Ma. 

:? I. e. the feeling of kinsmanship arises from his inspiration. 

4 The poet seems to be nodding here, as this expression cannot 
form part of the Brahmazza's speech to his wife. 

5 The seven sages are always mentioned together, and may 
well be spoken of as types of the feeling of kinship. 



is one hearer 1 ; there is no second (different) from 
him. I speak concerning him who abides in the 
heart. Living under that instructor, (according to 
the proper mode of) living with an instructor, 
Aakra - acquired immortality in all worlds. There 
is one enemy ; there is no second (different) from 
him. I speak concerning him who abides in the 
heart. Taught by that instructor, all snakes what- 
ever are ever hated in the world 3 . 

On this, too, they relate an ancient story, (about the) 
instruction of the snakes, and the gods, and sages, by 
Pra^apati. The gods, and sages, and the snakes, and 
the demons, approaching Pra^apati, said (to him) : 
'Tell us the highest good.' To them who were inquir- 
ing about the highest good, the venerable one said, 
' Om 4 , the Brahman, in a single syllable.' Hearing 
that, they ran away in (various) directions 5 . When 
they were running for instruction regarding the self, 
the inclination of the snakes to biting had been 
already formed. The natural inclination of the de- 
mons towards ostentatiousness had been formed. The 
gods had been engaged in gifts, and the great sages 
in restraint of the senses. Having had one teacher, 

1 NilakawMa takes this to mean pupil, but it is difficult to recon- 
cile that with the rest of the passage. Arg-una Mi-sra renders it by 
' the destroyer of every one's doubts.' For that, it will be necessary 
to take the word as a form of the causative, and not the simple root 
mi, to hear. But see, too, p. 283, 'the instructor ... the hearer.' 

2 Cf. Sanatsu^atiya, p. 152, note 1. 

3 The words here are nearly the same as before ; the commenta- 
tors give no explanation of the repetition. But see p. 281, note 2. 

4 Cf. Gita, p. 79. The full sen?e is that from the study of this 
Om the highest good is attained. 

5 I. e. to their own dwellings, believing that they had learnt what 
they wanted. 



and having been instructed with one word, the snakes, 
the gods, the sages, and the demons, all engaged in 
different 1 (pursuits). One hears what is said (to 
one) and apprehends it duly ; (but even) to one who 
inquires and extols highly, there is no other in- 
structor 2 . And by his counsel does action afterwards 
take place. The instructor, the learner, the hearer, 
and the enemy, are always within the heart. Acting 
sinfully in the world, he becomes (a man of) sinful 
conduct. Acting virtuously in the world he becomes 
(a man of) virtuous conduct 3 . And he becomes a 
man of conduct according to his own desire 4 , who, 
owing to his desires, is given up to the pleasures of 
the senses. But he who, casting aside vows 5 and 
actions, merely adheres to the Brahman, he moving 
about in the world identifying himself with the 
Brahman, becomes a Brahma/^arin. To him the 
Brahman itself is the fuel, the Brahman the fire, 
the Brahman his origin, the Brahman water, the 
Brahman the instructor. He is rapt in the 

1 The meaning seems to be that the original inclination was 
not altered by the new instruction received by them. NilakawMa 
seems to understand the passage differently. What has been ren* 
dered in the text by ' when they were running for instruction/ 
he renders by ' when they were practically carrying out the instruc- 
tion received by them; ' but this rendering seems to omit all consi- 
deration of the words ' Purvameva tu' — already. Though, therefore, 
there are one or two circumstances in favour of this construction, 
I have adopted the other. Cf. Br/hadarawyaka, p. 964. 

2 The meaning is that the real instructor is within oneself, 
' abiding in the heart/ as said before, although instruction may in 
form be received from one outside, of whom one seeks to learn, 
and whom one respects (or extols highly, as the text has it), and 
although such instruction may be well apprehended. 

3 Cf. Brz'hadarawyaka, pp. 546-853. 4 See Gita, p. 117. 
5 I. e. fasts and other like observances. 

[8] T 



Brahman Such is this subtle life as a Brahma/'arin 
understood by the wise. Understanding- it they 
practised it, being instructed by the Kshetra^a 2 . 

Chapter XII. 

The Brahma;/a said : 
I have crossed beyond that very impassable place, 
in which fancies are the gadflies and mosquitoes 3 , in 
which grief and joy are cold and heat, in which 
delusion is the blinding darkness, in which avarice 
is the beasts of prey and reptiles, in which desire 
and anger are the obstructors, the way to which 
consists in worldly objects, and is to be crossed by 
one singly 4 . And I have entered the great forest 5 . 

The Brahma/za's wife said : 
Where is that forest, O very intelligent person ! 
what are the trees (there), and what the rivers, and 
the hills and mountains ; and at what distance is 
that forest ? 

1 Cf. Gita, p. 61. The water is that required for the sacrifice. 
The words ' the Brahman is his origin ' are not quite clear, as being 
not connected with the figure employed. Perhaps it might be 
taken otherwise thus, ' the Brahman (is) the fire produced from the 
Brahman/ this last standing for the aram. 

2 I. e. one who understands the truth, Nilakaw/^a ; God, Ar^una 
Mijra. The same sentence winds up two of the following chapters ; 
and at p. 310 Krishna, says the Kshetra^wa signifies the supreme 
self. See Gita, p. 102 seq. 

3 Cf. Lalita Vistara, p. 44. 

4 I. e. not with the help of son, wealth, &c, says Nilaka;//^a, as 
each man's salvation after having got into the course of worldly life 
depends on himself. Cf. -Santi Parvan (Moksha Dharma), chap. 193, 
st. 32, and Manu IV, 240 ; obstructor, thief, Ar^una Mura. 

5 I. e. the Brahman. Nilaka^Ma compares a text from the -Sruti, 
' Kim svid vanazw ka u sa v/Yksha asa; ' see Rig-veda X, 31, 7. 



The Brahma/^a said : 
There is nothing else more delightful than that, 
when there is no distinction from it. There is 
nothing more afflicting than that, when there is a 
distinction from it \ There is nothing smaller than 
that, there is nothing larger than that 2 . There is 
nothing more subtle than that ; there is no other 
happiness equal to that. Entering it, the twice- 
born do not grieve, and do not exult 3 . They 
are not afraid of anybody, and nobody is afraid 
of them. In that forest 4 are seven large trees 5 , 
seven fruits, and seven guests ; seven hermitages, 
seven (forms of) concentration, and seven (forms 
of) initiation. This is the description of the forest. 
That forest is filled with trees producing splendid 
flowers and fruits of five colours °. That forest 

1 Cf. A7/andogya, pp. 516, 517. 

2 Cf. Sanatsu^atiya, p. 180 and note there. 

3 Cf. as to all this Gita, p. 101. 

4 This is not the forest spoken of before, but what has been 
before called the 'impassable place,' but which also at p. 286 is 
by implication called a forest, viz. the course of worldly life. 

5 Viz. the eye, ear, tongue, skin, and nose, and the mind, and 
understanding — these are called trees, as being producers of the 
fruits, namely, the pleasures and pains derived from their several 
operations; the guests are the powers of each sense personified — 
they receive the fruits above described ; the hermitages are the 
trees above mentioned, in which the guests take shelter ; the seven 
forms of concentration are the exclusion from the self of the seven 
functions of the seven senses &c. already referred to ; the seven 
forms of initiation refer to the initiation into the higher life, by repu- 
diating as not one's own the actions of each member out of the group 
of seven. Cf. as to this AVzandogya, p. 219, and commentary there. 

6 Cf. for these different numbers of colours, Yoga-sutra II, 19, and 
commentary, p. 105, and Sahkhya-sara, p. 18. The trees here meant 
are the Tanmatras, or subtle elements, and the theory is that the 
Gandha-tanmatra, or subtle element of smell, has five qualities, its 

T 2 



is filled with trees producing flowers and fruits of 
tour colours. That forest is filled with trees pro- 
ducing flowers and fruits of three colours, and mixed. 
That forest is filled with trees producing flowers 
and fruits of two colours, and of beautiful colours. 
That forest is filled with trees producing flowers 
and fruits of one colour, and fragrant. That forest 
is filled with two large trees producing numerous 
flowers and fruits of undistinguished colours \ 
There is one fire 2 here, connected with the Brah- 
man 3 , and having a good mind 4 . And there is 
fuel here, (namely) the five senses. The seven 
(forms of) emancipation from them are the seven 
(forms of) initiation 5 . The qualities are the fruits, 
and the guests eat the fruits. There, in various 
places, the great sages receive hospitality. And 
when they have been worshipped and have dis- 
appeared R , another forest shines forth, in which 
intelligence is the tree, and emancipation the fruit, 
and which possesses shade (in the form of) tran- 

own special one, so to say, and the four special ones of the others ; 
the next is taste, the next colour, the next touch, and the last sound ; 
each has one quality less than its predecessor. See Yoga-sutra, p. 106, 
and gloss ; Sahkhya-sutra I, 62 ; and Vedanta Paribhasha, p. 45. 

1 These are mind and understanding ; the fruits and flowers are 
here of 1 undistinguished colours/ as the text expresses it, since they 
include the colours of all the fruits of all the other five sets of trees; 
that is to say, the subject-matter of their operations is sound, taste, 
&c, the subject-matters of all the senses together. ' Undistinguished 
colours ' is, perhaps, more literally ' of colours not clear.' Aro-una 
MLrra paraphrases it by ' of variegated colours,' which is no doubt 
the true ultimate sense. 

2 The self, Ntlaka^Ma. See p. 279, note 7 supra. 

3 I. e., I presume, devoted to the Brahman. 

4 I. e. true knowledge, Ar^nna Mura. 5 See note 5, p. 285. 
6 I.e. when the senses having worked, as unconnected with the self, 

are finally absorbed into it. Cf. Sahkhya-karika 49 and KaZ/^a, p. 151. 



quillity, which depends on knowledge, which has con- 
tentment for its water, and which has the Kshetra^/la 
within for the sun. The good who attain to that, 
have no fear afterwards. Its end cannot be per 
ceived upwards or downwards or horizontally K 
There always dwell seven females there 2 , with faces 
(turned) downwards, full of brilliance, and causes of 
generation. They absorb 3 all the higher delights 
of people, as inconstancy (absorbs) everything 4 . 
In that same 5 (principle) the seven perfect sages, 
together with their chiefs, the richest 6 , abide, and 
again emerge from the same. Glory, brilliance, and 
greatness, enlightenment, victory, perfection, and 
power 7 — these seven rays follow after this same 
sun. Hills and mountains also are there collected 
together, and rivers and streams flowing with water 
produced from the Brahman 8 . And there is the con- 
fluence of the rivers in the secluded place 9 for the 

1 It extends on all sides, its end cannot be perceived on any side. 

2 These are, according to Ar^una Mirra, the Mahat, Ahankara, 
and five Tanmatras. Their faces are turned downwards, as they 
are obstacles in the way upwards, viz. the way of final emancipa- 
tion ; they are brilliant, as they light up the course of worldly life ; 
and hence, too, they are ' causes of generation.' They give birth 
to the universe. 

3 They conceal the higher delight of final emancipation. 

4 I follow Aro-una Mm-a, but the text is doubtful. 

5 Viz. the Brahman. 

6 Cf. AVmndogya, pp. 295-300. The word sages here, as before, 
means the vaiious organs. See Br/hadara/zyaka, p. 415. 

7 Glory = renown; brilliance = Brahmic splendour (Brahmale^as); 
perfection = obtaining what is desired; power = not being conquered 
by others, Ar^una Mijra. About the sun, see line 3 of text above. 

8 I. e. contentment. See the second line in the text above. 

9 I. e. the space in the heart, the sacrifice being that of ' con- 
centration of mind,' yogaya^a, — Nilaka;////a. A confluence of 



sacrifice, whence those who are contented in their 
own sells repair to the divine grandsire himself. 
Those whose wishes are reduced 1 , whose wishes 
are (fixed) on good vows, whose sins are burnt up 
by penance, merging the self in the self 2 , devote 
themselves to Brahman. Those people who under- 
stand the forest of knowledge 3 , praise tranquillity. 
And aspiring to that forest, they are born so as 
not to lose courage 4 . Such, indeed, is this holy 
forest, as understood by Brahma;zas. And under- 
standing it, they act (accordingly), being directed 
by the Kshetra^a. 

Chapter XIII. 
The Brahma/za said : 
I do not smell smells, I perceive no tastes, I see 
no colour, and I do not touch, nor yet do I hear 
various sounds, nor even do I entertain any fancies 5 . 
Nature desires objects which are liked ; nature 
hates all (objects) which are hateful 6 . Desire and 
hatred are born from nature 7 , as the upward and 

rivers is very sacred — here the meaning intended seems to be the 
absorption of all desires by contentment into the heart. 

1 Literally, ' lean.' 2 I. e. the body in the soul, Ar^una Mbra. 

3 Knowledge is Brahman, which is described as a forest here, 
Ar^una Mijra. 

4 Cf. GM, p. 70. 

5 This is the name for the operations of the mind. 

8 The sense is similar to that at Gita, p. 55. The self has nothing 
to do with these feelings ; the qualities deal with the qualities. 

7 Cf. Gita, p. 65. The meaning of nature here, as in the Gita, 
is in substance the result of all previous action with which the self 
has been associated, which result, of course, exists connected not 
with the self,butwith the developments of nature, in the form of body, 



downward life-winds, after attaining to the bodies of 
living creatures. Apart from them, and as the 
constant entity underlying them, I see the individual 
self in the body. Dwelling in that (self), I am in 
no wise attached 1 (to anything) through desire or 
anger, or old age, or death. Not desiring any 
object of desire, not hating any evil, there is no 
taint on my natures 2 , as there is no (taint) of a drop 
of water on lotuses 3 . They are inconstant things 
appertaining to this constant (principle) which looks 
on various natures. Although actions are per- 
formed, the net of enjoyments does not attach itself 
to it, as the net of the sun's rays does not attach 
itself to the sky 4 . On this 5 , too, they relate an 
ancient story, (in the shape of) a dialogue between 
an Adhvaryu priest and an ascetic. Understand 
that, O glorious one ! Seeing an animal being 
sprinkled 0 at a sacrificial ceremony, an ascetic who 
was sitting (there) spoke to the Adhvaryu, censur- 
ing (the act) as destruction of life. The Adhvaryu 

senses, &c. The comparison appears to mean that the feelings of 
desire &c. are, like the life-winds, unconnected with the self, though 
associated with it, and are both alike manifestations of nature. 

1 Nilaka;///za compares Br/hadaraz/yaka, p. 770. Ar^-una Mijra 
has a different reading, meaning 1 liable (to be subjugated).' 

2 The plural, which is in the original, is unusual. The various 
aspects of the 'result' stated in p. 288, note 7, being looked at 
separately, are described as ' natures,' like the leaves of a lotus, which 
in their ensemble make one lotus. 

3 Lalita Vistara, p. 2, and p. 64 supra. 

1 The figure seems to be somewhat like that at Gita, p. 82, about 
the atmosphere and space, which latter remains untainted by the 
former. Looking on various natures, i.e. as distinct from the self. 

5 Viz. the remaining untainted. 

,; I. e. with water, preparatory to its being offered up for the 

2 go 


answered him (saying), this goat will not be de- 
stroyed. (This) creature will obtain welfare, since 
the Vedic text is such. For that part of him which 
is of the earth will go to the earth ; whatever in 
him is produced from water, that will enter water. 
Mis eye (will enter) the sun, (his) ear the quarters, 
and his life-winds likewise the sky 1 . There is no 
offence on my part, adhering (as I do) to the 
scriptures 2 . 

The Ascetic said : 

If you perceive (that) good (will) result upon his 
life being severed (from him), then the sacrifice 
is for the goat, what benefit (is it) to you ? Let the 
brother, father, mother, and friend (of the goat) give 
you their consent 3 ; take him (to them) and consult 
(them), especially as he is dependent. You ought 
to inquire of those who can give their consent thus. 
After hearing their consent, (the matter) will be 
fit for consideration 4 . The life-winds 5 , too, of this 
goat have gone to their sources, and I think only 
his unmoving body remains. To those who wish 
to derive enjoyment from the slaughter (of a living 
creature), the unconscious body being comparable 
to fuel, that which is called an animal becomes 

1 Cf. Br/hadara;/yaka, p. 542, and p. 337 below. 

2 Cf. A7zandogya-upanishad, p. 627, and also -Sariraka Bhashya 
on Sutra III, 1, 25, p. 774. 

3 I. e. for his slaughter, which is to bring welfare to the goat. 
Ar^-una Mijra says that this is a sort of reductio ad absurdum, 
as the sacrifice is in truth not in the interests of the goat at all. 

4 Viz. whether the goat should be killed. Without their consent 
he ought not to be slaughtered; with their consent, it becomes 
a matter for consideration, Ar^una Mijra. 

5 It may also mean the senses, as in the A7zandogya, p. 297. 



the fuel *. The teaching of the elders 2 is, that re- 
fraining from slaughter (of living creatures) is (the 
duty) among all duties. We maintain that that 
action should be performed which involves no 
slaughter. (Our) proposition is no slaughter (of living- 
creatures). If I spoke further, it would be possible 
to find fault with your proceedings in many ways 3 . 
Always refraining from the slaughter of all beings is 
what we approve. We substantiate (this) from what 
is actually visible 4 , we do not rely on what is not 

The Adhvaryu said : 
You enjoy the earth's quality of fragrance, you 
drink watery juices, you see the colours of shining 
bodies, you touch the qualities of the air, you hear 
the sound produced in space, you think by the mind 
(on the objects of) mental operations. And all 
these entities, you believe, have life. You have not 
(then) abstained from taking life. You are (engaged) 
in the slaughter (of living creatures) 5 . There is no 
movement 6 without slaughter (of living creatures). 
Or what do you think, O twice-born one ? 

1 This is not very clear, but the meaning seems to be that the 
slaughter is committed for the enjoyment of the sacrificer; the 
sacrificer only requires fuel, and the slaughtered animal is then 
used for that purpose. 

2 Cf. A*Mndogya, p. 627, and next note; and Gita, inter alia, 
p. 114, and p. 348 infra. 3 See Sahkhyatattvakaumudi, p. 7. 

4 I. e. a rule expressly laid down. What is not visible means 
what is not expressly stated, but is to be derived by inference, and 
so forth (cf. Apastamba I, 1, 4, 8). The express text is the famous 
one, 4 Na himsyatsarva bhutani.' Hiwsa, which is rendered slaughter 
here, may mean also ' giving pain ' generally. 

5 This is the tu quo que argument. The sustentation of life 
requires some sort of slaughter. 

6 I. e. the support of the body, says Ar^una Mixra. 



The Ascetic said : 
The indestructible and die destructible, such is 
the double manifestation of the self. Of these the 
indestructible is the existent 1 , the manifestation as an 
individual 2 (entity) is called the destructible 3 . The 
life-winds, the tongue, the mind, and (the quality of) 
goodness, together with (the quality of) passion 4 , (these 
make up) the manifestations as individual entities. 
And to one who is free from these manifestations, 
who is free from the pairs of opposites, who is devoid 
of expectations, who is alike to all beings, who is 
free from (the thought that this or that is) mine, 
who has subdued his self, and who is released on all 
hands \ there is no fear anywhere 6 . 

The Adhvaryu said : 

0 best of talented men ! one should in this (world) 

1 Ar^una Mi.rra takes it otherwise, ( the true nature of the Sat, 
the self.' Nilaka;///^a renders the original by sadrupam without 
further explanation. This indestructible seems to correspond to 
that mentioned at Gita, p. 113, which should be considered in 
connection with Gita, pp. 73, 74. The note at the former page is, 
perhaps, not quite accurately expressed, as the word ' material cause ' 
conveys some inadmissible associations. Perhaps ' underlying prin- 
ciple ' might be a nearer approach to the correct idea. The existent 
will thus be that which really exists, as it is indestructible. 

2 Cf. Gita, p. 77. 3 See Santi Parvan (Moksha), ch. 240, st. 31. 

4 Ar^una Mijra says, ' The life-winds here are indicative of the 
operations of the organs of action (as to which see p. 290, note 5 
supra), the tongue of the perceptive senses, the mind of the internal 
activities, the quality of goodness of all sources of pleasure, and 
passion of all sources of pain,' the last two apparently covering the 
external world, the previous ones the human activities, internal and 

5 Released scil. from piety or impiety, &c, — Ar^una Mura, who 
says 'self in the phrase preceding means mind. 

r ' Because, says Ar^una Mijra, according to the very authority 
which says there is sin in slaughter, all sin is destroyed by know- 
ledge. Cf. Gita, p. 64. 



dwell in company of good men only \ For having 
heard your opinion, my mind is enlightened. O 
venerable sir ! I approach you, in the belief (that you 
are) the Lord ; and I say (to you), O twice-born one ! 
there is no fault (attaching) to me, performing (as I 
have done) the rites performed by others 2 . 

The Brahma^a said : 
With this explanation, the ascetic thereafter re- 
mained silent, and the Adhvaryu also proceeded with 
the great sacrifice, freed from delusion. Thus Brah- 
ma;/as understand the very subtle emancipation to 
be of this nature, and understanding it, they act 
(accordingly), being directed by the Kshetra^a. 

Chapter XIV. 

The Brahma^a said : 
On this 3 , too, they relate an old story, (in the 
shape of) a dialogue, O you of a pure heart ! between 
Kartavirya and the ocean. (There lived once) a 
king named Ar<funa 4 , a descendant of Kr/tavirya, 
possessed of a thousand arms, who with his bow 
conquered the (whole) earth up to the ocean. Once 

1 Cf. Taittinya-upanishad, p. 40. 
The readings here in the MSS. are not satisfactory. I adopt 
as the best that which appears to have been before Ar^una Misra. 
The meaning seems to be this : — I have now understood the truth, 
but I cannot be blamed for having hitherto done that which I saw 
every one else do. Now I have had the benefit of conversation with 
a good man, and have become free from my delusion. 

3 Namely, that final emancipation is not to be obtained by action, 
and that slaughter is sinful. 

4 He is alsocalled a Yogin atRaghuva^zja VI, 38. See Mallinath's 
commentary there. 



on a time, as we have heard, he was walking about 
near the sea, proud of his strength, and showering 
hundreds of arrows on the sea. The ocean, saluting 
him, and with joined hands, said, ' O brave man! do 
not throw arrows (on me). Say, what shall I do for 
you ? The creatures, who take shelter with me, are 
being destroyed, O tiger-like king ! by the great 
arrows thrown by you. Give them security, O Lord ! ' 

Ar^una said : 
I f there is anywhere any wielder of the bow equal 
to me in battle, who might stand against me in the 
field, name him to me. 

The ocean said : 

If, O king! you have heard of the great sage 
c7amadagni, his son is (the) proper (person) to show 
you due hospitality \ 

Then the king, full of great wrath, went away, and 
arriving at that hermitage approached Rama only. 
In company with his kinsmen, he did many (acts) 
disagreeable to Rama, and caused much trouble to 
the high-souled Rama. Then the power of Rama, 
whose power was unbounded, blazed forth, burning 
the hosts of the enemy, O lotus-eyed one ! And then 
Rama, taking up his axe, hacked away that man of 
the thousand arms in battle, like a tree of many 
branches. Seeing him killed and fallen, all (his) 
kinsmen assembled together, and taking swords and 
lances, surrounded the descendant of Bhrz'gu. Rama 
also taking up a bow, and hurriedly mounting a 
chariot, shot away volleys of arrows, and blew 
away the army of the king. Then some of the 

1 I. e. by giving him what he desired — a ' foeman worthy of his 
steel ' to fight with him. 



Kshatriyas, often troubled by fear of the son of 
Gamadagni, entered mountains and inaccessible 
places, like antelopes troubled by a lion. And the 
subjects of those (Kshatriyas) who were not per- 
forming their prescribed duties 1 through fear of him, 
became VWshalas, owing to the disappearance of 
Brahma;/as 2 . Thus the Dravi^as, Abhiras, Pau;^ras, 
together with the 6abaras, became Vrzshalas 3 , owing 
to the abandonment of their duties by Kshatriyas. 
Then when the heroic (children) of Kshatriya women 
were destroyed again and again, the Kshatriyas, who 
were produced by the Brahma/zas 4 , were also de- 
stroyed by the son of (^amadagni. At the end of 
the twenty-first slaughter, a bodiless voice from 
heaven, which was heard by all people, spoke 
sweetly to Rama, ' O Rama ! O Rama ! desist (from 
this slaughter). What good, dear friend, do you 
perceive, in taking away the lives of these kins j 
men of Kshatriyas over and over again ? ' Then, 
too, his grandfathers 5 , with jRz/cika as their head, 
likewise said to the high-souled (Rama), ' Desist, 
O noble one 6 !' But Rama, not forgiving his father's 

1 Viz. the protection of their subjects. 

2 As the kings failed to protect the people, the Brahmawas 
apparently were nowhere forthcoming. 

3 Cf. Muir, Sanskrit Texts, vol. i, pp. 482 seq., 358, 391 ; vol. ii, 
p. 423 ; .Santi P.arvan, ch. 65, st. 13 ; ch. 207, st. 42 (Ra^adharma). 

1 As Kshatriyas were required for the protection of the people, 
the Brahma;zas procreated them on Kshatriya women. See Muir, 
Sanskrit Text, vol. i, p. 451 seq. And as they were the offspring of 
these anomalous connexions they are described as ' kinsmen of 
Kshatriyas.' Cf. ^andogya, p. 317 ; Br/hadarawyaka, p. 1037 and 
comments there. As to heroic, see Muir, Sanskrit Texts, vol. iv, 
p. 302 note. 

5 Cf. Gita, p. 40, note 1. 

6 See as to the whole story, Muir, Sanskrit Texts, vol. i, p. 442. 



murder, said to those sages, * You ought not to keep 
me back from this.' 

The Pitrzs said : 
O best of victors ! you ought not to destroy these 
kinsmen of Kshatriyas. It is not proper for you, 
being a Brahma;/a, to slaughter these kings. 

Chapter XV. 
The Pitrz's said : 
On this \ too, they relate an ancient story; hearing 
that (story), O best of the twice-born ! you should 
act accordingly. There was (once) a royal sage, 
named Alarka, whose penance was very great, who 
understood duty, who was veracious, high-souled, 
and very firm in his vows. Having with his bow 
conquered this world as far as the ocean, — having 
performed very difficult deeds 2 , — he turned his 
mind to subtle 3 (subjects). While he was sitting at 
the foot of a tree, O you of great intelligence ! his 
thoughts, abandoning (those) great deeds, turned to 
subtle (questions). 

Alarka said : 
My mind is become (too) strong 4 ; that conquest is 
constant in which the mind is conquered. (Though) 
surrounded by enemies, I shall direct my arrows 
elsewhere 5 . As by its unsteadiness, it wishes 6 to 

1 The impropriety or sinfulness of slaughter. 

2 Such as the subjugation of enemies and so forth. 

3 The Brahman, says Nilaka^Ma. 

4 I. e. too strong to be under control. 

5 That is to say, elsewhere than towards the external foes with 
whom he was waging war. 

(j The text is unsatisfactory here. I adopt NilakawMa's reading. 



make all mortals perform action, I will cast very 
sharp-edged arrows at the mind. 

The mind said : 

These arrows, O Alarka ! will not penetrate 
through me at all. They will only pierce your 
own vital part, and your vital part being pierced, 
you will die. Look out for other arrows by which 
you may destroy me. 

Hearing that, he then spoke these words after 
consideration : — 

Alarka said : 
Smelling very many perfumes, one hankers after 
them only. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at 
the nose. 

The nose 1 said : 

These arrows, O Alarka ! will not penetrate 
through me at all. They will only pierce your 
own vital part, and your vital part being pierced, 
you will die. Look out for other arrows by which 
you may destroy me. 

Hearing that, he then spoke these words after 
consideration : — 

Alarka said : 
Enjoying savory tastes, this (tongue) hankers after 

1 This and the other corresponding words must be understood 
to refer not to the physical nose and so forth, but the sense seated 
there. The nose here, for instance, stands for the sense of smell. 
Nilaka;///;a understands all these words of Alarka as indicating the 
so-called Ha/^a-yoga, which, he adds, invariably occasions death. 
As to the throwing of arrows at the mind, he says, it means, 4 1 will 
subdue the mind by the restraint of the excretive organs by means 
of the Ha/7/a-yoga.' And finally he says, ' A man, having restrained 
all the senses by means of the HaMa-yoga, merely droops away ; 
becoming deficient in those senses, he does not accomplish 
his end.' 



them only. Therefore I will cast sharp arrows at 
the tongue. 

The tongue said : 

These arrows, O Alarka ! will not penetrate 
through me at all. They will only pierce your 
own vital part, and your vital part being pierced, 
you will die. Look out for other arrows by which 
you may destroy me. 

Hearing that, he then spoke these words after 
consideration : — 

Alarka said : 
Touching various (objects of) touch, the skin 
hankers after them only. Therefore I will tear 
off the skin by various feathered arrows. 

The skin said : 

These arrows, O Alarka ! will not penetrate 
through me at all. They will only pierce your 
own vital part, and your vital part being pierced, 
you will die. Look out for other arrows by which 
you may destroy me. 

Hearing that, he then said after consideration : — 

Alarka said : 
Hearing various sounds, the (ear) hankers after 
them only. Therefore I (will) cast sharp arrows 
at the ear. 

The ear said : 
These arrows, O Alarka ! will not penetrate 
through me at all. They will only pierce your 
own vital part, and then you will lose (your) life. 
Look out for other arrows by which you may 
destroy me. 

Hearing that, he then said after consideration :•— 



Alarka said : 
Seeing numerous colours, the eye hankers after 
them only. Therefore I will destroy the eye with 
sharp arrows. 

The eye said : 

These arrows, O Alarka! will not penetrate 
through me at all. They will only pierce your 
own vital part, and your vital part being pierced, 
you will die. Look out for other arrows by which 
you may destroy me. 

Hearing that, he then said after consideration : — 

Alarka said : 
This (understanding) forms various determina- 
tions by its operation. Therefore I will cast sharp 
arrows at the understanding. 

The understanding said : 
These arrows, O Alarka ! will not penetrate 
through me at all. They will only pierce your own 
vital part, and your vital part being pierced, you 
will die. Look out for other arrows by which you 
may destroy me. 

The Brahma^a 1 said : 
Then Alarka even there employed himself in a 
fearful penance 2 difficult to perform ; but he did not 
obtain any arrows for these seven by his devotions. 
Then that king deliberated with a mind very intent 
on one (subject), and after deliberating for a long 
time, O best of the twice-born ! Alarka, the best of 
talented (men), could not arrive at anything better 

1 Sic in our copies. It should be the Pitr/s, seeing that they 
are relating Alarka's story to Para^urama. 

2 Meditation, or pondering, according to Nilakaw//£a. 

[8] U 


than concentration of mind 1 . Then directing his mind 
to one point 2 , he became steady, and applied him- 
self to concentration of mind. And (then) the brave 
man forthwith destroyed the senses with one arrow; 
and entering the self by means of concentration of 
mind, he reached the highest perfection. And the 
royal sage, amazed, then uttered this verse, ' O ! 
Alas ! that we should have engaged in all external 
(matters) ; that being possessed of a desire for en- 
joyments, we should have devoted ourselves before 
now to sovereignty ! I have now subsequently learnt 
that there is no higher happiness than concentration 
of mind.' Do you understand this too, O Rama ! 
and do not kill Kshatriyas. Perform a fearful 3 
penance, thence you will obtain the highest good. 
Thus spoken to by (his) grandfathers, the noble son 
of cVamadagni engaged himself in fearful penance, and 
attained that perfection which is difficult to reach. 

Chapter XVI. 
The Brahma^a said : 
There are, verily, three foes in (this) world, and 
they are stated to be (divided) ninefold, according 
to qualities. Exultation, pleasure, joy 4 , these three 

1 I.e. the ra^a-yoga, says Nilaka«//$a, which consists in mere 
control of the mind. Cf. Sahkhya-sara, p. 39. 

2 See Yoga-sutra, p. 45. 

3 This means difficult, and occasioning many trials to one who 

performs it. 

4 Nilaka^/^a says exultation is when one is sure of obtaining 
what is desired, pleasure when it is obtained, and joy when the 
thing obtained is enjoyed. Argiina Mi^ra takes a different distinc- 
tion ; but our copy of his commentary is not quite intelligible in 



are qualities appertaining to the quality of good- 
ness. Grief, wrath, persistent hatred, these are 
stated to be qualities appertaining to the quality of 
passion. Sleep, sloth, and delusion, these three 
qualities are qualities appertaining to the quality 
of darkness. Cutting these off by multitudes of 
arrows 1 , a courageous man, free from sloth, having 
a tranquil self, and senses controlled, is energetic 
about subjugating others 2 . On this, people who 
know about ancient times celebrate verses which 
were sung of old by the king Ambarisha, who had 
become tranquil (in mind). When vices 3 were in 
the ascendant, and good (men) were oppressed, 
Ambarisha, of great glory, forceably possessed him- 

the beginning. Pleasure he takes to mean ' pride felt in supposing 
oneself to possess some merit/ and joy that produced when im- 
pending danger is averted. As to the next triad, the text is again 
unsatisfactory. The text printed in the edition which contains 
Nilaka^Ma's commentary, is 1 desire, anger,' &c. There is nothing 
about them in the commentary. Argima Mura's text is the one 
we have adopted. He says, ' grief, pain caused by loss of what is 
desired; anger, the pain caused by the counteraction of one's 
attempts to injure another ; persistent hatred, the pain caused by 
believing another to be doing harm to oneself.' Persistent hatred 
is NilakatfMa's interpretation. I think his interpretation is prefer- 
able. The two triads seem to be based on one principle of grada- 
tion. The distinctive marks of the three qualities are pleasure, 
pain, and delusion respectively, and those characterise the three 
triads stated in the text. See -Santi Parvan (Moksha), chap. 194, 
st. 27 seq. 

1 Tranquillity and so forth, Nilakaz/Ma ; practising yoga or 
concentration of mind, Ar^una Mijra. 

2 I. e. external, says Ar^una MLna ; external foes of one's own 
emancipation is, I presume, what is meant. 

3 Ar^una Mura says, ' his own and those of others.' NilakawMa 
takes good to mean not men, but tranquillity, &c. The next 
sentence seems rather to militate against this view, which in itself 
is not a well-founded one. 

U 2 



self of the kingdom '. lie (then) restraining his own 
vices, and honouring good men, attained high per- 
fection, and sang these verses : ' I have conquered 
most vices ; destroyed all foes ; but there is one, 
the greatest, vice which should be destroyed and 
which I have not destroyed — that (vice), being im- 
pelled by which, a creature does not attain freedom 
from desire, and being troubled by desire, under- 
stands (nothing) while running into ditches 2 ; (that 
vice), being impelled by which, a man even does 
what ought not to be done. That avarice — cut 
(it) off, cut (it) off with sharp swords. For from 
avarice 3 is born desire ; then anxiety comes into 
existence ; and he who desires, mostly acquires 
qualities appertaining to the quality of passion. 
Obtaining those, he mostly acquires qualities ap- 
pertaining to the quality of darkness 4 . When the 
bodily frame is destroyed, he, owing to these quali- 
ties, is born again and again, and engages in action. 
And at the expiration of life, again with his body 
dismembered and scattered about, he meets death, 
and again birth. Therefore, properly perceiving this, 
and restraining avarice by courage, one should wish 
for sovereignty in the self. This is sovereignty 5 ; 
there is no other sovereignty here. The self pro- 
perly understood is itself the sovereign.' Such were 

1 For the good of the people, says Ar^una Mijra. 

2 I. e. base actions, Nilaka^a. 

3 Avarice, according to Ar^una Mma, is the belief that one has 
not got that which one has, and desire is the wish for more and 
more. Avarice, seems, however, to be the general frame of mind, 
always wishing for something, never being contented, and desire 
is the wish for a specific object. 

4 Which are sources of delusion. Cf. a similar doctrine at Apa- 
stamba IT, 5, 140. 5 NilakawMa compares Taittinya, p. 26. 


the verses sung with regard to the great sovereignty, 
by the glorious Ambarisha, who destroyed the one 
(chief vice), avarice. 

Chapter XVII. 

The Brahma;/a said : 
On this 1 , too, they relate this ancient story (in the 
shape of) a dialogue, O you of a pure heart ! between 
a Brahmawa and kanaka. King kanaka, by way of 
punishment, said to a Brahma^a who had fallen into 
some offence : ' You should not live within my do- 
minions.' Thus spoken to, the Brahma^a then 
replied to that best of kings : ' Tell me, O king ! how 
far (extend) the dominions which are subject to you. 
I wish, O Lord ! to live in the dominions of another 
king, and, O master of the earth ! I wish to do your 
bidding according to the -5astras.' Thus spoken 
to by that glorious Brahma^a, the king then heaved 
frequent and warm sighs, and said nothing in reply. 
While that king of unbounded power was seated, 
engaged in meditation, a delusion suddenly came 
upon him, as the planet 2 upon the sun. Then when 
the delusion had gone off, the king recovered him- 
self, and after a short while spoke these words to 
the Brahma/^a. 

kanaka said : 
Though this country, which is the kingdom of my 
father and grandfather, is subject (to me), I cannot 

1 On getting rid of the notion that this, that, and the other 
thing is one's own, — Argaina MiVra. Nilakaa/fta agrees, and adds 
also on the subject of cutting off avarice. 

2 That is to say, Rahu. 



find my domain l , searching- through the (whole) 
earth. When I did not find it on the earth, I looked 
for Mithila ; when I did not find it in Mithila, I looked 
for my own offspring. When I did not find it among 
them, then came the delusion on me. Then on the 
expiration of the delusion, intelligence again came 
to me. Now I think that there is no domain (of 
mine), or that everything is my domain. Even this 
self is not mine, or the whole earth is mine. And 
as mine, so (is it) that of others too, I believe, O 
best of the twice-born ! Live (here, therefore) while 
you desire, and enjoy while you live 2 . 

The Br&hma;za said : 
Tell me, what belief you have resorted to, by which, 
though this country, which is the kingdom of your 
father and grandfather, is subject to you, you have 
got rid of (the notion that this or that is) mine. 
What conviction have you adopted, by which verily 
you consider your whole domain as not (your) 
domain, or all as your domain ? 

(kanaka said : 
I understand (all) conditions here, in all affairs, to 
be terminable 3 , hence I could not find anything that 
should be (called) mine 4 . (Considering) whose this 

1 Meaning, apparently, that over which he and no one else has 
power. He contracts his vision gradually, and finds nothing at all 
which he can call his own to the exclusion of others. He explains, fur- 
ther on, how he arrives at the alternative conviction stated towards 
the close of this speech. In the Br/hadara«yaka (p. 916) he is said 
to have offered his kingdom to Yagvlavalkya and himself as his slave, 
after learning the Brahma-vidya. See too Muir, Sanskrit Texts, vol. iv, 
p. 426 seq. 2 See -Santi Parvan (Moksha) I, 13. 

3 Conditions of indigence or affluence, Nilaka;/Ma. Ar^una 
Mijra's reading is different. 

4 There is a familiar verse, ascribed to kanaka, which says, ' If 



was, (I thought of) the Vedic text about anybody's 
property, (hence) I could not find by my intelligence 
anything that should be (called) mine 1 . Resorting 
to this conviction, I have got rid of (the notion that 
this or that is) inine. Now hear the conviction, 
holding which, my domain (appears to me to be) 
everywhere 2 . I do not desire for myself even smells 
existing in the nose 3 . Therefore the earth 4 being 
conquered is always subject to me. I do not desire 
for myself tastes even dwelling in the mouth. 
Therefore water being conquered is always subject 
to me. I do not desire for myself the colour (or) light 
appertaining to the eye. Therefore light being con- 
quered is always subject to me. I do not desire for 
myself the (feelings of touch) which exist in the 
skin. Therefore air being conquered is always 

Mithila is on fire, nothing of mine is burnt (in it)/ The verse 
occurs in the Mahabharata, £anti Parvan (Moksha Dharma), chap. 
178, st. 2, and also chap. 276, st. 4. See too Muir, Sanskrit Texts, 
vol. i, p. 429. 

1 This is not clear. I have followed Nilakaw/^a's text. Argnna 
MLrra's is in the earlier part more intelligible, 'Whose is this to-day, 
whose to-morrow ? ' But I cannot find that there is any Vedic 
text to this effect. Nilaka;///£a cites on his text tropanishad, p. 5. 
The meaning here seems to be, ' When I considered as to whom 
the things I saw in my thoughts belonged to, I remembered the 
Vedic text that one should not wish to obtain another's property, 
and so, thinking about the matter with that caution, I could not 
make out that there was anything which I could call my own.' 

2 This is the alternative conclusion he has come to. 

3 The sense of smell enjoys the smell, my self has nothing to 
do with it. Cf. Gita, p. 55, also Maitn, pp. 112, 113. 

4 Whenever there is any smell, it is supposed that particles of 
earth are there; so the meaning here is 'all things having the 
quality of smell are subject to me,' and so throughout. The 
objects of sense are all used for the purposes of the prescribed 
actions, the benefits of which accrue to gods, &c. Cf. Gita, pp. 53, 
54, and see also pp. 84, 85. 


subject to inc. I do not desire for myself sounds 
even though existing- in the ear. Therefore sounds 
being conquered are always subject to me. I do 
not desire for myself the mind always within me. 
Therefore the mind being conquered is always sub- 
ject to me. All these actions of mine are, verily, 
for this purpose, (namely) for the gods, the Pitt's, the 
Bhutas, together with guests. Then the Brahma^a, 
smiling, again said to kanaka : * Know me to be 
Dharma, come here to-day to learn (something) 
about you K You are the one person to turn this 
wheel, the nave of which is the Brahman 2 , the spoke 
the understanding, and which does not turn back 3 , 
and which is checked by the quality of goodness as 
its circumference V 

Chapter XVIII. 
The Brahma^a said : 

0 modest one ! I do not move about in this world 
in the way which, according to your own under- 
standing, you have guessed. 1 5 am a Brahma^a, I am 

1 I. e. to put him to the test. Such examinations are often 
referred to in our later literature. 

2 I. e. Veda, says Ar^una Mijra. 

3 I. e. says Ar^una Mijra, which leads to the seat from which 
there is no return. Cf. Gita, p. 112. 

4 The wheel is the yoga, says Ar^una Mijra. The expression 
is noteworthy, as being that used of Buddha's teaching. See on 
that Davids' Buddhism, p. 45. 

5 The man who has achieved final emancipation has got that, in 
which the benefits to be derived from the course of life of a Brah- 
ma«a, &c, are included (see p. 191 supra). Hence, says he, the 



emancipated, I am a forester, and I likewise perform 
the duties of a householder, observing vows. I am 
not such, O beautiful one ! as you see me with the 
eye. I pervade every single thing that is in this 
world. Whatever creatures there are in the world, 
movable or not moving, know me to be the de- 
stroyer of them as fire is of wood \ Sovereignty 
over the whole world, and even over heaven ; that, 
or else this knowledge ; (of these two) knowledge 
is my only wealth 2 . This 3 is the path of the 
Brahma/zas, by which those who understand that 4 
proceed, to households, or residence in forests, or, 
dwelling with preceptors, or among mendicants 5 . 
With numerous unconfused symbols only one know- 
ledge is approached. And those who, adhering to 
various symbols and A-sramas, have their under- 
standing full of tranquillity 6 , go to the single entity 
as rivers to the ocean. This path is traversed 
by the understanding, not by the body 7 . Actions 
have a beginning and an end, and the body is tied 
down by action. Hence, O beautiful one ! you 

doubt, on which your question is based as to what world you will 
go to by being joined to me, is wrong. See p. 256 supra. 

1 He is speaking here on the footing of the essential identity 
of everything. Cf. Gita, p. 62. 

The expression here is clumsy ; the meaning is that he prefers 
knowledge to sovereignty, if the alternative is offered him. 

3 Viz. knowledge. 4 I. e. the Brahman. 

5 These are the four orders or A«rramas. 

f> The knowledge to be acquired, by whatever symbols the 
attempt to acquire it is made, is but this, that all is one ; and that 
is acquired certainly when tranquillity has been achieved. 

7 I. e. by realising the identity of everything, not by the actions 
performed with the body, which, as he goes on to show, are 
perishable, and cannot lead to any lasting result. 


(need) have no fear occasioned by the other world. 
With your heart intent upon the real entity, you will 
certainly come into my self. 

Chapter XIX. 

The Brahmawa's wife said : 

This is not possible to be understood by one 
whose self 1 is frivolous, or by one whose self is not 
refined ; and my intelligence is very frivolous, and 
narrow, and confused. Tell me the means by which 
this knowledge is acquired. I (wish to) learn from you 
the source from which that knowledge proceeds. 

The Brahma;2a said : 
Know that he who devotes himself to the Brah- 
man is the (lower) Aram, the instructor is the upper 
Ara;zi. Penance and sacred learning cause the at- 
trition 2 , and from that the fire of knowledge is 

The Brahma^a's wife said : 
As to this symbol of the Brahman which is de- 
nominated the Kshetra^a, where, indeed, is (to be 
found) a description of it, by which it 3 is capable 
of being comprehended ? 

1 I.e. mind, Ar^una Mura. 

2 Scil. of the Arams (i. e. the wood used for kindling fire) ; the 
sense is, that the pupil who has penance and Vedic learning goes 
to a teacher for knowledge. See -SVeta^vatara, pp. 307, 308. 

3 I. e. the Brahman, says Ar^una MiVra, of which the Kshetra^v/a 
is only a symbol. For a definition of Kshetra£7/a, see -Sanli 
Parvan (Moksha), chap. 187, St. 23. 



The Brahma/za said : 
He is without symbols 1 , and also without qualities ; 
nothing exists that is a cause of him. I will only- 
state the means by which he can be comprehended 
or not. A good means is found, namely, action 2 
and knowledge, by which that 3 (entity), which has 
the symbols (useful) for knowledge 4 attributed to it 
through ignorance, is perceived as by bees 5 . In the 
(rules for) final emancipation, it is not laid down, that 
a certain thing should be done, and a certain thing 
should not 6 . But the knowledge of the things bene- 
ficial to the self is produced in one who sees and 
hears 7 . One should adopt as many of these things, 
(which are) means of direct perception, as may here 
be practicable — unperceived, and those whose form 
is perceived 8 , in hundreds and in thousands, all of 
various descriptions. Then one comes near to that 
beyond which nothing exists. 

The Deity said : 
Then the mind of the Brahma^a's wife, after the 

1 See Sanatsug-atiya, p. 160. 

2 Viz. that which is required as a preliminary to the acquisition 
of knowledge, and hence is necessary for final emancipation. 

3 The Brahman. 

4 I. e. symbols which are to convey a knowledge of the Brahman. 

5 I.e. in a way not perfect; as bees hovering above a flower 
get the fragrance of it without grasping the flower itself, so these 
means give one an imperfect knowledge of the Brahman to be 
afterwards perfected by constant meditation upon it (nididhyasa). 

c As it is in the prior portion of the Vedas, as to sacrifices, &c. 

7 Sees, i.e. by contemplation; hears, i.e. from a teacher, Arg-una 

8 This seems to mean such things as hearing, reading, &c, 
which would be ' perceived ' scil. by the senses ; and all intellectual 
operations which would be ' unperceived.' 


destruction of the Kshetra^a 1 , turned to that which 
is beyond (all) Kshetra<?v7as by means of a knowledge 
of the Kshetra 2 . 

Ar^rina said : 

Where, indeed, O Krz'sh^a! is that Brahma/za's 
wife, and where is that chief of Brahma^as, by both 
of whom this perfection was attained ? Tell me 
about them both, O undegraded one ! 

The Deity said : 

Know my mind to be the Brahma/za, and know 
my understanding to be the Brahnwza's wife. And 
he, O Dhana/^aya ! who has been spoken of as the 
Kshetra^/Ia, is I myself 3 . 

Chapter XX. 

Ar^una said : 
Be pleased to explain to me the Brahman which 
is the highest object of knowledge ; for by your 
favour my mind is much interested in (these) subtle 4 

Vasudeva said : 
On this, too, they relate an ancient story (in the 
shape of) a dialogue, connected with final emanci- 
pation, between a preceptor and a pupil. A talented 

1 I. e. after the identification of the individual self with the uni- 
versal self, when the individual ceases to be perceived as such. Cf. 
*Santi Parvan (Moksha), chap. 187, st. 23. 

2 That beyond Kshetra^as = the absolute supreme self. Cf. 
Gita, p. 106. 

3 The substance of this speech, says Ar^una Misra, is that the mind 
and understanding devoted to the supreme lead to final emancipation. 

4 See p. 296 supra. The last chapter closes what in some of the 
MSS. is called the Brahma Gita, or Brahma/za Gita contained in 
the Anugita Parvan. See further as to this our Introduction, 
where the point is further dwelt on. 


pupil, O terror of your foes ! asked a Brahma^a pre- 
ceptor of rigid vows, (when he was) seated, something 
about the highest good. ' I ' (he said), 1 whose goal 
is the highest good, am come to you (who are) 
venerable ; I pray of you with (bowed) head, O 
Brahmawa ! that you should explain to me what I 
ask.' The preceptor, O son of Pntha ! said to the 
pupil who spoke thus : ' I will explain to you every- 
thing, O twice-born one ! on which you verily have 
any doubt.' Thus addressed by the preceptor, O 
best of the Kauravas ! he who was devoted to the 
preceptor, put (his) questions with joined hands. 
Listen to that, O you of great intelligence ! 

The pupil said : 
Whence am I *, and whence are you ? Explain 
that which is the highest truth. From what were 
the movable and immovable entities born ? By 
what do entities live, and what is the limit of their 
life ? What is truth, what penance, O Brahma^a ? 
What are called the qualities by the good ? And what 
paths are happy ? What is pleasure, and what sin ? 
These questions of mine, O venerable Brahma^a 
sage ! O you of excellent vows ! do you be pleased 
to explain 2 correctly, truly, and accurately. There 
is none else here who can explain these questions. 
Speak, O best of those who understand piety ! I feel 
the highest curiosity (in this matter). You are cele- 
brated in the worlds as skilled in topics connected 
with the piety (required for) final emancipation. And 
there exists none else but you who can destroy all 

1 Compare the questions at the beginning of the -SVetajvatara- 

2 A similar expression to that in the Sanatsu^atiya, p. 149, 
and elsewhere. 



doubts. And we \ likewise, are afraid of worldly life, 
and also desirous of final emancipation. 

Vasudeva said : 

That talented preceptor, who preserved (all) vows, 
() son of lV/tha ! O chief of the family of the 
Kauravas ! O restrainer of foes! duly explained all 
those questions to that pupil, who had approached 
him (for instruction), who put (his) questions properly, 
who was possessed of (the necessary) qualifications, 
who was tranquil, who conducted himself in an agree- 
able manner, who was like (his) shadow 2 , and who 
was a self-restrained ascetic and a Brahma^arin. 
The preceptor said : 

All this, which is connected with the knowledge 
of the Vedas 3 and involves a consideration of the 
real entity, and which is cultivated by the chief 
sages, was declared by Brahman. We consider 
knowledge only as the highest thing ; and renuncia- 
tion 4 as the best penance. And he who understands 
determinately the true object of knowledge which is 
impregnable 5 — the self abiding in all entities — and 
who can move about anywhere 6 , is esteemed highest. 
The learned man who perceives the abiding together 7 , 

1 It is not easy to account for the change here from the singular 
to the plural. 

2 I . e. always attended on the preceptor. Cf. generally, Mu?/</aka, 
p. 283. 

3 The question was not quite from his own imagination, says 
Nilaka?///$a. Ar^una Mura has a different reading, which he 
interprets to mean ' that on which the Vedas are all at one.' 

4 Of the fruit of action, Ar^una Mura. 

5 I. e. not such as to require modification by any other knowledge, 
as knowledge of the world does. 

6 Nilaka^a compares ^andogya, pp. 523-553. 

7 I. e. of Kit and GWa, says Nilakaw/zfa ; of Brahman and its 
manifestations, as alluded to, inter alia, at pp. 105, 106, 191 supra. 


and the severance also, and likewise unity and 
variety \ is released from misery. He who does 
not desire anything, and has no egoism about any- 
thing, becomes eligible for assimilation with the 
Brahman, even while dwelling in this world 2 . He 
who knows the truth about the qualities of nature, 
who understands the creation of all entities, who is 
devoid of (the thought that this or that is) mine, 
and who is devoid of egoism, is emancipated ; there 
is no doubt of that. Accurately understanding the 
great (tree) of which the unperceived 3 is the sprout 
from the seed, which consists of the understanding 
as its trunk, the branches of which are the great 
egoism, in the holes of which are the sprouts, namely, 
the senses, of which the great elements are the 
flower-bunches 4 , the gross elements the smaller 
boughs, which is always possessed of leaves, always 
possessed of flowers, and from which pleasant fruits 
are always produced, on which all entities subsist, 
which is eternal, and the seed of which is the Brah- 
man ; and cutting it with that excellent sword — know- 
ledge — one attains immortality, and casts off birth 
and death 5 . I will state to you to-day, O highly 

1 I. e. that variety is only in this world, but that the unity of 
everything is the true proposition. Cf. inter alia Gita, p. 104. 

2 Cf. Brmadara^yaka, p. 858, and Gita, p. 65. 

3 I.e. the Prakr/ti of the Sankhyas. 

4 The great elements are the five tanmatras of earth, water, fire, 
air, and space, which afterwards produce what we have called the 
gross elements in the text, namely, the earth &c. which we perceive. 

5 The tree typifies worldly life. Cf. pp. 111-189 supra. The 
leaves and flowers, Ar^una Mi^ra says, stand for volition and 
action ; and Nilaka«/^a seems to agree. The tree is called eternal, 
as worldly life is supposed to have had no beginning. Cf. Sariraka 
Bhashya, p. 494, 'sprout from the seed/ this rendering is necessi- 
tated by Brahman being described as the seed. Cf. Mu;/</aka, 
p. 288; -SVetajvatara, p. 362 ; KaMa, pp. 143, 144. 



talented one! the true conclusion 1 about the past, 
the present, the future, and so forth, and piety, de- 
sire, and wealth 2 , which is understood by the mul- 
titudes of Siddhas, which belongs to olden times, and 
is eternal, which ought to be apprehended, and under- 
standing which talented men have here attained 
perfection. Formerly \ the sages, Brzhaspati, Bha- 
radva^a, Gautama, and likewise Bhargava, Vasish//^a, 
and also Kasyapa, and VLsvamitra, and Atri also, 
desiring knowledge, met each other, after having 
travelled over all paths 4 , and becoming wearied of 
their own actions. And those twice-born (sages), 
giving the lead to the old sage Aiigirasa, saw Brah- 
man, from whom (all) sin has departed, in Brah- 
man's mansion. Having saluted that high-souled 
one who was sitting at ease, the great sages, full 
of humility, asked him this momentous (question) 
concerning the highest good : ' How should one per- 
form good action ? how is one released from sin ? 
what paths are happy for us ? what is truth and 
what vice ? By what action are the two paths southern 
and northern obtained 5 ? (and what is) destruction 6 and 
emancipation, the birth and death of entities ? ' What 
the grandsire said conformably to the scriptures 7 , 

1 I. e. the means of arriving at it, Ar^una Mijra. 

2 The triad, the acquisition of which worldly men aspire to. 

3 He explains how the doctrine belongs to olden times. 

4 I.e. paths of action, NilakawMa. See Sanatsu^atiya, p. 165. 

5 Namely, the Pitr/yana and Devayana (Ar^una Mijra), as to 
which see ^TMndogya, p. 341, Kaushitaki, p. 13, and Br/hadara- 
rcyaka, p. 1034. 

6 Nilaka«/^a seems to interpret this to mean the temporary and 
final dissolutions of the worlds, on which see, inter aha, Vedanta 
Paribhasha, p. 48. 

7 So NilakawMa. May it not be 'according to the received 
tradition ? ' 



when thus spoken to by the sages, I will state to you. 
Listen (to that) O pupil ! 

Brahman said : 
From the truth were the entities movable and 
immovable produced. They live by penance 1 . 
Understand that, O you of excellent vows. By their 
own action they remain transcending their own 
source 2 . For the truth joined with the qualities is 
invariably of five varieties. The Brahman 3 is the 
truth ; penance is the truth ; Pra^apati also is truth ; 
the entities are born from the truth ; the universe 
consisting of (all) creatures is the truth. Therefore 
Brahma^as whose final goal is always concentration 
of mind, from whom anger and vexation have de- 
parted, and who are invariably devoting themselves 
to piety, are full of the truth. I will speak about 
those (Brahma^as) who are restrained by one 
another 4 , who are possessed of knowledge, who are 
the establishers of the bridge of piety, and who are 
the constant creators of the people 5 . I will speak 
of the four (branches of) knowledge, and likewise 
of the castes, and of the four orders, distinctly. The 
wise always speak of piety as one, (but) having 

1 I.e. by action, Nilaka;///za. Cf. Muwc/aka, p. 280, and see 
p. 166 supra, note 1. 

2 I. e. they remain apart from the Brahman, being engaged in 
action. This answers some of the questions put by the pupil to 
the preceptor. As to ' the truth,' see p. 162, note 2 supra. 

3 I.e. Lvara, or god; penance = piety ; Pra^apati^ the individual 
soul, NilakarcMa. Brahman = ' that ' (but how is ' that ' joined with 
qualities?') ; Pra^apati = Brahman, Ar^-una Mijra. They agree about 
penance and entities (which they take to mean the gross elements) 
and creatures. Brahman and Pra^apati = Virag and Hira^yagar- 
bha (?), p. 186 supra. Cf. -Santi Parvan (Moksha), chap. 190, st. 1. 

4 I. e. who commit no breach of piety through fear of one 
another, Nilaka«//fca. 5 Cf. Gita, p. 86. 

[8] X 


four quarters. I will speak to you, O twice-born 
ones ! of the happy path, which is productive of 
pleasure, and which has been invariably travelled 
over by talented men in old days for (obtaining) 
assimilation with the Brahman. Learn, O noble ones ! 
from me, now speaking exhaustively, of that highest 
path which is difficult to understand, and of the 
highest seat. The first step is said to be the order 
of BrahmaMrins ; the second is that of householders ; 
next after that is that of foresters ; and next after 
that too, the highest step must be understood to be 
that relating to the Adhyatma 1 . Light 2 , space, sun, 
air, Indra, Pra^apati, one sees not these, while one 
does not attain to the Adhyatma 3 . I will subse- 
quently state the means to that, which you should 
understand. The order of foresters, (the order) of 
the sages who dwell in forests and live on fruits, 
roots and air, is prescribed for the three twice-born 
(castes). The order of householders is prescribed 
for all castes. The talented ones speak of piety 
as having faith for its characteristic. Thus have 
I described to you the paths leading to the gods 4 , 
which are occupied by good and talented men by 
means of their actions, and which are bridges of 
piety. He who, rigid in his vows, takes up any one 
of these modes of piety separately, always comes in 
time to perceive the production and dissolution of 

1 That is to say, that of the ascetic, who specially devotes him- 
self to the acquisition of knowledge about the relation of the 
supreme and individual self (Adhyatma). 

2 The deity presiding over the bright fortnight, says Ar^una Mij-ra. 
The words space and sun and air must be similarly interpreted. 

3 Nilaka^Ma says ' one sees these only while one has not had 
a perception of the self.' He takes light &c. to mean the ' universe.' 

4 I. e. the means of reaching the Devayana path (mentioned at 
p. 314, note 5), Nilaka^a. Cf. also Mutfdaka, p. 312. 



(all) entities l . Now I shall state with accuracy and 
with reasons, all the elements which abide in parts 
in all objects. The great self 2 , the unperceived 3 like- 
wise, and likewise also egoism, the ten senses and 
the one 4 (sense), and the five great elements, and the 
specific characteristics of the five elements 5 , such is 
the eternal creation. The number of the elements is 
celebrated as being twenty-four plus one. And the 
talented man who understands the production and 
dissolution of (all) elements, he, of all beings, never 
comes by delusion. He who accurately understands 
the elements, the whole of the qualities 6 , and also 
all the deities 7 , casting aside sin, and getting rid of 
(all) bonds, attains to all the spotless worlds. 

Chapter XXI. 

Brahman said : 

That unperceived (principle), all-pervading, ever- 
lasting, and immutable, which is in a state of equi- 
librium 8 , should be understood (to become) the city 
of nine portals, consisting of three qualities, and five 

1 Namely, how they are all manifestations of the Brahman, and 
are all dissolved in it. Cf. inter alia Gita, pp. 74, 92. 

2 See the KaMopanishad, p. 149. See also p. 332 infra. 

3 See p. 313, note 3 supra. 

4 I.e. the mind. Cf. Gita, p. 102. 5 Viz. smell, sound, &c. 

6 Tranquillity, self-restraint, &c., Ar^una Mi-sra. Are they not 
rather the three qualities? As to * twenty-four plus one' above, 
see p. 368. 

7 Does this mean the senses, as at Gita, p. 123? An accurate 
understanding of the things noted requires a knowledge of their 
relation to the supreme, which is the means of final emancipation. 
And see p. 337 infra. 

8 See Gita, p, 107, and Sankhya-sara, p. 11, and note 2, p. 331 

X 2 


constituent principles I , encircled by the eleven 2 , con- 
sisting of mind 3 as the distinguishing power, and of 
the understanding as ruler, this is (an aggregate 
made np of) eleven 4 . The three currents 5 which 
are within this (city) support (it) 0 again and again, 
and those three channels run on, being constituted 
by the three qualities. Darkness, passion, and 
goodness, these are called the three qualities, 
which are all coupled with one another, and like- 
wise serve one another, which depend on one 
another, and attend on one another, and are joined 
to one another 7 . And the five constituent principles 

1 The five gross elements of which the body is composed (cf. 
Mahabharata, Santi Parvan, Moksha Dharma, chap. 183, st. 1 seq.) 
are developments of the unperceived principle, the Praknti. Cf. 
Gita, p. 112, where the words ' which remain (absorbed) in nature 1 
have been inadvertently omitted after ' with the mind as the sixth.' 
As to the nine portals cf. Gita, p. 65. 

2 The five active organs, the five perceptive senses, and the mind. 

3 This Ar^una MLrra takes to mean ' egoism.' Nilaka»/£a takes 
the usual meaning, and adds, objects are produced from mental 
operations ; ' distinguishing,' that is, manifesting as distinct entities. 

4 The eleven are, according to Ar^una Mi^ra, the three qualities, 
the five gross elements, the group of organs and senses as one, 
egoism, and understanding. 

5 Viz. the na^is, Ida, Pingala, and Sushum/za, Ar^una Mixra, 
who adds that they are respectively of the quality of darkness, 
passion, and goodness. 

6 The three nadis, says Ar^una Mura, support the life-winds. 
NilakawMa takes the three currents to be the threefold inclination 
of the mind, viz. towards a pure piety, towards injuring other living 
creatures, and towards that mixed piety which requires the destruc- 
tion of life for its performance. Nilakaw/^a also has a different 
reading from Ar^una Mura, which means ' are replenished ' instead 
of ' support/ And the three channels are, according to Nilaka;z//za, 
the Satfzskaras, or effects of previous actions of piety or impiety. 

7 Coupled = always existing in association with one another; 
servings being necessary to the operations of one another; depend- 
ing = supporting one another like three staves, says Nilakaw/Aa ; 



(are made up of) the three qualities. Goodness 
is the match of darkness, and passion is the match 
of goodness ; and goodness is also the match of 
passion, and darkness the match of goodness. Where 
darkness is restrained, passion there prevails. 
Where passion is restrained, goodness there pre- 
vails 1 . Darkness should be understood to consist 
in obscurity. It has three qualities 2 , and is called 
delusion. Its characteristic is also impiety, and 
it is constant in sinful actions. This is the nature 
of darkness ; it also appears combined (with others). 
Passion is said to consist in activity, and is the 
cause of successive 3 (acts). When it prevails, 
its characteristic, among all beings, appears to be 
production 4 . Light, lightness 5 , faith, such is stated 
to be the nature of goodness (prevailing) among 
all beings, as accepted by good men. The true 
nature of their characteristics, in aggregation and 
separation, will now be stated together with the 
reasons; learn those accurately. Delusion, ignorance, 

upholding, says Ar^una Mijra, as the total absence of one would lead 
to the absence of the others also ; attending= becoming subordinate 
to whichever of them is dominant for the time being; joined = so 
as to become one organic whole. Cf. as to all this, Yoga-sutra II, 
18, and commentary, p. 10 1 ; Sahkhya-karika, Karika 12, with 
Va/fcaspati Mura's comments on it. 

1 Cf. Gita, p. 108, and the quotation in the Sankhyatattvakau- 
mudi, p. 64. 

2 I. e. characteristics, viz. obscurity (which seems to stand for 
ignorance), delusion (which is false knowledge), and impiety (doing 
that which is known to be sinful and wrong). 

3 The original means, according to Nilaka;///^a, wrong, unlawful 
conduct. As to all this cf, -Santi Parvan (Moksha), chap. 194, st. 29. 

4 I.e. apparently perpetually doing something. Cf. Gita, p. 108. 

5 Cf. as to this, and generally also, Sahkhya-karika 1 3, and com- 
mentary of Vatepati Mi^ra (p. 64). The blazing upwards of fire 
is said to illustrate the lightness of the quality of goodness which 
belongs to fire. 



want of liberality, indecision about actions 1 , sleep, 
haughtiness 2 , fear, avarice, grief, finding fault with 
good acts, want of memory*, immaturity (of intel- 
lect), nihilism 1 , violation of (the rules of) conduct, 
want of discrimination ", blindness, behaviour of the 
lowest 5 quality, pride of performance without (actual) 
performance, pride of knowledge without (actual) 
knowledge, unfriendliness, evil disposition, want of 
faith, deluded convictions, want of straightforward- 
ness, want of knowledge 6 , sinful action, want of 
knowledge (of the subtle principle), stolidity 7 , lassi- 
tude, want of self-restraint, going into inferior ways ; 
all these qualities, O Brahma;/as ! are celebrated as 
being dark. And whatever other states of mind, 
connected with delusion, are found in various places 
in this world, all these are dark qualities. Constant 
talk in disparagement of gods, Brahma;zas and 
Vedas, want of liberality, vanity, delusion 8 , anger, 
want of forgiveness likewise, and also animosity 

1 According to Gita, p. 108, doing nothing — stolid laziness — is 
a mark of darkness. Cf. generally on this passage Gita, pp. 107, 
118, 124 seq. ; Maitri, p. 49. 

2 The same word as at Gita, pp. 116, 125 (headstrong in the 
latter passage should have been haughty). Cf. as to the word, 
A7mndogya, p. 383. :1 Cf. Gita, p. 51. 

4 The opposite of the belief mentioned at Gita, p. 126. 

5 The same word as at Gita, p. 109. But the commentators 
render it here by hiflzsra, i. e. destructive. 

I am not sure about the original word here, and the word next 
but one after this. The latter Ar^una Mijra renders by sukshma- 
tattvavedanam, which I have translated above in the text. The 
former seems to mean general unintelligence. 

7 Heaviness and dulness, induced by indolence, &c, Nilakaw///a. 
Lassitude is drooping from despondency. Going into inferior ways, 
Ar^una Mwra says, means falling into the inferior castes ; Nilaka;/Ma 
says it means love for base actions. 

8 Not being cognisant of one's own shortcomings, Ar^una Mwra. 



towards people, this is considered to be dark con- 
duct. Whatever vain 1 actions (there are), and what- 
ever vain gifts, and vain eating, that is considered 
to be dark conduct. Reviling, and want of forgive- 
ness, animosity, vanity, want of faith also, this is 
considered to be dark conduct. And whatever such 
people there are in this world, doers of sinful acts, 
who break through (all) regulations, they are all 
held to be dark. I will state the wombs appointed 
for these (men) of sinful actions. They go to the 
hell, (namely) the brute (species), to be born in the 
lower hell 2 ; (or become) the immovable entities 3 , 
animals, beasts of burden, demons, and serpents, 
and worms, insects, birds, and also creatures born 
from eggs, and all quadrupeds, and idiots, deaf 
and dumb men, and whatever others are attacked 
by diseases generated by sin 4 . These dark, evil- 
conducted men, who are sunk in darkness, who 
bear the marks of their own actions, the current 
of whose (thoughts) is downwards 5 , sink into dark- 
ness. I will now proceed to state their improve- 
ment and ascent ; how, becoming men of meritorious 
actions, they attain to the worlds of those who per- 
form good acts 6 . Resorting to a contrary 7 (course 
of life), and growing old in (good) actions 8 , they exert 

1 Cf. Gita, p. 83. 2 Cf. Gita, p. 116. 

3 Such as trees and so forth, which are also forms of life. 

4 This is alluded to in some Smn'tis too. And cf. ^7/andogya, 
p. 358, and the quotation in the commentary on Sahkhya-sutra 
V, 122. 

5 Such, says Nilaka^Ma, as to fit them for the nether world. See 
Tattvakaumudi, p. 113. As to marks, cf. p. 239 supra. 

6 Cf. Gita, p. 130. 

7 I. e. contrary to that already described as dark. 

8 NilakawMa renders this to mean ' destroyed for Agnihotra and 
such ceremonies,' like the goat referred to above at p. 290. 


themselves, and through the ceremonies (performed 
for them) by benevolent Br&hma^as devoted to their 
own duties, they go upwards to the same world (as 
the Brahmawas) — the heaven of the gods. Such is 
the Vedic text. Resorting to a contrary 1 (course 
of life), and growing old in their own duties, they 
become men in this world whose nature is to return 2 . 
Coming to a sinful womb, as A"a;^alas 3 , or deaf, or 
lisping men, they attain to higher and higher castes in 
order ; going beyond the .Sudra womb, and (beyond) 
whatever other dark qualities there are which abide in 
the quality of darkness 4 in the current (of this world). 
Attachment to objects of desire is laid down to be 
the great delusion. There, sages and saints and 
gods become deluded, wishing for pleasure. Dark- 
ness 5 , delusion, the great delusion, the great obscu- 
rity called anger, and death the blinding obscurity ; 
anger is called the great obscurity. I have now 
duly described to you, O Brahma;/as! this quality 
of darkness, in full and accurately with reference to 

1 See note 7 on last page. The sequence of ideas seems not to 
be properly brought out here. In the course of transmigration after 
their course of conduct is altered they become men, and then pro- 
ceed to heaven. This seems the real sense here. 

2 To return to life and death, and so on, until they fit themselves 
for final emancipation. Cf. Apastamba II, 5, 11, 10-11. 

3 Cf. A^andogya, p. 359. 

4 This is not very clear, and the commentators give but little 
help. The meaning probably is, that they gradually, in course of 
improvement, cross beyond the -Sudra caste, and all those qualities 
or tempers of mind, and so forth, which have been stated to apper- 
tain to the quality of darkness. 

6 Cf. Sahkhya-karika,pp. 47, 48, and VaX'aspati's comment. There 
these are identified with the ' afflictions ' of the Yoga-jastra — igno- 
rance, self-consciousness, affection, aversion, persistent attachment, 
and they are five divisions of false knowledge, or the quality of dark- 
ness, as it is here called. See, too, -Sveta^vatara (comm.), p. 284. 



its nature, and also its qualities, and also its source. 
Who, indeed, understands this properly ; who, in- 
deed, perceives this properly ? The definition of 
the essence of darkness is, that one sees the real 
in what is unreal. The qualities of darkness have 
been described to you in many ways. And dark- 
ness in its higher and lower 1 (forms) has been accu- 
rately stated. The man who always understands 
these qualities gets rid of all dark qualities. 

Chapter XXII. 
Brahman said : 
O best (of men) ! I will explain to you accurately 
the quality of passion. Learn, O noble ones! the 
action of the quality of passion. Injuring (others), 
beauty 2 , toil, pleasure and pain, cold and heat, 
power 2 , war, peace, argument, repining 3 , endurance, 
strength, valour, frenzy, wrath, exercise and quarrel 
too, vindictiveness, desire, backbiting, battle, the 
thought (that this or that is) mine, preservation 4 , 
slaughter, bonds, affliction, buying and selling, 
touching 5 other people's weak points, by cutting, 
breaking, piercing ; fierceness and cruelty, vilifying, 
pointing out others' weaknesses, thinking of (this) 
world, harbouring evil thoughts, animosity, abuse, 

1 Generally and specifically, says Ar^una Mura. 

2 Ar^-una Mura says these mean pride of beauty and pride of 
power respectively. Cf. as to this list generally, Maitn, pp. 50, 51. 

3 Cf. Sanatsu^atiya, p. 168. 

4 I presume this means solicitude for preserving what one has 
got. Cf. Gita, p. 48. 

0 Literally, piercing. ' Cutting, breaking, piercing,' further on, 
seems to indicate the greater or less offensiveness of the operation 
of 'touching others' weak points.' 



uttering falsehoods, bad 1 gifts, doubt, boasting, cen- 
sure 1 , praise, laudation 2 , prowess, defiance, attendance 
(on another), obedience 3 , service, harbouring desire, 
management 4 , policy, heedlessness, contumely, belong- 
ings and the various decorations which prevail in 
this world, for men, for women, for living creatures, 
for articles, and for houses, vexation, and also want 
of faith, vows and regulations G , and actions with 
expectations, and the various acts of public charity 7 , 
the ceremony of Svaha, the ceremony of Svadha, 
the ceremony of Vashat 8 , salutation, both officiating 
at sacrifices and imparting instruction, and also 
sacrificing and study, gifts and acceptance of gifts, 
expiations, auspicious rites, the wish ' this may be 
mine and that may be mine,' affection generated by 
the qualities 9 , treachery and likewise deception, dis- 
respect and respect, theft, slaughter, disgust, vexing 
(oneself), wakefulness, ostentation, haughtiness, and 
attachment also, devotion, pleasure and delight, 
gambling, common scandal, association with women, 

1 I. e. to undeserving persons, Ar^una MLsra. Probably it in- 
cludes the other defects also pointed out at Gita, p. 120. As to 
doubt, see Gita, p. 63. 

2 The one is attributing merits which do not exist, the other is 
merely parading merits which do exist. 

3 Ar^una Mi«sra takes this literally to mean ' wish to hear/ 

4 Cleverness in worldly affairs, Nilaka////za. 

5 Cf. Gita, passim, and see also Yoga-sutras II, 30, and com- 
mentary (pp. 127-129, Calc. ed.) 

c Fasts and other observances for special benefits. 

7 E. g. digging tanks and wells, &c. 

8 Vashat and Svaha indicate offerings to gods, Svadha to the 
manes. See Brz'hadara^yaka, p. 982, and Ma/z^Aikya (Gau^/apada 
Karika) p. 443, and commentaries there. 

tJ I presume this means attachment to - the operations of the 
qualities. Cf. Gita, p. 48. As to the wish just before, see Gita, 
pp. 115, 116. 



devotion to dancing, and instrumental or vocal music, 
all these qualities, O Brahma//as ! are described as 
passionate. The men who meditate on past, present, 
and future entities in this world 1 , who are always 
devoted to the triad — piety, wealth, and lust also 2 — 
who acting under (the impulse of) desires exult on 
the success of all their desires, these men, who are 
enveloped by passion, have (their) currents down- 
wards 3 . Born again and again in this world, they 
rejoice 4 , and wish for the fruit appertaining to the life 
after death 5 and that appertaining to this world also. 
They give and receive, and make Tarpa;/a (i , and also 
sacrifice. The qualities of passion have been de- 
scribed to you in many ways, and the action of the 
quality has also been stated accurately. The man 
who always understands these qualities, gets rid of 
all passionate qualities. 

Chapter XXIII. 

Brahman said : 
Now I shall proceed to describe the third — the 
best — quality, beneficial to all creatures, and unblam- 
able, the duty of the good. Joy 7 , pleasure, nobility, 
enlightenment and happiness also, absence of stingi- 
ness, absence of fear, contentment, faith, forgiveness, 
courage, harmlessness, equability, truth, straight- 
forwardness, absence of wrath, absence of calumnia- 

1 I.e. who are always thinking of what they have done and what 
they have to do, and so forth. Cf. Gita, pp. 115, 116. 

2 And not that which is higher than these, viz. final emancipation. 

3 See p. 321 and note 5 there. 4 Cf. inter alia, Gita, p. 48. 
5 Viz. heaven. Cf. Gita, p. 48. 6 I.e. offerings to the manes. 
7 Cf. p. 300 supra, and Santi Parvan (Moksha), chap. 194, st. 34; 

chap. 2 1 9, st. 36. For nobility, Ar^una Mijra has manifestation of joy. 



tion, purity, dexterity, valour. He who possesses the 
piety of concentration of mind, (holding) knowledge 
to be vain 1 , (good) conduct vain, service vain, and 
labour vain, he attains the highest in the next 
world. Devoid of (the notion that this or that is) 
mine, devoid of egoism, devoid of expectations, 
equable everywhere, not full of desires, (to be) such 
is the eternal duty of the good. Confidence, modesty 2 , 
forgiveness, liberality, purity, freedom from laziness, 
absence of cruelty, freedom from delusion, com- 
passion to (all) creatures, absence of backbiting, joy, 
contentment, joviality, humility, good behaviour, 
purity in all action for (acquiring) tranquillity 3 , 
righteous feelings, emancipation 4 , indifference 5 , life as 
a BrahmaZ-arin, abandonment on all hands, freedom 
from (the notion that this or that is) mine, freedom 
from expectations 6 , unbroken piety 7 , (holding that) 
gifts (are) vain, sacrifices vain, learning vain, vows 
vain, receipt of gifts vain, piety vain, penance vain. 
Those talented Brahma^as in this world, whose 
conduct is of this description, who adhere to the 
quality of goodness, abiding in the seat of the Brah- 
man 8 , perceive (everything) aright. Getting rid of all 

1 Such is Nilakaw/^a's reading, and he takes knowledge to mean 
mere knowledge derived from books, &c. Argum, Mijra has a dif- 
ferent reading for vain, which he interprets to mean 'wish for fruit/ 

2 See Sanatsug-attya, p. 162. 

3 I. e. pure and straightforward conduct in the performance of 
whatever is done for attaining final emancipation. 

4 Of other people from sorrow, Ar^una Mi^ra. 

6 The state of being unconcerned, udasina, Nilaka^Ma. 

6 Cf. Gita, p. 60, inter alia. 

7 Ar§una Mijra understands the original here to mean ' not 
being under the control of another.' 

8 I.e. the source of the Vedas, according to Nilaka«/^a. The 
supreme is called Brahmayoni, the original word here, at Sveta- 



sins, and free from grief, those talented men reach 
heaven, and create (various) bodies l . The power of 
governing, self-restraint, minuteness 2 , these those high- 
souled ones make (for themselves) by (the operations 
of their own) minds like the gods dwelling in heaven. 
They are said to have their currents upwards 3 , and 
to be gods, and of the quality of goodness 4 ; and 
having gone to heaven they verily change in various 
ways, by means of nature 5 . They obtain and divide 6 
whatever they desire. Thus, O chiefs of the twice- 
born ! have I described to you the conduct of the 
quality of goodness. Understanding this according to 
rule, one obtains whatever one desires. The qualities 

jvatara, p. 354, where Brahman is rendered to mean Prak/Yti by 
iSahkara. See Sanatsu^atiyajp. 186, note 6, and Taittinya-ara^yaka, 
p. 894. As to the probable sense here, see p. 339, note 2 infra. 

1 I.e. for themselves. Cf. p. 345 infra; Yoga-sutras, p. 227; 
and Brz'hadara^yaka, p. 849. 

2 These include, according to Nilaka«//^a, the other qualities of 
the same class unnamed here, for which see Yoga-sutra III, 44 
(p. 207). The power of governing, i. e. producing, destroying, or 
combining worldly objects as one pleases ; self-restraint, i. e. in 
the presence of tempting objects ; minuteness = power of becoming 
as minute as one pleases. The other qualities are lightness, large- 
ness, and heaviness; power of attracting everything so as to be 
near oneself (e. g. touching the moon with the finger), power of 
obtaining one's wish. 

3 Cf. p. 321 supra and note 5. Arg-una Mura, and Nilaka/zMa 
also, here render it by £ those who go upwards.' As to which, see 
Gita, p. 109. 

4 Cf. for this sense, which is given by Ar^una MLrra, Sarikhya- 
sara, p. 19. 

5 Nilakaw///a says this means that they change their minds for 
purposes of enjoyment by means of the impression of previous 
enjoyments. The changes, however, seem to be those above referred 
to — minuteness, &c, and the acquisition of other bodies. As to na- 
ture, cf. Gita, pp. 58 and 1 1 2, with the correction made at p. 318 supra. 

6 This is not quite clear. Does it mean distribute among them- 
selves or others ? 



ol goodness have been specifically described, and the 
operation of the qualities has been accurately stated. 
The man who always understands these qualities, 
enjoys the qualities 1 , but is not attached to the 

Chapter XXIV. 
Brahman said : 
The qualities cannot be explained altogether dis- 
tinctly (from one another). Passion, goodness, and 
darkness likewise are seen mixed up (with one 
another). They are attached to one another, they 
feed on one another. They all depend on one 
another, and likewise follow one another 2 . There 
is no doubt of this, that as long 3 as there is goodness 
so long darkness exists. And as long as goodness 
and darkness, so long is passion said (to exist) here. 
They perform their journey together, in union, and 
moving about collectively. For they act with cause 
or without cause 4 , moving in a body. Of all these 
acting with one another, but differing in development, 
the increase and diminution will now be stated. 
Where darkness is increased, abiding 5 in the lower 
entities, there passion should be understood to be 
little, and goodness likewise to be less. Where 

1 Cf. Gila inter alia p. 104. 2 Cf. p. 318 supra. 

3 So Ar^una Mijra. Nilakaw/^a says on this, ' However much 
goodness may be increased, it is still held in check by darkness, 
and thus there is the continual relation of that which checks and 
that which is checked between the three qualities ; hence they are 
alike. So also passion being increased, holds goodness and darkness 
in check. The sense seems to be that the qualities dominate all in 
this world and exist together though varying in strength' (Gita, p. 73). 

4 I. e. spontaneously, Ar^una Mura. Cf. £anti Parvan (Moksha), 
chap. 194, st. 35. 

5 It is in the lower species that darkness is predominant. 



passion is developed, abiding in those of the middle 
current there darkness should be understood to be 
little, and goodness likewise to be less. And where 
goodness is developed, abiding in those of the upward 
current 2 , there darkness should be understood to be 
little, and passion likewise to be less 3 . Goodness 
is the cause of the modifications in the senses, and 
the enlightener 4 . For there is no other higher duty 
laid down than goodness. Those who adhere to 
(the ways of) goodness go up ; the passionate remain 
in the middle ; the men of the quality of darkness, 
being connected with the lowest quality, go down 5 . 
The three qualities abide in the three castes thus : 
darkness in the 6udra, passion in the Kshatriya, and 
the highest, goodness, in the Brahma^a G . Even 
from afar 7 , darkness, goodness, and passion also, 
are seen to have been together and moving about 
collectively. We have never heard of them (as 
existing) separately. Seeing the sun rising, evil- 
doers are alarmed, and travellers, suffering trouble 
from the heat, feel the warmth. The sun is good- 
ness developed, evil-doers likewise are darkness, and 
the heat to the travellers is said to be a property of 

1 I. e. the human species, Argoina Mijra. Cf. Gita, p. 109. 

2 See Gila, p. 109, also p. 327 supra. In his Sahkhyatattva- 
kaumudi, Va^aspati Mi-rra applies the epithet to Yogins (see p. 13 
of Taranath's edition, and the editor's note there). 

3 Cf. Gita, p. 108. 

4 Cf. Gita, p. 108. The modifications of the senses constituting 
perception by them is an operation of the quality of goodness. 
This seems to be the meaning of the text ; as to this, cf. Tattva- 
kaumudi, p. 14 (Taranath's edition). 

5 See Gita, p. 109; the words are nearly identical. 

6 Cf. -Sanli Parvan (Moksha), chap. 188, st. 15. The Vai.rya is 
omitted here. 

7 I.e. Ar^oina Misra says, even after much observation. 



passion The light in the sun is goodness ; the heat 
is the quality of passion ; and its eclipse on the 
Parvan 2 days must be understood to be of the quality 
of darkness. So in all shining bodies, there exist 
three qualities. And they act by turns in the several 
places in several ways. Among immovable entities, 
darkness is in the form of their belonging to the 
lower species ; the qualities of passion are variable ; 
and the oleaginous property is of the quality of 
goodness 3 . The day should be understood to be 
threefold, the night is stated to be threefold, and 
likewise months, half-months, years, seasons, and 
the conjunctions 4 . Threefold are the gifts given 6 , 
threefold the sacrifices performed, threefold are the 

1 This illustrates the existence of the qualities as one body. 
Even the enlightening sun, which embodies the quality of goodness, 
produces effects which belong to the other qualities. The fear and 
sorrow which evil-doers, that is thieves, feel, is an effect of the rising 
of the sun, which appertains to the quality of darkness, and the heat 
as being the cause of vexation and consequent delusion to travellers, 
appertains to the quality of passion. 

2 I. e. the days of the moon's conjunction or opposition. 

3 I understand this to mean that in the ' immovable entities ' the 
three qualities co-exist ; the birth in the lower species is an effect 
of darkness; the variable qualities, viz. the heat, &c, as Ar^una 
Mi\rra says, are the properties of passion ; and the oleaginous 
properties among them appertain to goodness, as, says Ar^una 
Mura, they are sources of pleasure (cf. Gita, p. n8). Nilaka«//za 
says, 'Immovable entities being very unintelligent, darkness is 
very much developed among them,' but this last, as an interpreta- 
tion of tiryagbhavagata, appears to me to be alike unwarranted 
and inappropriate here. 

4 Does this mean the period about the close of one and beginning 
of another yuga or age ? That is the only sense ejusdem generis 
with the words preceding it that I can think of; yet the jump from 
years to yuga-sandhis is a long one. 

5 Cf. Gita, p. 120. With reference to some, at least, of the things 
enumerated here, the division would be rather fanciful. 



worlds, threefold the gods, threefold the (depart- 
ments of) knowledge, and threefold the path 1 . The 
past, the present, and the future ; piety, wealth, and 
lust ; the Pra^a, the Apana, and the Udana ; these 
are the three qualities. And whatever there is in 
this world, all that is (made of) these three qualities 2 . 
The three qualities — goodness, passion, and darkness 
also — are always acting unperceived. The creation 
of the qualities is eternal. Darkness, unperceived, 
holy ? ', constant, unborn, womb, eternal, nature, 
change 4 , destruction, Pradhana, production and ab- 
sorption, not developed, not small, unshaking, im- 
movable, immutable, existent and also non-existent 5 — 
all these, the unperceived, (consisting) of the three 
qualities, is said to be. These names should be learnt 
by men who ponder on matters relating to the self. 
He who understands correctly all the names of the 
unperceived, and the qualities, and its pure opera- 
tions, he, freed from the body, understanding the 
truth about (all) distinctions, and being free from all 
misery, is released from all qualities. 

1 See these three mentioned at A^andogya, pp. 340-359. As 
to departments of knowledge, cf. Gita, p. 84 ; Ar^una Mirra reads, 
' threefold the Vedas.' 

2 The universe is all developed from the Prakn'ti, which is merely 
the three 'qualities in equilibrium.' Cf. Sahkhya-sutra I, 61. 

3 Because it gives final emancipation to one who discriminates 
it from Purusha, Arg-una Misra. Cf. Sahkhya-sutra II, 1 seq., and 
Sahkhya-karika, p. 56 seq., and commentary. For another list of 
names of Prakr/ti, see Sveta^vatara (comm.), p. 283. 

4 Nature is not a development from anything, and hence is called 
avikr/ti in Sahkhya-karika 3 ; but ' change ' here probably means 
the whole aggregate of Vikrztis, ' changes ' or developments, which 
make up Prakrz'ri ; or by a different derivation it may, perhaps, also 
mean that from which all development or change takes place. 

6 See Sahkhya-sutra V, 52-56 ; and also I, 26, and commentary 
here. The Vedantins speak of Maya — which answers to what the 



Chapter XXV. 
Brahman said : 
From the unperceived was first produced the 
great self \ of great intelligence, the source of 
all qualities 2 ; it is said to be the first creation. 
That great self is signified by these synonymous 
terms — the great self, intelligence, Vishnu 3 , Gishnu, 
.Sambhti, the valiant, the understanding, means of 
knowledge, means of perception, and likewise cogni- 
tion, courage, memory. Knowing that (great self), a 
learned Brahma^a comes not by delusion. It has 
hands and feet on all sides 4 , it has eyes, heads, and 
faces on all sides ; it stands pervading everything 
in the world 5 . The being of great power is stationed 
in the heart of all. Minuteness 6 , lightness, (the power 
of) obtaining (everything) (are his) ; he is the 
governor, the light, inexhaustible. Now people who 
comprehend the understanding, and who are always 
possessed of a good heart, who practise meditation, 
who are constant at concentration of mind, who are 
true to their promises, and whose senses are subdued, 
who are possessed of knowledge, who are not ava- 
ricious, who have subdued wrath, whose minds are 
clear, who are talented, who are devoid of (the thought 
that this or that is) mine, who are devoid of egoism, 

Sahkhyas call Prakrz'ti (see ^veta^vatara, p. 340, and Sarikhya-sutra 
I, 69, and commentary there) — as 1 sattvasattvabhyamanirva/£ya.' 

1 I. e. the understanding, on which see Sankhya-sutra I, 6 1-64. It 
is called being (Purusha) further on, as it dwells in the body (Puri). 

2 I.e. of the effects of all qualities (namely, the universe; cf. 
Gita, p. 48), Nilaka^a. 

3 I. e. all-pervading, Ar^una MLsra. On the whole passage, see 
Sahkhya-sara, pp. 15, 16, and note 3 on page 333 infra. 

4 As, says Ar§-una Mi^ra, it is the source of all activity. 

5 The words are identical with those at Gita, p. 103. 
c See p. 327 supra. 



these being emancipated, attain greatness \ And the 
talented man who understands that high and holy 
goal, the great self 2 , he among all people comes not 
by delusion. The self-existent Vishmi is the Lord in 
the primary creations 3 . And he who thus knows the 
lord lying in the cave 4 , the transcendent, ancient 
being, of universal form, and golden 5 , the highest goal 
of those possessed of understanding, that talented 
man, abides transcending the understanding G . 

Chapter XXVI. 
Brahman said : 
That Mahat which was first produced, is (after- 
wards) called egoism ; when it is born as (the feeling 
itself) 7 I, that is said to be the second creation. 
That egoism is stated to be the source of all entities 8 , 

1 I. e., says Ar^una Mijra, the world of the understanding. Does 
this mean the world of Hira^yagarbha ? The understanding is said 
to be the ' subtle body ' of Hirawyagarbha (Vedanta Paribhasha, 
p. 46). Probably the reference spiritually interpreted is to the state 
in which egoism and all its products are non-existent. 

2 Literally, ' the high and holy passage to the great self.' 

3 The Mahat first manifests itself as Vishnu before it manifests 
itself as Brahman or -Siva (Sahkhya-sara, p. 16), hence he is said 
to be the Lord in the primary creation. It may be added, that in 
the Sahkhya-sara where this passage is quoted the original word 
rendered ' cognition ' above (khyati) does not occur, but in lieu of 
it occurs Brahman. The sentence ' And the talented man ' &c. is 
also wanting there. 

4 I. e. the understanding. See -Sahkara on -SVetajvatara, p. 329 ; 
Ka/^a, p. 100. 

5 Source of enlightenment, Ar^una Mi^ra. Cf. Mu;^aka, pp. 303- 
308 (gloss). 

6 I. e. attaching himself to the Purusha, as the never-changing 
reality, and rising above Prakn'ti and its manifestations. 

7 I. e. when the Mahat develops into the feeling of self-conscious- 
ness — I — then it assumes the name of egoism. 

8 See on this Sahkhya-sara, Hall's Introd., p. 31 note. 

Y 2 



that from which the changes take place 1 ; it is full 
of light, the supporter of consciousness; it is that 
from which the people are produced, the Pra^apati. 
It is a deity, the producer of the deities, and of the 
mind ; it is the creator of the three worlds. That 
which feels 2 thus — ' I am all this ' — is called (by) that 
(name). That eternal world is for those sages who 
are contented with knowledge relating to the self, 
who have pondered on the self, and who are perfected 
by sacred study and sacrifice. By 3 consciousness of 
self one enjoys the qualities ; and thus that source of 
all entities, the producer of the entities, creates (them) ; 
and as that from which the changes take place, it 
causes all this to move ; and by its own light, it 
likewise charms the world. 

1 So Ar^una MLrra. Nilaka^Ma says it means ' born from the 
change, or development, viz. Mahat.' The Sahkhya-sara, p. 17, 
however, shows it means ' appertaining to the quality of goodness.' 
See also Sahkhya-karika 25, and commentary there, which is of great 
help here. The sense is this : Egoism is of three descriptions ; it 
appertains to the quality of goodness, and as such is the creator 
of the deities and mind, the deities being those presiding over the 
ten senses (cf. Sahkhya-sara, p. 17); it is full of light, or apper- 
tains to the quality of passion (cf. ibid.), and as such imparts to 
the other two qualities their virtue of activity (cf. Sahkhya-karika 
commentary, p .91, Taranath's ed.) ; it is also of the quality of 
darkness, and as such the producer of the triple world (see ibid.). 
See Sahkhya-sutra II, 17, 18, and comment, where a view some- 
what different in one or two details is stated. 

2 Sahkhya-sara, p. 16; Sahkhya-karika 24, p. 89 (Taran&th's ed.). 

3 Arcana MLrra says that the words Ahahkara &c. are here ex- 
plained; qualities here means objects, as at GM, p. 55. The 
meaning of the first clause is, that the feeling that the objects are 
for oneself, and therefore enjoying them, gives the name of Ahahkara 
to the principle in question; its creation of all the element 0 gives it the 
name of Bhutadi. It is called Vaikarika, as the cause of the various 
activities and developments going on. The last clause seems to be 
an explanation of the epithet Tai^asa, also applied to egoism. 



Chapter XXVII. 
Brahman said : 

From egoism, verily, were the five great elements 
born — earth, air, space, water, and light as the fifth. 
In these five great elements, in the operations of 
(perceiving) sound, touch, colour, taste, and smell, 
creatures are deluded \ When, at the termination 
of the destruction of the great elements, the final 
dissolution approaches, O talented one ! a great 
danger for all living beings arises 2 . Every entity 
is dissolved into that from which it is produced. 
They are born one from the other, and are dis- 
solved in the reverse order 3 . Then when every 
entity, movable or immovable, has been dissolved, 
the talented men who possess a (good) memory 4 
are not dissolved at all. Sound, touch, and like- 
wise colour, taste, and smell as the fifth ; the 
operations (connected with these) have causes 5 , 
and are inconstant, and their name is delusion. 
Caused by the production of avarice 6 , not different 
from one another 7 , and insignificant 8 , connected with 
flesh and blood, and depending upon one another, 

1 The contact of the objects of sense with the senses is the 
source of delusion. 

2 Cf. Gtta, p. 107, and note 1 there. 

:5 Cf. Sankhya-siitra I, 121, and p. 387 infra. 
4 I. e. knowledge of the truth, Ar«-una Mijra. 

6 Hence, as they have a beginning, they also must have an end, 
and hence they are inconstant. 

G This and following epithets expand the idea of inconstancy. 

7 l>eingall in substance connected with the Praknti, the material 
world, so to say. 

8 Containing no reality, Nilaka«//fca. 



excluded from the self 1 , these are helpless and 
powerless. The Pra/^a and the Apana, the Udana, 
the Sam&na, and the Vyana, these five winds 
also are joined to the inner self 2 , and together 
with speech, mind, and understanding make the 
eight constituents of the universe 3 . He whose skin, 
nose, ear, eye, tongue, and speech are restrained, 
and whose mind is pure, and understanding un- 
swerving 4 , and whose mind is never burnt by these 
eight fires 5 , he attains to that holy Brahman than 
which nothing greater exists. And the eleven 
organs, which are stated as having been produced 
from egoism — these, O twice-born ones ! I will 
describe specifically. The ear, the skin, the two 
eyes, the tongue, the nose also as the fifth, the 
two feet, the organ of excretion, and the organ of 
generation, the two hands, and speech as the tenth ; 
such is the group of organs, the mind is the ele- 
venth. This group one should subdue first, then 
the Brahman shines (before him). Five (of these) 
are called the organs of perception, and five the 

1 NilakatfMa apparently takes the original here to mean of gross 
nature, not subtle, such as anything connected with the self would 
be. They are helpless and powerless without support from other 
principles, and mainly the self. 

2 He here states what is more closely connected with the self, 
and, as NilakawMa puts it, accompanies the self till final emancipa- 
tion. The inner self NilakawMa takes to mean the self associated 
with egoism or self-consciousness. 

3 Nilaka;/Ma cites certain texts to show that the perceptive senses 
work only through the mind, and that the objects of the senses are 
produced from the senses, and hence the universe, he cays, is con- 
stituted of the eight enumerated above. 

4 I. e. from the truth. 

s I.e. vexed by the operations of any of these. 



organs of action. The five beginning with the 
ear are truly said to be connected with knowledge. 
And all the rest are without distinction connected 
with action. The mind should be understood to be 
among both \ and the understanding is the twelfth. 
Thus have been stated the eleven organs in order. 
Understanding these 2 , learned men think they have 
accomplished (everything). I will now proceed to 
state all the various organs. Space 3 is the first 
entity; as connected with the self it is called the 
ear ; likewise as connected with objects (it is) sound ; 
and the presiding deity there is the quarters. The 
second entity is air ; it is known as the skin as 
connected with the self ; as connected with objects 
(it is) the object of touch ; and the presiding deity 
there is lightning. The third (entity) is said to be 
light ; as connected with the self it is called the eye ; 
next as connected with objects (it is) colour ; and 
the presiding deity there is the sun. The fourth 
(entity) should be understood to be water ; as con- 
nected with the self it is called the tongue ; as con- 
nected with objects it is taste ; and the presiding 
deity there is Soma. The fifth entity is earth ; 
as connected with the self it is the nose ; as con- 
nected with objects likewise it is smell ; and the 
presiding deity there is the wind. Thus are the 
five entities stated to be divided among the three 4 . 
I will now proceed to state all the various organs. 

1 Cf. Sahkhya-karika. 27; Sankhya-sara, p. 17. 

2 Cf. KaMa, p. 148. 

3 Cf. Lalita Vistara (translated by Dr. R. Mitra), p. 11. 

The above sentences show the entities in the three different 
aspects mentioned, which correspond to each other; the ear 
is the sense, that which is connected with the self; sound is the 
object of that sense, as connected with the external world ; and the 


As connected with the self, the feet are mentioned 
by Brahmawas, who perceive the truth ; as connected 
with objects it is motion ; the presiding deity there 
is Vishftu. The Apana wind, the motion of which is 
downward, as connected with the self, is called the 
organ of excretion ; as connected with objects it is 
excretion 1 ; and the presiding deity there is Mitra. 
As connected with the self the generative organ is 
mentioned, the producer of all beings ; as connected 
with objects it is the semen ; and the presiding deity 
there is Pra^apati. Men who understand the Adhya- 
tma speak of the two hands as connected with the 
self ; as connected with objects it is actions ; and 
the presiding deity there is Indra. Then first, as 
connected with the self, is speech which relates 
to all the gods ; as connected with objects it is 
what is spoken ; and the presiding deity there is 
fire. As connected with the self they mention the 
mind, which follows after the five entities 2 ; as con- 
nected with objects it is the mental operation ; the 
presiding deity there is the moon. Likewise (there 
is) egoism, the cause of the whole course of worldly 
life, as connected with the self; as connected with 
objects, self-consciousness ; the presiding deity there 
is Rudra. As connected with the self, they men- 
tion the understanding impelling the six senses 3 ; 

quarters, Dik, are the deities presiding over the senses ; as to this 
cf. Sankhya-sara, p. 17, and Vedanta Paribhasha, p. 45, which show 
some discrepancies. The distinctions of Adhyatma &c. are to 
be found in the Upanishads; cf. inter alia, jOandogya, p. 227, and 
cf. Gita, p. 77. 

1 As to the original word, cf. inter alia, ^vetajvatara, pp. 197-202. 

2 This probably means the five senses which can perceive only 
when associated with the mind. See p. 268 supra. 

3 The understanding is called the charioteer at KaMa, p. in. 



as connected with objects that which is to be un- 
derstood ; and the presiding deity there is Brah- 
man. There are three seats for all entities — a fourth 
is not possible — land, water, and space. And the 
(mode of) birth is fourfold. Those born from eggs, 
those born from germs, those born from perspira- 
tion, and those born from wombs — such is the four- 
fold (mode of) birth of the group of living beings 1 . 
Now there are the inferior beings and likewise those 
moving in the air. Those should be understood to 
be born from eggs, as also all reptiles. Insects 
are said to be born from perspiration ; and worms 
of the like description. This is said to be the 
second (mode of) birth, and inferior. Those beings, 
however, which are born after the lapse of some 
time, bursting through the earth, are said to be 
born from germs, O best of the twice- born ! 
Beings of two feet or more than two feet, and 
those which move crookedly, are the beings born 
from wombs. Understand about them also, O 
best of men ! The eternal seat (where) the 
Brahman 2 (is to be attained) should be under- 
stood to be twofold — penance 3 and meritorious 
action. Such is the doctrine of the learned. 
Action should be understood to be of various 4 

1 Cf. .Oandogya, pp. 404-406, and glosses; Aitareya, p. 243; 
Vedanta Paribhasha, p. 47; Sahkhya-sutra V, 111; Manu I, 43; 
Max M tiller s note at p. 94 of his -A^andogya in this series. 

2 So Nilaka«/Aa, but he also adds that this means birth as a 
Brahmawa, which seems to be quite wrong. Ar^una Mirra's 
' means of acquiring Brahman ' is right. See p. 369 infra. 

3 I.e., I presume, 'knowledge.' -Sankara has so interpreted the 
word at Mu«<7aka, p. 270, and Ka//$a, p. 127, and elsewhere; and 
see Sanatsu^atiya, p. 166 supra. 

4 Another reading is ' of two kinds.' But I prefer this, as three 
kinds are mentioned further on. 


descriptions, (namely) sacrifice, gift at a sacrifice, 
and sacred study 1 , for (every one) who is born 2 . 
Such is the teaching of the ancients. He who 
duly understands this, becomes possessed of concen- 
tration of mind, O chief of the twice-born ! and 
know, too, that he is released from all sins. Space 3 
is the first entity ; as connected with the (indivi- 
dual) self it is called the ear ; as connected with 
objects likewise it is called sound; and the presiding 
deity there is the quarters. The second entity is air ; 
as connected with the (individual) self it is called 
the skin ; as connected with objects it is the object 
of touch ; and the presiding deity there is the 
lightning. The third is called light ; as connected 
with the (individual) self it is laid down to be the 
eye ; next as connected with objects it is colour ; 
the presiding deity there is the sun. The fourth 
should be understood to be water ; as connected 
with the (individual) self it is stated to be the 
tongue ; as connected with objects it should be 
understood to be taste ; the presiding deity there 
is Soma. The fifth element is earth ; as connected 
with the (individual) self it is called the nose ; as 
connected with objects likewise it is called smell ; 
the presiding deity there is Vayu. Thus have I 

1 Cf. as to this -Oandogya, p. 136, which justifies our rendering, 
though the commentator Ar^una Mi^ra seems to understand the 
passage differently. 

2 Ar^una MLrra seems to understand this to mean 'twice-born.' 

3 This is a repetition of what occurs at p. 337, and apparently is 
spurious. But two of the MSS., both those containing commentaries, 
contain the passage twice. One of the other MSS. omits the pas- 
sage where it occurs before, and has it here. I think that the 
passage is in its place before, and probably interpolated here. 



accurately described to you the creation 1 as connected 
with the (individual) self. A knowledge of this, O ye 
who understand piety! is here obtained by those 
who possess knowledge. One should place all these 
together, (viz.) the senses, the objects of the senses, 
and the five great elements, and hold them by the 
mind 2 . When everything is absorbed into the mind, 
the pleasures of (worldly) life 3 are not esteemed. 
The learned (men) whose understandings are pos- 
sessed of knowledge esteem the pleasure derived 
from that 4 . Now 5 I shall proceed to describe that 
discarding of all entities by (means) gentle and 
hard 6 , which produces attachment to subtle 7 (topics), 
and is sanctifying. The (mode of) conduct in which 
qualities are not (treated as) qualities 8 , which is free 
from attachment, in which one lives alone 9 , which is 
uninterrupted 10 , and which is full of the Brahman 11 , 
is called happiness (dwelling) in one aggregate 12 . 

1 I am not quite sure that this is a correct rendering. But I can 
think of none better, and the commentators afford no help. 

2 Nilaka;/Ma says, 'Thinking that the great elements are not dis- 
tinct from the senses, one should hold them absorbed in the mind.' 
Ar^una Mirra says, 'In the mind as their seat they should be placed/ 
as being not distinct from the mind, I presume. Cf. KaMa, p. 148. 

3 Literally, 'birth/ 

4 From knowledge, I presume. The commentators afford no help. 

5 Arg-una Mijra's text appears to commence a new chapter here. 

6 Such as meditation or upasana, and pra/zayama or restraint of 
life-winds respectively, Ar^una Mijra. 

7 Cf. p. 310 supra. 

8 I. e. bravery, learning, &c. are treated as not being merits, as 
they cause pride, &c, Nilakaw/Aa. 

9 I.e. in solitude, NllakawMa; devoting oneself to the self only, 
Ar^una Mijra. Cf. also p. 284 supra, note 4. 

10 Or, says Nflakaa/fta, free from any belief in distinctions. 

11 Another reading would mean ' which exists among Brahmawas.' 

12 I. c. all collected together, I presume. 



The learned man who absorbs objects of desire 
from all sides, as a tortoise (draws in) his limbs 1 , 
and who is devoid of passion, and released from 
e verything- ~ y is ever happy. Restraining objects 
of desire within the self 3 , he becomes fit for assi- 
milation with the Brahman 4 , having his cravings 
destroyed, and being concentrated in mind, and 
friendly and affectionate 5 to all beings. The fire 
of the Adhyatma 0 is kindled in a sage by his 
abandoning the country 7 , and by the restraint of 
all the senses which hanker after objects of sense. 
As fire kindled with fuel shines forth with a great 
blaze, so the great self 8 shines forth through the 
restraint of the senses. When one with a tranquil 
self perceives all entities in one's own heart, then 
being self-illumined 9 , one attains to that which is 
subtler than (the most) subtle (thing) 10 , and than 
which there is nothing higher. It is settled, that 
the body in which the colour 11 is fire, the flowing 12 

1 Cf. Gita, pp. 50, 51, and *Santi Parvan (Moksha Dharma) I, 51, 
where the phrase is precisely the same as here. 

2 I.e. from all bonds, I suppose. See p. 292 supra. 

3 Cf. Gita, p. 51. 4 Cf. Gita, p. no. 5 Cf. GM, p. 68. 
r ' I.e. experience, Nilaka;/Ma. It means direct perception of the 

relations between the supreme and individual self. Cf. Gita, p. in. 

7 As opposed to forests. See Sanatsu^atiya, p. 159, note 9. 

8 This must mean here the supreme self, apparently. 

9 I. e. being devoted to the self only, Ar^-una Mi.yra. The 
ordinary meaning of the word, however, is one who has direct 
experience or perception without the aid of senses, &c. Cf. Br/ha- 
dara^yaka, p. 765, and -Sanraka Bhashya, pp. 648, 784, &c. 

10 Nllaka«Ma says, 'The supreme Brahman which is subtler than 
the Brahman within the lotus-like heart/ 

11 I.e. that which perceives colour, viz. the sense, Aigiina Miira- 
This applies to the analogous words coming further on. 

12 I.e. taste, says Ar^una Mwra, which seems to be more correct 
than NilakawMa's blood and such other liquid elements of the body. 



(element) water, and the feeling of touch is air, 
the hideous holder of the mud 1 is earth, and 
likewise the sound is space ; which is pervaded by- 
disease and sorrow ; which is surrounded by the 
five currents 2 ; which is made up of the five ele- 
ments ; which has nine passages 3 and two deities 4 ; 
which is full of passion ; unfit to be seen 5 ; made 
up of three qualities and of three constituent ele- 
ments 6 ; pleased with contacts 7 ; and full of delusion 8 ; 
— this same (body), which is difficult to move in this 
mortal world, and which rests on the real (entity) 9 , 
is the very wheel of time which rotates in this 
world 10 . It is a great ocean, fearful and unfathom- 
able, and is named 11 delusion. The world, together 
with the immortals, should cast it aside, curtail it, 

1 I. e. the flesh, bone, and so forth, Nilaka;z//*a ; the mucus in 
the nose, Arg-una Mijra. 

2 I. e. the senses. Cf. p. 238 supra, note 7. 

3 Cf. Gita, p. 65. 4 See Sanatsu^atiya, p. 187 supra. 

5 As being unholy, NilakawMa ; as the bodies of Jfmdalas &c. 
when seen are productive of sin, Ar^una Mi^ra. See p. 155 supra. 

6 Viz. vata, pitta, jleshma, or wind, bile, and phlegm. The 
dhatus are sometimes spoken of as seven. See Yoga-sutras, 
p. 192 ; Taitt. Ar. p. 874, commentary, and p. 246 supra. See, too, 
however, .SVetaj-vatara, commentary, p. 287. 

7 Which is delighted only by contact with food and so forth, not 
otherwise, Nilakaw/jfca. 

8 I. e. cause of delusion. The original word for 'it is settled' at the 
beginning of this sentence is otherwise rendered by Ar^una Mura. 
He takes it to mean ' in this light (namely, as above stated) should 
one contemplate the body.' The other rendering is Nilaka?////a's. 

9 I. e. the self, Ar^una Mirra ; the understanding, Nilaka;///^a ; 
difficult to move = difficult to adjust if attacked by disease, &c, 

10 It is owing to this body that the self becomes limited by time, 
Ar^una Mi^ra. NilakaftMa's gloss I do not follow. Cf. p. 1 87 supra, 
and p. 355 infra. 

11 I.e. characterised by delusion, Ar^una Mijra. 



and restrain it l . Desire, wrath, fear, avarice, trea- 
chery, and falsehood also, (all these), which are 
difficult to get rid of, the good do get rid of by 
restraint of the senses 2 . And he who in this 
world has vanquished the three qualities and the 
five constituent elements 15 , obtains the highest 4 — 
the infinite — seat in heaven. Crossing the river of 
which the five senses are the lofty banks, the agita- 
tion of mind 5 the mighty waters, and delusion the 
reservoir 0 , one should vanquish both desire and 
wrath. Freed from all sins, he then perceives that 
highest (principle), concentrating the mind within 
the mind 7 , and seeing the self within the self 8 . 
Understanding everything, he sees the self with 
the self in all entities as one 9 , and also as various, 

1 I am not sure about the meaning here. Ar^una Mi^ra says, 
(reading vimget, ' send forth/ for vikshipet, ' cast aside/) ' send forth 
at the creation, curtail at the dissolution, and restrain at the final 
emancipation/ The commentary reads rodhayet, which we have 
adopted above. The text in the same copy, however, is bodhayet. 
Ar^una Mi^ra adds, as far as I can make out from an incorrect 
copy : ' as in this life everything is accomplished by these actions ' 
(namely, I suppose, the casting aside, &c). Nilakaw/^a says, ' This 
same thing is the cause of creation, destruction, and knowledge/ 
reading bodhayet. 

2 Cf. Gita, p. 57. 

3 I. e. the five great elements, as stated in Williams' Dictionary, 
citing Ya§77avalkya III, 145. See -Santi Parvan (Moksha), chap. 182, 
st. 16 ; chap. 184, st. 1. 

4 I. e. the seat of the Brahman, Nilakaw/^a. 

5 See Gita, p. 66, where the word is the same, viz. vega. 

6 From which, namely, the river issues. Cf. for the whole figure, 
.Santi Parvan (Moksha), chap. 251, st. 12. 

7 The mind = the lotus-like heart, Nilakaw^a. Cf. Gita, p. 79. 
Concentrating = withdrawing from external objects, &c. 

8 I.e. in the body, NilakawMa. See p. 248. 

9 Cf. Gita, p. 83, and note 4 there. NilakawMa says, ' as one, i. e. 



changing from time to time l . He can always perceive 
(numerous) bodies like a hundred lights from one 
light. He verily is Vishnu, and Mitra, and Varima, 
Agni, and Pra^apati. He is the supporter, and the 
creator. He is the lord whose faces are in all direc- 
tions 2 . (In him) the great self — the heart of all 
beings — is resplendent. Him, all companies of Brah- 
ma^as, and also gods, and demons, and Yakshas, and 
Pisa/£as, and Pitrz's, and birds, and the bands of 
Rakshases, and the bands of Bhutas 3 , and also all 
the great sages, ever extol. 

Chapter XXVIII. 

Brahman said : 

Among men the royal Kshatriya is the middle 4 
quality ; among vehicles the elephant 5 , and among 
denizens of the forest the lion ; among all sacrificial 
animals the sheep, and among the dwellers in holes 
the snake ; among cattle also the bull, and among 

by direct perception of the unity of the individual and supreme, 
and as various, i. e. in the all-comprehending form/ 

1 I.e. creating or acting, Ar§-una MLsra. I think it probable 
that it was meant to go with the preceding words. See Gita, 
p. 83 note; but, for this, 'changing' must be in the accusative. 
It is in the nominative. As the original stands, and on Ar°iina 
Mijra's interpretation, the sense seems to be that when he is about 
to engage in the work of creation, he can obtain as many bodies as he 
likes. Nilaka«//^a compares iTMndogya, p. 526. And see pp. 249, 
327 supra. Can always perceive = invariably obtains when he wishes. 

2 Cf. Gita, pp. 83, 93, and note 1 there. 

3 Cf. Gita, pp. 85, 118. 

4 I. e. passion — that quality is dominant in the Kshatriya, 
NilakawMa. See p. 329 supra. 

5 Commenting on Gita V, 18 (p. 65) Sankara calls the elephant 
atyantatamasa, belonging entirely to the quality of darkness. 



females a male 1 . The Nyagrodha, the c7ambu, the 
Pippala, and likewise the *Salmali, the 6"iii^apa, and the 
Meshasrmga, and likewise the bamboo and willow 2 ; 
these are the princes among trees in this world, 
there is no doubt of that. The Himavat, the 
Pariyatra, the Sahya, the Vindhya, the Triku/avat, 
the .Sveta, the Nila, the Bhasa, and the Kosh//zavat 
mountain, the Mahendra, the Guruskandha, and 
likewise the Malyavat mountain, these are the 
princes among mountains 3 . Likewise the Maruts 
are (the princes) among the Ga^as ; the sun is the 
prince among the planets, and the moon 4 among 
the Nakshatras ; Yama is the prince among the 
Pitr/s and the ocean among rivers ; Varu^a is the 
king of the waters, and Indra is said to be (the king) 
of the Maruts. Arka is the king of hot (bodies), 
and Indu is said to be (the king) of shining bodies. 
Fire is ever the lord of the elements 5 , and Brzhaspati 
of Brahma^as ; Soma is the lord of herbs, Vish/m 
is the chief among the strong ; Tvash/rz is the prince 

1 As to the constructions here, cf. generally Gita, p. 88, and 
see the remarks of Ramanug-a and -Sridhara on Gita X, 21. The 
meaning here is, of course, the male is ruler over females. 

2 I do not know what distinction is intended between these two. 
Generally kUaka is used for the hollow bamboo, which whistles 
when the wind blows through it. 

3 Some of these mountains are mentioned in Pata#gali. See 

4 This list may be compared with that at Gita, chapter X. 
Sometimes the same object occurs more than once with reference 
to more than one class ; thus the moon occurs as lord of Naksha- 
tras, of shining bodies, and of herbs — unless Soma there stands for the 
Soma plant. See Gita, p. 1 1 3. Ar^una MLrra says expressly that the 
moon occurs more than once as the correlatives, the classes with re- 
ference to which she is mentioned, are different. In such cases I have 
kept the original names untranslated ; Arka = sun ; Indu = moon. 

5 Cf. KaMa, p. 83. 



of the Rudras. and .Siva is the ruler of (all) creatures ; 
likewise, sacrifice of (all) initiatory ceremonies 1 , and 
Maghavat 2 likewise of the gods ; the north among 
the quarters, and among all vipras the powerful 
king Soma 3 ; Kubera (is lord) of all jewels, Puran- 
dara of (all) deities. Such is the highest creation 
among all entities. Pra^apati (is lord) of all 
peoples ; and of all entities whatever I, who am 
full of the Brahman, and great, (am lord). There 
is no higher being than myself or Vishnu. 
The great Vishnu full of the Brahman is the 
king of kings over all. Understand him to 
be the ruler, the creator, the uncreated Hari. For 
he is the ruler of men, Kinnaras, and Yakshas ; 
of Gandharvas, snakes, and Rakshases ; of gods, 
demons, and Nagas. Among all those who are 
followed by (men) full of desires, (the chief) is 4 the 
great goddess Mahe^vari, who has beautiful eyes. 
She is called Parvati. Know the goddess Uma 5 to 
be the best and (most) holy of (all) females. Among 
women who are (a source 6 of) happiness, likewise, 
the brilliant 7 Apsarases (are chief). Kings desire 

1 This must mean, I presume, that the sacrifice is higher than 
the initiation, as male than female, see p. 346, note 1. 

2 This is another repetition. Indra has been mentioned before, 
and Purandara is mentioned further on. 

3 As to king Soma, see inter alia Bn'hadarawyaka, p. 237 ; 
A'Mndogya, p. 342, where £arikara explains 'king' by adding 'of 
Brahma^as.' Vipras = Brahmawas. 

4 I.e. Mahcwaii is the most beautiful of womankind. 

5 It is well known that Uma, Parvati, Mahe^vari are names of 
the consort of the third member of the Hindu Trinity ; see Kena, 
p. 13, and -Sahkara's comment there. See, too, Muir, Sanskrit 
Texts, vol. iv, p. 421, and Taittinya-arawyaka, p. 839. 

6 The idea of ' source ' is supplied by Ar^una Mura. 

7 Literally, ' rich.' Ar^una Mura paraphrases it by 1 Gyotish- 
mati/ Nilakaz/Ma's explanation here is not quite clear. 

[8] Z 



piety; and BieLhmattas are the bridges 1 of piety. 
Therefore a king should always endeavour to pro- 
tect the twice-born 2 . Those kings in whose domi- 
nions good men lie low, lose all their qualifications 3 , 
and go into wrong paths after death. But those 
high-souled kings in whose dominions good men 
are protected, rejoice in this world, and attain the 
infinite (seat) after death. Understand this, O chiefs 
of the twice-born ! I shall now proceed to state the 
invariable characteristics of piety. Non- destruction 
is the highest piety 4 , and destruction is of the 
nature of impiety. Enlightenment 6 is the character- 
istic of gods ; action 6 the characteristic of men ; 
sound is the characteristic of space ; (the sensation 
of) touch is the characteristic of air ; colour is the 
characteristic of light ; taste is the characteristic of 
water ; the characteristic of earth, the supporter of 
all beings, is smell ; words are the characteristic 
of speech 7 refined into vowels and consonants ; the 
characteristic of mind is thought. Likewise as to 
what is described here as understanding, a deter- 

1 I. e. instrumental in piety, or guides to piety. Cf. iSVetajvatara, 
p. 370; Muw^aka, p. 297. 

2 So literally, doubtless Brahma;zas only are intended here. 

3 I. e., I presume, they lose all their merits, their good points are 
destroyed by this dereliction of duty. 

4 Cf. p. 291 supra. Ar^-una Mura begins a fresh chapter with ' I 
shall now,' &c. 5 Knowledge of the truth, Ar^una Mijra. 

6 I. e. action performed for the purpose of obtaining the fruit of 
it. The next five items refer to the five elements and their cha- 
racteristic properties. Nilaka////za's explanation, that all these are 
merely parallels not stated for their own relevancy here, but as 
illustrations, seems to be the only available one. 

7 I. e. the learning of other people, Nilaka«//^a. The meaning 
seems to be that we know speech only in its manifestation in the 
form of words. 



mination is here formed by (that) understanding 
about objects which have been thought over by the 
mind \ And there is no doubt of this that deter- 
mination is the characteristic of the understanding. 
The characteristic of mind is meditation 2 ; and the 
characteristic of a good man is (living) unperceived :i . 
The characteristic of devotion is action 4 ; and know- 
ledge the characteristic of renunciation. Therefore 
a man of understanding should practise renunciation, 
giving prominence to knowledge 5 . The renouncer 
possessed of knowledge attains the highest goal. And 
crossing beyond darkness, and transcending death 
and old age, he repairs to that which has no second 6 . 
Thus have I duly spoken to you concerning the 
characteristic of piety. I will now proceed to explain 
properly the comprehension 7 of the qualities. As 
to the smell of the earth, verily, that is comprehended 
by the nose ; and the wind 8 likewise residing in the 
nose is appointed 9 to the knowledge of smell. Taste 10 , 

1 The text here is rather unsatisfactory ; I have adopted that 
which I find in the copy containing Arg-una Mora's commentary. 

2 Frequent pondering on matters learnt from -Sastras or common 
life, Nilaka/zMa. Why mind comes twice the commentators do not 

3 Does this refer to what is said at Sanatsu^atiya, p. 159 ? 

4 Devotion means here, asin the Gita, action without desire of fruits. 
For action the word here is the same as at Gita, p. 115, note 2. 

5 Cf. Gita, p. 52, note 7. 

6 This is Arg-una Mijra's interpretation, and appears to me to be 
correct. NilakawMa's is different, but seems to omit all account 
of abhyeti, ' repairs.' 

7 Ar^una Mijra's interpretation seems to be different, but our 
copy is not quite intelligible. 

8 See p. 337 supra. The wind is the presiding deity of the nasal 

9 I. e. that is its function. Ar^una Mura says, ' it is pondered 
on/ which is not clear. 10 Cf. Gita, p. 74, as to taste and water. 

Z 2 



the essence of water, is always comprehended by the 
tongue. And the moon likewise, who resides in the 
tongue, is appointed to the knowledge of taste. The 
quality of light is colour, and that is comprehended 
by the eye ; and the sun residing in the eye is 
appointed always to the knowledge of colour. The 
(sensation of) touch, belonging to the air, is perceived 
by the skin, and the wind 1 residing in the skin is 
always appointed to the knowledge of (the objects) 
of touch. The quality of space is sound, and that is' 
comprehended by the ear. And all the quarters re- 
siding in the ear are celebrated as (being appointed) 
to the knowledge of sound. Thought is the quality 
of mind, and that is comprehended by the under- 
standing. The supporter of consciousness 2 residing 
in the heart is appointed to the knowledge of mind 3 . 
The understanding (is comprehended in the form 
of) determination, and the Mahat 4 of knowledge. 
To (this) positive comprehension, the unperceived 5 
(is appointed), there is no doubt of that. The Kshe- 
tra£#a, which is in its essence devoid of qualities 
and eternal, is not to be comprehended by any 

1 This cannot be the presiding deity here, though one expects 
such deity to be mentioned ; see p. 337 supra. 

2 The text of more than one of the lines here is rather doubtful ; 
we follow Nilaka^Ma, who takes this to mean the giva, the indi- 
vidual soul. Cf. p. 239, note 2 supra. 

3 I. e. thought, as Nilaka^Ma points out. 

4 Mahat is properly the same as buddhi, understanding, but as 
it is here mentioned separately, I suppose, it signifies Ahankara. 
Nilaka;zMa takes its operation^ here called knowledge, to mean 
' the feeling I am/ which agrees with our interpretation, for which 
some support is also to be derived from p. 333 supra. 

r ' I here follow Ar^una Mi-sra, though somewhat diffidently. The 
knowledge ' this is 1/ and the knowledge ' this is so and so and 
nothing else ' is presided over by the unperceived — the Prakr/'ti. 


35 1 

symbols. Therefore the characteristic of the Kshe- 
tra^;2a, which is void of symbols 1 , is purely knowledge. 
The unperceived is stated to be the Kshetra 2 in 
which the qualities are produced and absorbed. And 
I always see, know, and hear it, (though) concealed. 
The Purusha knows it, therefore is he called Kshe- 
tra^a 3 . And the Kshetra^a likewise perceives all 
the operations of the qualities 4 . The qualities created 
again and again, do not know themselves 5 , being non- 
intelligent, to be created and tied down to a begin- 
ning, middle, and end 6 . Only the Kshetra^a attains, 
no one (else) attains, to the truth, which is great, 
transcendent, and beyond the qualities and the entities 
(produced) 7 from the qualities. Hence a man who 
understands piety, abandoning qualities, and the cre- 
ation 8 , in this world, and transcending the qualities, 
and having his sins destroyed, then enters into the 
Kshetra^Tza. One who is free from the pairs of 
opposites, free from the ceremony of salutations, and 

1 See Sanatsu^atiya, p. 146. See also p. 309 supra. 

2 See Gita, p. 102 seq. 3 I. e. he who knows the Kshetra. 

4 Enlightenment, activity, and delusion, Nilaka?///za. 

5 I. e. do not know the self, Nilaka«///a ; better, I think, ' the 
qualities do not know themselves, only the Kshetra^a knows 
them.' Cf. -Santi Parvan (Moksha Dharma), chap. 194, st. 41. 

6 I. e. production, existence, and destruction, Nilaka/z///a. This 
must, however, mean their manifestation, continuance, and dis- 
solution in any particular form. For the prakr/ti, which is made 
up of the three qualities, is beginningless. Cf. Gita, p. 104. 

7 I. e. the actual physical manifestations, as we may say, of the 

8 The original, sattva, Nilaka/z/7/a renders by buddhi, and qualities 
by visible objects. In the familiar Saiikhya phrase sattvapuru- 
shanyatapratyaya sattva means creation, or what is other than 
purusha (cf. Sahkhyatattvakaumudt, pp. 9-144). That is the 
meaning here. See too p. 371 infra, and -Santi Parvan (Moksha 
Dharma), chap. 194, st. 38 seq. and comments there. 



from the sv&hS ceremony l , who is unmoving, and 
homele ss-, is the Kshetra^a, he is the Supreme 

Chapter XXIX. 

Brahman said : 
I will state truly all about that which has a be- 
ginning, middle, and end 3 , and about the means for 
its comprehension, together with names and charac- 
teristics 4 . It is stated that day was first and then 
night ; that months have the bright 5 first, the Nak- 
shatras 6Yavana G as the first (among them), and the 
seasons the winter as the first (among them). The 
earth is the source 7 of smells, water of tastes, the 
light (of) the sun is the source of colours, the wind is 
stated to be the source of (the feelings of) touch; like- 
wise space is the source of sound. These are the 
qualities of the elements. Now I shall proceed to 
state the highest and first of all entities. The sun is 

1 See p. 324 supra. 

2 See Gita, p. 101. Unmoving probably means 'not perturbed 
by the qualities' (Gita, p. no), or perhaps the same thing as 'of 
steady mind ' at Gita, p. 101. The sense is pretty much the same 
in both places. 

3 Which has birth &c, Nilaka«//$a, i. e. all the creation, I presume. 

4 The names, that is to say, of the various elements, and their 

5 This must mean fortnights. 

6 This is specified, says Ar^una Mura, as the six months of the 
northern solstice are caused by the sun being at this Nakshatra. 
As to those six months, cf. Gita, p. 81. For the same reason, 
Ar^una Mijra adds, the winter season is mentioned as tfte best. 

7 The word adi, literally beginning, is used in the whole of this 
passage in different senses ; it means the source, it means the best, 
and it means the first in order. 



the first among shining bodies 1 ; fire is said to be 
the first of the elements 2 ; Savitri 3 of all branches 
of learning; Pra^apati of deities; the syllable Om 
of all the Vedas ; and the Pra;^a life-wind, of all 
words 4 ; whatever is prescribed in this world, all 
that is called Savitri 5 . The Gayatri is the first 
among metres ; among (sacrificial) animals, the goat 6 
is mentioned (as the first). Cows are the first among 
quadrupeds, and the twice-born among men 7 . The 
.5yena is first among birds ; among sacrifices, the 
offering (into the fire) is the best ; and among all 
reptiles, O best of the twice-born ! the snake 8 is 
the highest. Of all ages the K>zta is the first, there 
is no doubt of that. Among all precious things, 
gold (is the first), and among vegetable (products) 
likewise the barley seed 9 . Among all things to 
be eaten or swallowed food is the highest ; and of 

1 This should be compared with the enumeration at p. 345 supra, 
and that in the Gita there referred to. 

2 Cf. p. 346 supra. NilakawMa takes fire to mean the gastric fire, 
and bhuta, rendered by us elements, to mean the species of beings 
born from eggs and wombs. 

3 The famous verse ' Tat savitur/ &c. See inter alia B/Yhadara- 
wyaka, p. 999 ; Apastamba I, 1,1,9; Manu II, 77 seq., 104-170. 

4 See pp. 264, 265 supra. 

5 Here he turns back to the Savitri, ' looking back in the manner 
of the lion,' says NilakawZ/m, and for purposes of upasana. He 
does not give up the thread of his discourse entirely, but simply 
interjects this little clause. Nflaka«///a adds, Savitri here includes 
every mode of worship prescribed for Brahma«as, &c, and even 
for MleK'fe. Cf. note 3, and Gautama (Buhler's ed.), p. 174 note. 

6 Cf. A7*andogya, p. 109, and -Sahkara's commentary. Ar^una 
Mijra compares this text, Tasmadesha etesham pa^unam jresh///a- 
tamo^-a^. Where it occurs I know not. 

7 Cf. -Santi Parvan (Ra^adharma), chap. 11, st. 11. 

8 I. e. Vasuki, Nilaka«///a. More probably it refers to the species. 

9 As it is used in various ceremonies. 

all liquid substances which are to be drunk, water 
is the best. And among- all immovable entities, 
without distinction, the Plaksha, the ever holy field 
of Brahman 1 , is stated to be the first. I, too, (am 
the first) among all the patriarchs 2 , there is no 
doubt of that. And the unthinkable, self-existent 
Vish/m is stated to be my own self. Of all moun- 
tains, the great Meru is stated to be the first-born. 
And among all quarters and sub-quarters, likewise, 
the eastern quarter 3 is the first. Likewise the Gafiga 
going in three paths is stated to be the first-born 
among rivers. And likewise of all wells and reser- 
voirs of water, the ocean is the first-born. And of all 
gods, Danavas, Bhutas, Pisa^as, snakes, and Rak- 
shases, and of men, Kinnaras, and Yakshas, Wara 4 
is the lord. The great Vishnu, who is full of the 
Brahman, and than whom there is no higher being in 
these three worlds, is the source of all the universe. 
Of all orders 5 , that of "householders (is the first), there 
is no doubt of that. The unperceived is the source 
of the worlds ; and the same is also the end of every- 
thing. Days end with (the sun's) setting 6 ; the night ends 
with (the sun's) rising; the end of pleasure is ever grief ; 

1 I.e. the Creator; his field means, I presume, his special seat. 

2 Beings from whom all creatures were born. See inter alia 
6'anti Parvan (Moksha Dharma), chap. 208, st. 5 ; Manu I, 34. 

3 At p. 347 the north is mentioned. Ar^una Mura has ' urdhva,' 
or upward here, and yet ' north ' before. Is the north the best as 
the seat of the higher world mentioned at £anti Parvan (Moksha 
Dharma), chap. 192, st. 8 seq. ? 

4 I. e. Rudra, says Nilaka/zMa. 

5 Viz. Brahma/6arin, householder, forester, and Samnyasin. Cf. 
^antiParvan(Moksha), ch. ic)i,st. 10; Manu VI, 89; Gautama, p. 190. 

6 These stanzas also occur in the .Santi Parvan, chap. 27, st. 31 
seq. (R%adharma). Apart of them appears to be quoted in Sankhya- 
sutra V, 80. And the commentator Vi^fiana Bhikshu introduces it 
with the expression * iti ^ruyate.' But it is not a Vedic text. 



the end of grief ever pleasure. All accumulations 
end in exhaustion ; all ascents end in falls ; all asso- 
ciations end in dissociations ; and life ends in death. 
All action ends in destruction ; death is certain for 
whatever is born 1 ; (everything) movable or immov- 
able in this world is ever transient. Sacrifice, gift, 
penance, study, observances, and regulations, all this 
ends in destruction 2 . There is no end for knowledge. 
Therefore one whose self is tranquil, whose senses 
are subjugated, who is devoid of (the idea that this 
or that is) mine, who is devoid of egoism, is released 
from all sins by pure knowledge. 

Chapter XXX. 
Brahman said : 
The wheel of life 3 moves on ; a wheel of which 
the spoke is the understanding, of which the pole 4 
is the mind, of which the bonds are the group of 
the senses, of which the outer rim 5 is the five great 
elements, of which the environment is home 6 ; which 

1 Cf. Gita, p. 45. 

2 All this is action, the fruit of which is perishable ; the fruit of 
knowledge, on the other hand, is everlasting. 

3 Literally, time ; it seems, however, to stand for the vicissitudes 
of worldly life. Cf. .Sveta^vatara, p. 283. The body is called 
' wheel of time ' at p. 53 supra, but Ar^una Mijra there says ' it 
is the wheel which causes the rotation of the wheel of time.' 

4 The cause of its being large in dimensions, Ar^una Mura ; the 
supporting pillar, NilakawMa. I prefer the former, and take the 
sense to be that worldly life is co-extensive with the operations or 
' fancies ' of the mind. 

5 What is outside the elements, the physical manifestations of 
Prakn'ti, is beyond the domain of worldly life. 

6 The possession of ' home ' is equivalent to a dwelling in the 
midst of worldly life. Hence the idea of homelessness at inter alia 
Gita, pp. 101-103. 



abounds in old age and grief, which moves in the 
midst of disease and misfortune, which rotates in 1 
space and time ; the noise of which is trouble and 
toil, the rotations 2 of which (constitute) day and 
night; which is encircled with cold and heat; of 
which pleasure and pain are the joints, and hunger 
and thirst the nails fixed into it, of which sunshine 
and shade are the ruts ; which staggers in the opening 
or closing of an eyelid, which is enveloped in the 
fearful waters of delusion, which is ever revolving 
and void of consciousness 3 , which is measured by 
months and half months, is ever-changing 4 , which 
moves through (all) the worlds 5 ; the mud G for which 
is penance and regulations, the mover of which is 
the force of the quality of passion 7 ; which is lit up 8 
by the great egoism, which is sustained by the 
qualities; the fastenings in which are vexations 9 ; 

1 This means, I presume, that worldly life is conditioned, so to 
say, by space and time. See p. 343 supra. 

2 I. e. the cause of the rotation, Nilakaw/^a. 

3 I. e. unintelligent. 

4 Now takes the form of a man, now of an animal, and then of 
some other thing, Nilakaw/^a. I think, however, that the meaning 
is, that it is not alike to all ; different persons are in different states 
in this world. 

5 Ar^una Mijra says this means that it is the cause of the move- 
ments in all the worlds. That is the sense I extract from his words, 
which are not quite clear, lokanam sam£ara»e hetus. The render- 
ing in the text follows Nilaka«/^a. 

6 I. e., I presume, that which retards the revolutions of the 'wheel.' 
Instead of ' penance,' NilakawZ/za's reading is 'the quality of darkness.' 

7 Cf. Sahkhya-karika, p. 13, and Vatopati's commentary thereon. 

8 ' Animated,' Nilaka;///;a. Egoism is the cause <^f the world, 
and of all knowledge of it. Cf. Sahkhya-karika, p. 24. 

9 The text here is unsatisfactory. I follow Nilaka«/^a, who says 
' vexations = those arising from not obtaining what is desired.' 



which revolves in the midst of grief and destruction 1 , 
which is full of actions and instruments of action 2 , 
which is large, and which is extended by means of 
attachments 3 , which is rendered unsteady by avarice 
and desire 4 , which is produced by ignorance of 
various (matters) 5 , which is attended upon by fear 
and delusion, and which is the cause of the delusion 
of all beings, which moves towards joy and pleasure 6 , 
which has desire and wrath as its appurtenances, 
which is made up of (the entities) beginning with 
the Mahat and ending with the gross elements 7 , 
which is unchecked, the imperishable source (of all) 8 , 
the speed of which is like that of the mind, and 
which is (never) fatigued. This wheel of life, which 
is associated with the pairs of opposites, and which 
is devoid of consciousness, all the world, together 
with the immortals, should cast away, abridge, and 
check 9 . That man, among all creatures, who always 

1 Revolves in the midst of, = lives upon, is fed by, Nilaka////za. 

2 I. e. the organs of action, I presume. 

3 The more attachments one has, the more one is tied down to 
worldly life, and the more comprehensive such life becomes. 

4 Avarice is coveting another's wealth when one has one's own ; 
desire is the wish for that which one has not. 

5 Nilaka;z/^a reads 1 vi/C-itra/ which he renders to mean diversi- 
fied, as being made up of the three qualities, ignorance there being 
the same thing as Prakr/ti, which is probably a better sense alto- 
gether than that obtainable from Arg-una Mura's reading. 

6 Which moves by attachment to external pleasures, &c, 
Nilaka;////a. See p. 300 supra. 

7 I. e. all the world developed from Prakr/ti — a common phrase. 

8 This is Nilaka;//^a's forced meaning. But the text here is 
doubtful. Perhaps the sense is ' in which production and disso- 
lution are going on unchecked.' 

0 See p. 344 note. For the last word, the variant here is sthapayet, 
make steady or stop. 


accurate 1 !) understands the movement and stoppage 1 
of the wheel of life is never deluded. (That) sage, 
released from all impressions 2 , transcending all 
pairs of opposites, and released from all sins, attains 
the highest goal. The householder, and the Brah- 
ma/arin, the forester, and also the beggar 3 , all 
these four orders are stated to have the order of 
householder for their basis. Whatever system of 
rules 4 is prescribed in this world, to follow it is 
good ; this has been celebrated from ancient times 5 . 
He who has been first refined by ceremonies 6 , and 
who has duly observed vows, being (born) in a caste 
of (high) qualifications 7 , and who understands the 
Vedas, should return 8 (from his preceptor's house). 
Always devoted to his own wife, behaving like 9 
good men, with his senses restrained, and full of 
faith, one should perform the five sacrifices 10 in this 
world. The sage who eats what remains after 
(offerings) to deities 11 and guests, who is devoted 
to Vedic rites, who duly performs sacrifices and 

1 I. e. the causes of the revolution and stoppage, NilakarcZ/za. 

2 Impressions of previous actions, delusions, &c. And. see p. 247 

3 I.e. the Samnyasin. 4 -Sastra. Cf. Gita, p. 117. 

5 ' Such is the eternal fame/ literally. 

6 I. e. on whom the Vedic rites or Sawskaras are duly performed. 
And see Gita, p. 122. 

7 I. e. one of the three higher castes. 

8 The original is the technical word for the return of a Brahma- 
Hrin after finishing his studies. He is describing the '-householder.' 

9 I. e. following the rule of conduct sanctioned by the good. 

10 Vide Williams' Dictionary, s.v. mahaya^fia ; A^valayana Gn'hya 
III, 1, 3 ; Manu II, 69; IV, 21. 

11 Cf. Gita, p. 62 ; a guest must always be fed, and unless he is 
satisfied the host must not eat. Cf. -Santi Parvan (Moksha), chap. 
192, st. 15; Manu III, 106; Apastamba II, 3, 7, 3. 



gifts according to his means, who is not thought- 
lessly active 1 with the hand or foot, who is not 
thoughtlessly active with the eye. and who is not 
thoughtlessly active with his speech or any of his 
limbs, to such a one the (word) good applies. One 
should always have the sacred thread and a clean 
cloth, and be of pure vows, and self-restrained, 
and should always associate with good men, making 
gifts, and with one's external organs restrained ; one 
should restrain one's lust and hunger 2 , should be 
kind, should behave like the good, and keep 
a bamboo stick and a water-pot filled with water 3 . 
One should learn and teach, should likewise perform 
sacrifices and officiate at others' sacrifices, and should 
give and receive gifts, — (thus) one should adopt the 
sixfold mode of life 4 . Know that three (of these) 
duties are the means of livelihood for Brahma^as, the 
two teaching and officiating at sacrifices, and also 
receiving untainted gifts 5 . And as to the other 
remaining three duties, gift, study, and sacrifice, they 
are pious 6 duties. With regard to those three 
duties, the sage who understands piety, who is self- 
restrained, kind, possessed of forgiveness, and equable 
to all creatures, should avoid heedlessness 7 . The 

1 The same word as at Gita, p. 114, there rendered 'vain activity.' 

2 Cf. Apastamba II, 1, 1, 2 seq. 

3 Cf. Manu IV, 36; Apastamba II, 1, 1, 15. 

4 These are the well-known six duties of Brahmawas as specified 
by Manu and others. See the discussion of this point in the 

5 Another reading is ' gifts from an untainted (source)/ 

6 What is the exact meaning of this here ? I suppose the 
meaning is that the performance of them is a pure performance of 
duty; the others are duties the performance of which supplies one's 
own wants, and is therefore interested. Cf. Gautama X, 1 and 2. 

7 I. e. omission or mistake in performance. 


Br&hmawa householder, who is of rigid vows, who 
is thus devoted, discharging all these duties as 
much as is in his power, conquers heaven. 

Chapter XXXI. 
Brahman said : 
Thus 1 duly studying to the best of his power, in 
the way above 2 stated, and likewise living as a Brah- 
ma/arin, one who is devoted to his own duty and 
learned, who is a sage with all his senses restrained, 
who applies himself to what is agreeable and bene- 
ficial to the preceptor, who is pure 3 , and constant 
in veracity and piety, should, with the permission 
of the preceptor, take food without decrying it 4 , 
should eat (the leavings) of sacrificial offerings, and 
alms, and should stand, sit, and take exercise 5 (duly), 
should sacrifice twice to the fire after becoming 
clean and with a concentrated (mind), and should 
always bear a staff of the Bilva or Pala^a 6 (wood). 
The clothing of the twice-born (man) should be of 
linen, or of cotton, or also a deerskin, or a cloth 
entirely (dyed with) reddish colour. There should 
also be a girdle of mu/^a ; he should have matted 
hair, and likewise always (carry) water (with him), 
and have his sacred thread, be engaged in sacred 

1 Ar^una MLrra says, ' Having described first the order of house- 
holder, as that is the chief, he now describes that of Brahma^arin. , 
Cf. Apastamba II, 9, 21, 1, and note. 

2 Where ? This is obscure. 

3 Both internally and externally, I presume. 

4 Cf. Taittiriya, p. 129 ; *Santi Parvan (Moksha), chap. 192, St. 6. 

5 Cf. Gita, p. 69. Ar^una MLrra says, ' Having exercise by 
means of standing and sitting ; the meaning is not sleeping except 
at the proper time/ 

6 Cf. Manu II, 41 seq. 



study, and free from avarice, and of rigid observances. 
(Such) a Brahma^arin, always making offerings like- 
wise of pure water to satisfy the deities, being 
restrained in mind \ is esteemed. One who is thus 
devoted 2 , who is concentrated in mind, and con- 
tinent 3 , conquers heaven, and reaching the highest 
seat, does not return to birth. Refined by means 
of all ceremonies, and likewise living as a Brahma- 
Mr'm 4 , a sage who has renounced 5 (all) should go out 
of towns and dwell in forests 6 . Wearing a skin or 
the bark of a tree, he should bathe (every) morning 
and evening, and always living within the forest, 
should not enter a town again. He should honour 
guests, and should also give them shelter at (the 
proper) time, living on fruits and leaves, and roots 
and 6yamaka grain. He should without sloth feed on 
water, air, and all forest-products down to grass as they 
come, in order 7 , in accordance with the (regulations 8 
at his) initiation. He should honour a guest who 
comes, by (giving him) water accompanied with roots, 
fruits, and leaves. And he should always without 
sloth give alms out of whatever he has for food. He 
should also eat always after the deities and guests 9 

1 Or it may be, ' being self-restrained and with (all his) heart.* 
The constructions in the original vary greatly, and so they do in 
the translation. 2 Applying himself to his duties. 

3 Cf. Maitri, p. 18, and comment there. 

4 Cf. Manu VI, i seq. 5 I. e. who is a mendicant ascetic. 

6 Cf. p. 173 supra, note 9. Here he gives a description of the 
third order of forester, as to which compare generally Manu VI. 

7 First the jungle-products, then air, &c, Ar^una Mura. The 
sense seems to be that the restrictions should become gradually 
harder. Cf. Manu VI, 24-31 ; Apastamball, 9, 22, 2 seq. ; 11,9,23,2. 

8 I.e. whatever restriction he put on himself when entering upon 
the particular mode of life. 

9 Supra, p. 358, and cf. Taittiriya, p. 38. 



(are satisfied) and with his speech restrained, having 
a mind free from envy 1 , eating little, and depending 
on the deities. Restraining the external senses, kind, 
full of forgiveness, preserving his hair and moustache, 
performing sacrifices, addicted to sacred study, and 
devoted to veracity and piety, pure in body 2 , always 
dexterous 3 , always in forests, and concentrated in 
mind, — a forester whose senses are subdued and 
who is thus devoted 4 conquers the worlds. 

A householder, or a Brahma^arin, or again a 
forester, who wishes to apply himself to final emanci- 
pation should adopt the best (line of) conduct 5 . Offer- 
ing safety to all beings, the sage should become free 
from all action 6 , and be agreeable to all beings, kind, 
and restrained in all his senses. He should make 
a fire 7 and feed on the alms (obtained) without ask- 
ing 8 and without trouble 9 , and which have come 
spontaneously 10 , in a place free from smoke and 
where people have already 11 eaten. One who 

1 I. e. of others for obtaining more, and so forth. Ar^-una 
Mijra's reading is different, and he renders it to mean, ' one by 
whom the rule of life as a Brahma/fcarin has not been violated.' 

2 Ar^una Mura's reading, ' one who has cast away (all attach- 
ment to) the body.' Compare as to hair and moustache, Manu VI, 
6 seq. 

3 See Gita, p. 127. Here the meaning is probably assiduous in 
the performance of duties, vows, and so forth. 

4 I. e. applies himself to his duties. 

5 Ar^una Mi^ra says this means ananda^ramam, but there must 
be some bad copying here. I take the word as it stands to mean 
something like the 'godlike endowments' at Gita, p. 114. 

6 See Gita, pp. 54, 127. The meaning here is probably that of 
action without egoism. See Gita, p. 55. 

7 I. e. Ar^-una Mma says, ' not at night.* The readings are 
unsatisfactory. I read k/Ytva vahnim, but diffidently. Is the allusion 
to the rule at Apastamba II, 9, 21, 10? Cf. Gautama III, 27. 

8 Cf. Kaushitaki, p. 32. 9 I. e. to the giver. Cf. Gita, p. 1 20. 
10 See Gita, p. 10. 11 Cf. Manu VI, 56 ; Gautama III, 15. 



understands final emancipation should seek to ob- 
tain alms after the cleaning 1 of the vessels (used 
for cooking), and should not rejoice if he obtains, 
and should not be dejected if he does not obtain 
(alms). Nor should he beg for too much alms 2 , 
seeking merely to sustain life. Eating only a little, 
he should go about for alms with a concentrated 
mind, looking out for the (proper) time. He should 
not wish for earnings in common with another, nor 
should he eat when honoured ; for an ascetic should 
be averse from all earnings (accompanied) with 
honour 3 . When eating, he should not taste any 
articles of food which have been eaten by others 4 , 
or which are pungent, astringent, or bitter, and like- 
wise no sweet juices. He should eat just enough 
for his livelihood — for the support of life. One 
who understands final emancipation should seek for 
a livelihood without obstructing (other) creatures ; 
and when he goes about for alms, he should not 
go following after another 5 . He should not parade 
(his) piety, he should move about in a secluded 
place, free from passion. He should resort for 
shelter to an empty house, or a forest, or the foot 
of a tree, or a river likewise, or the cavern of 
a mountain. In summer, (he should pass) but a 
single night G in a town ; and in the rains, he may 
dwell in one place. He should move about the 

1 I.e., I presume, in order to avoid interfering with others' 
comforts. And see last note. 

2 See Manu VI, 55. As to proper time further on, see last note. 

3 Cf. Sanatsu^atiya, pp. 145-147; 'without respect' at Gita, 
p. 120, means probably with disrespect, otherwise that passage 
and this would be somewhat inconsistent. See too Manu II, 162. 

4 Cf. Manu II, 56; Gita, p. 118; and p. 269 supra. 

5 As that other may get nothing if they go together, Ar^una 
Mim. Cf. Manu VI, 51. 6 Cf. Gautama III, 21. 

[8] a a 



world like 1 a worm l , his path being pointed out by 
the sun, and he should walk with circumspection 
over the earth out of compassion to all beings 2 . 
He should not make any accumulations ; and should 
eschew dwelling with friends 3 . And the man who 
understands final emancipation should verily do all 
acts which he has to do, always with clean water. 
A man should always bathe in clean water. And 
with his senses restrained, he should devote himself 
to these eight observances 4 , — harmlessness, life as a 
Brahma/£arin, veracity, and also straightforwardness, 
freedom from anger, freedom from (the habit of) 
carping, restraint of the external organs, and habi- 
tual freedom from (the habit of) backbiting. He 
should always practise a sinless (mode of) conduct, 
not deceptive and not crooked; and free from attach- 
ment should always make one who comes (as a guest) 
take a morsel of food. He should eat just enough 
for livelihood — for the support of life. And he 
should eat (only) what has been obtained with 
piety 5 , and should not follow his own (mere) desire 6 . 
He should not accept anything at all other than 
food and clothing. And he should accept as much 
as he eats and no more. He should not receive 
from others, nor should he ever give to others 7 . 

1 I. e. not very fast, Ar^una MLsra ; ' the path being pointed out 
by the sun' = not at night, for fear of destroying worms, &c. 

2 This seems to be very like the practice of the Gainas of the 
present day. And cf. Manu VI, 69. 3 Cf. Gita, pp. 68-103. 

4 Cf. Gita, p. 114, and cf. also Sanatsu^atiya, p. 153. 

5 That is to say, obtained without violation of any binding 
obligation, or rule of the *Sastras. 6 Cf. GM, p. 117. 

7 This is not very clear, and Ar^una Mura's comments are not 
intelligible. The sense seems to be this, ' He should not take more 
than is wanted, nor should he keep any accumulations from which to 
give to others, but should at once share with others all that is earned.' 



But owing to the helplessness of people, a wise 
man should always share (with others). He should 
not appropriate another's riches, and should not take 
(anything) unasked. Nor, verily, after enjoying any 
object should one become afterwards attached to it. 
One who has anything to do 1 should take earth, 
water, pebbles likewise, and leaves, flowers, and 
fruits which are not secured 2 (by anybody), as they 
come 3 . One should not live by the occupation of 
an artisan 4 , nor should one wish for gold. One 
should not hate, should not teach 5 , and should be 
void of (all) belongings 6 . One should eat what is 
consecrated by faith 7 , and should avoid (all) con- 
troversies, should act without a purpose 8 , should 
be free from attachment, and without fixed appoint- 
ments with people 9 . One should not perform, or 
cause to be performed, any action involving expec- 
tation of fruit, or involving any destruction of life, 
or the assemblage of people 10 . Rejecting all things, 

1 Ar^una Mi^ra says that this means if he wants them for any 
particular purpose he should take the earth, &c. 

2 I.e. apparently, taken possession of and preserved as one's 
own by anybody. 

3 Ar^una Mijra renders this by ' which lead to action.' Is it not 
rather the ' spontaneous earnings ' at Gita, p. 6o ? 

4 Cf. Manu III, 64; Apastamba I, 6, 18, 18 ; Gautama XVII, 7. 

5 I. e. teach one who does not ask to be instructed. Cf. Manu 
II, no. 

6 Cf. Gita, p. 60 ; the original word, however, is not the same. 

7 See p. 360, note 3 supra ; Manu II, 54-55 ; Gautama IX, 59. 
' Controversies ; ' the original is nimitta, and the interpretation is 
what appears to be Argoina Mijra's. It may also mean ' omens.' 
That this is the true sense appears from Manu VI, 50. 

8 Cf. Gita, p. 48. 

9 Ar^una Mrsra says, ' e. g. I shall come to you to-morrow for 
alms/ &c. Cf. Apastamba I, 6, 19, 12. 

10 The words are the same as at Gita, p. 54, ' keeping people (to 

A a 2 

3 66 


and being equable to all beings, moving and un- 
moving, one should become an ascetic with small 
belongings. One should not perturb any other (per- 
son), nor should one be perturbed by any other 
(person ] ). He who is trusted by all beings is said 
to be the foremost among those who understand 
final emancipation. One should not think of what 
is not come 2 , nor reflect on that which is past ; one 
should disregard the present, being concentrated (in 
mind) and indifferent to time 3 . He should not de- 
file 1 anything by the eye, or the mind, or by speech, 
nor should he do anything wrong openly or in secret. 
One who draws in the senses from all sides as a tor- 
toise (draws in) his limbs 5 , and in whom the senses, 
mind, and understanding are absorbed 6 , who is free 
from desires, who understands all truth, who is free 
from the pairs of opposites, and from the ceremony 
of svaha, and who is free from salutations 7 , and 
who is free from (the thought that this or that is) 
mine, who is free from egoism, who is free from 
anxiety for new acquisitions or protection of old 
acquisitions, and self-controlled 8 , who is free from 

their duties),' but the sense seems to be different. The commen- 
tators say nothing on this. 

1 Cf. Gita, p. i oi. 

2 I. e. one should not look to the future with any aspirations or 
expectations, and should not look back on the past with grief, 
Ar^una MLrra. See too p. 170, note 9 supra. 

3 I am not sure if this is a correct interpretation. But it does 
not seem likely that the other possible sense — literally ' expecting 
time ' — can be intended here. 

4 This is obscure. Is the sense this, that one should not observe, 
or think, or speak badly or of the bad side of things ? 

5 Cf. p. 342 supra, note 1. 6 Cf. Ka//fca, p. 151. 
7 See p. 352 supra, note 1. 

* Cf. Gita, p. 48, where the original words are the same. 



expectations, who is free from attachments to any 
entity, and who is dependent on none *, who is at- 
tached to the self, and who understands the truth, 
is emancipated, there is no doubt of that. Those 
who perceive the self, which is without hands, foot, 
or back, without a head, without a stomach, which 
is free from the operations of the qualities 2 , abso- 
lute, untainted, and stable, devoid of smell, devoid 
of taste or touch, devoid of colour, and also devoid 
of sound, which is to be understood 3 , which is un- 
attached, and which is also devoid of flesh, which 
is free from anxiety 4 , imperishable, divine, and 
though dwelling in a house 5 , always dwelling in all 
entities, they never die 6 . There the understanding 
reaches not, nor the senses, nor the deities, nor 
Vedas, sacrifices, nor worlds 7 , nor penance, nor 
valour 8 ; the attainment to it of those who are 
possessed of knowledge is stated to be without 
comprehension of symbols °. Therefore the learned 
man who knows (the) property of being void of 
symbols 10 , being devoted to pious conduct, and 

1 Cf. Gita, p. 60. 

2 These are effects of Prakmi by which the Purusha is unaffected. 

3 Literally, ' pursued/ 

4 This is obscure. Arg-una Mirra's text is nu&tyam. Does that 
mean ' which should be accurately understood ? ' The rendering in 
the text of NilakawMa's reading may mean that the Brahman has 
no such thoughts (X'inta) as are referred to at Gita, p. 115. 

5 Does this mean the body ? 

6 I. e. are free from birth and death. Cf. Apastamba I, 8, 22, 4. 

7 This, again, is not quite clear. Probably the explanation is to 
be found in the passage at Gita, p. 79. 

8 Nilakaw/7/a's reading is ' observances or vows.' 

9 I. e. ' not to be acquired by inference/ Arg-una MLsra, p. 35 1 supra. 

10 See p. 309 supra ; who is without symbols, and knows piety, 
according to Arg-una Mora's reading. 

3 68 


resorting to concealed 1 piety should adopt the mode 
ol life (necessary) for experience 2 . Though unde- 
luded, he should act in the manner of the deluded 3 , 
not finding fault with piety 4 . He should perform 
piety, behaving so that others would always dis- 
respect him 5 , and should not find fault with the 
ways of the good 0 . That sage is said to be the 
best who has adopted this (line of) conduct. The 
senses, and the objects of the senses, and the five 
great elements, and mind, understanding, egoism, 
the unperceived, and the Purusha likewise 7 , by an 
accurate determination about the truth, after under- 
standing all these, one attains heaven 8 , being 
released from all bonds. One who knows the truth, 
understanding these same (entities) at the time of the 
termination (of his life), should meditate, exclusively 
pondering on one point 9 ; and then, depending on 
none 10 , he gets emancipation. Freed from all attach- 
ments, like the atmosphere dwelling in space n , with 
his accumulations 12 exhausted, and free from dis- 
tress 13 , he attains to the highest seat. 

1 See p. 159 supra, note 7, and cf. Manu III, 109, which is the 
text referred to in note 5 there. 

2 I. e. direct perception of the Brahman. See Gita, p. 57, note 5. 

3 See p. 160 supra, note 8, and cf. also Manu II, no. 

4 Ar^una MLsra compares Gita, p. 55, about ' shaking convictions.' 
6 Cf. pp. 1 59-1 6 1 supra. 

6 This means, I presume, the good devoted to action and not 
to knowledge only. 

7 These are the famous elements of the Sankhyas ; see Sutra I, 61. 

8 Cf, p. 159 and note 2. 9 Cf. p. 300 supra. 

]0 Cf. Gita, p. 60. 11 Cf. Gita, p. 82, note 3. 

12 Of actions previously performed. See p. 246 supra. 

n Cf. Gita, p. 101, where, however, the original word is different. 



Chapter XXXII. 

Brahman said : 
The ancients who perceived the established (truth) 
call renunciation 1 penance ; and the Brahma^as 
dwelling in the seat of the Brahman 2 understand 
knowledge to be concerned with the Brahman 3 . The 
highest Brahman is very far off 3 , and (the attain- 
ment of it) depends on Vedic knowledge 4 ; it is free 
from the pairs of opposites, devoid of qualities 5 , ever- 
lasting, of unthinkable qualities, and supreme. The 
men of talent, who are pure 6 , and whose minds are 
refined, transcending passion, and being untainted, 
perceive that supreme (principle) by means of know- 
ledge and penance. Those who are constantly de- 
voted to renunciation 7 , and understand the Brahman 
and wish for the supreme, go to the happy path 
by penance. Penance 8 is said to be a light ; (correct) 
conduct is the means to piety; knowledge verily 
should be understood to be the highest, and re- 
nunciation the best penance. He who understands 
determinately the self which is unperturbed, which 
abides in all entities, and which is the essential 

1 Abandoning of fruit, Arg-una Mijra. Cf. Gita, p. 121. 

2 Cf. p. 339 supra, note 4, dwelling in = adhering to. 

3 See Gita, p. 104. 

4 Cf. Sanatsu^atiya, p. 158 seq. 5 Viz. the three famous ones. 

6 Pure, refined, and untainted are not easily distinguished. Pro- 
bably ' pure ' refers to external cleanliness ; ' untainted ' to freedom 
from sin and such taints ; and ' refined ' to freedom from error. 

7 I. e. who have no ' belongings/ Ar^una Mi^ra. 

8 Action without desire, Ar^una Mi-sra, who adds that it is called 
a light, as it leads to knowledge. See too p. 166, and p. 247, 
note 11, and p. 340 supra. 



element in knowledge, he is laid down 1 (as being 
able) to move everywhere. The learned man who 
perceives, association and dissociation, and likewise 
unity and diversity 2 , is released from misery. He 
who desires nothing, and despises nothing 3 , becomes 
eligible, even dwelling in this world, for assimilation 
with the Brahman 4 . He who knows the truth about 
the qualities of Pradhana 5 , and understands the Pra- 
dhclna of all entities 6 , who is free from (the thought 
that this or that is) mine, and free from egoism 7 , is 
emancipated, there is no doubt of that. One who 
is free from the pairs of opposites, free from the 
(ceremonies of) salutation, free from (the ceremony 
of) svadha 8 , attains to that everlasting (principle) 
which is free from the pairs of opposites, and devoid 
of qualities, by tranquillity only. Abandoning all 
action, whether agreeable or disagreeable, developed 
from the qualities 9 , and abandoning both truth and 
falsehood 10 , a creature is emancipated, there is no 
doubt of that. The great tree of Brahman 11 is 

1 ' Laid down ' is literally ' wished.' 

2 I presume this means the real fact underlying the appear- 
ances of association and so forth, namely, that there is but one 
reality, and all appearances of difference &c. are unreal. Cf. Gita, 
p. 124. See also p. 313 supra, note r, and p. 374 infra. 

3 Cf. Gita, p. 65, and see KaMa, p. 155. 4 Cf. Gita, p. 65. 
B The qualities, viz. the three, of Pradhana, i. e. constituting Pra- 

kmi, or nature. 6 See Gita, p. 106, and note 3 there. 

7 For this whole expression, which occurs so frequently, cf. 
Maitri, p. 44, and comment there. 

8 See p. 324 supra, note 8. 9 Cf. Gita, p. 48; 3vetlrvatara,p.36o. 

10 I. e., I presume, what is real and unreal in a worldly view, — the 
great truth is not to be ' abandoned.' Cf. Taittinya, pp. 97-99 ; 
p. 1 91 supra ; »Santi Parvan (Moksha), chap. 174, st. 53 ; \pastamba 
II, 9, 21, 13. 

11 I. e., says Ar^una Mhsra, the tree of worldly life produced from 
the Brahman. Compare chapiter XII supra. 



eternal ; a tree which is produced from the unper- 
ceived as the seed, which consists of the under- 
standing as its trunk, whose collection of boughs 
is the great egoism, the sprouts within which are 
the senses, the great branches of which are the 
great elements, and the side branches the objects 
of sense, which is always possessed of leaves, always 
possessed of flowers, in which agreeable and dis- 
agreeable fruits are always produced, and which is 
fed upon by all creatures. Cutting and piercing this 
(tree) 1 with the sword of knowledge of the truth, and 
abandoning the bonds in the shape of attachment, 
which cause birth, death, and old age 2 , a wise man who 
is free from (the thought that this or that is) mine, 
and who is devoid of egoism, is emancipated, there 
is no doubt of that. There are these two birds 3 , 
(which are) unchanging, and which should also be 
known to be unintelligent 4 . But as to that other 
who is above them, he is called intelligent. (When) 
the inner self, devoid of knowledge of nature 5 , and 
(as it were) non-intelligent 6 , understands that which is 

1 Cf. Gita, p. in ; and Mu;^aka, p. 307, and commentary there. 

2 So I render the original, though the sense at first sight appears 
to be i which are caused by birth,' &c. 

3 Viz. the understanding and egoism, which dwell in the ' tree/ 
Argaina Mura. Nilaka/z/^a says, ' the great and the individual self.' 

4 Cf. Sahkhya-karika n, and comment of Va/C'aspati Mura. The 
self is not unintelligent ; and as the birds are so described, they 
must stand for some manifestation of Prakr/ti, which understand- 
ing and egoism are. Otherwise ' bird ' does stand for ' self/ See 
p. 189 supra. 

5 The original word here is sattva, on which see p. 351 supra. 
Ar^una Mura renders it here by Prakmi. 

0 So Nilaka;/Ma ; ' the only intelligent principle,' — Ar^una Mura. 
On Nilaka;////a's interpretation ' inner self must be the same thing 
as Bhulatman at Maitn, p. 41. 


beyond nature, then understanding the Kshetra\and 
with an understanding comprehending all, and tran- 
scending the qualities 2 he is released from all sins. 

Chapter XXXIII. 
Brahman said : 
Some (think of) the Brahman as a tree ; some 
(think of) the Brahman as a great forest; and some 
(think of) the Brahman as unperceived ; and some 
as transcendent and without misery 3 ; and they 4 
think all this to be produced from and absorbed 
into the unperceived. He who even for (the space 
of) a (single) exhalation, at the time of the termina- 
tion (of life 5 ) becomes equable 6 , attaining to the 
self, becomes fit for immortality. Restraining the 
self in the self 7 , even for (the space of) a wink, he 
repairs to the inexhaustible acquisition 8 of those 
who have knowledge, through the tranquillity of the 
self 0 . And restraining the life-winds again and 

1 See p. 351 supra. 2 See Gita, p. 109. 

3 As to the first two clauses comp. pp. 284-371 supra; the last 
two are said by Ar^una Mura to represent the Sarikhya and Yoga 
doctrines respectively. 

4 I presume this means all teachers. But Nilaka;/Ma takes it to 
mean the Sahkhyas, and he takes the preceding words as indicating 
two views based on £ruti texts, viz. the first, that the world is a 
development of the Brahman, and the other that the Brahman does 
not undergo any development or change. Anamaya he takes to 
mean changeless, and Brahmamaya he takes to mean developed 
from the Brahman. 

5 Cf. Gita, pp. 77, 78. 

6 One who sees the supreme as the only real entity, Ar^una 
Mura. Nilaka?z/^a takes it to mean one who identifies himself 
with everything. See Gita, p. 65, and note 4 there. 

7 See p. 344 supra. 8 I. e. the goal to be acquired. 

'■' ' Tranquillity ' — the original may also be rendered by ' favour,' 



again by control of the life-winds \ of ten or twelve 2 
(modes), (he repairs to) that which is beyond the 
twenty-four 3 . Thus having first a tranquil self, he 
obtains whatever he desires. When the quality 
of goodness predominates in the unperceived 4 , that 
fits one for immortality. The men of knowledge 
extol nothing else beyond goodness. By inference 5 
we understand the (attainment of the) being to 
depend on goodness. It is not possible otherwise 6 
to attain that being, O best of the twice-born ! For- 
giveness, courage, harmlessness, equability, truth, 
straightforwardness, knowledge, abandonment 7 , and 
also renunciation are laid down as (constituting) con- 
as to which cf. p. 234 supra, but further on the phrase ' having 
a tranquil self occurs, where the latter sense is not quite suitable. 
See Gita, p. 51, and Yoga-sutra I, 33. 

1 I. e. the specific modes which are mentioned of control of life- 
winds, e.g. at Gita, p. 61, or Yoga-sutra II, 49 seq. 

2 Nilaka;///za proposes two interpretations of this. He says the 
ten are the eight mentioned in Yoga-sutra II, 29, and in addition 
tarka and vairagya (as to which see Yoga-sutra I, 15 and 17). To 
make up the twelve he substitutes for the last two the four named 
at Yoga-sutra I, 33. He also suggests that 'ten or twelve* may 
mean twenty-two, which he makes up thus. The five modes of 
yama (Yoga-sutra II, 30), five of niyama (ibid. 32), the remaining 
six in Yoga-sutra II, 29, the four in Yoga-sutra I, 33, and tarka and 
vairagya as before. 

3 The twenty-four are the elements according to the Sankhya 
system. See Sahkhya-sara, p. 11, and p. 368 supra. That which 
is beyond them is Purusha. 

4 The unperceived, it should be noted, is made up of the three 
qualities ; the predominance of goodness indicates enlightenment, 
or knowledge. Cf. Gita, p. 108. 

5 The middle term in the inference being, says Ar^-una Mifra, 
the enlightening effect of the quality in question. 

6 Cf. p. 167 supra. 

7 The original is tyaga, which Ar^una Mifra renders by 'aban- 
donment of all belongings ; ' renunciation, scil. of fruit. Cf. Gita, 
p. I2i, and p. 1 14. 



duct of the quality of goodness. By this very inference 
the wise verily believe in the Being and nature as 
one, there is no doubt of that. Some learned men, 
who are devoted to knowledge, assert the unity of 
the Kshetra^v/a and nature \ But that is not correct. 
That they are always distinct (from one another) 
is also (said) without (due) consideration 2 . Dis- 
tinction and also association 3 should be accurately 
understood. Unity and diversity 4 are likewise laid 
down. Such is the doctrine of the learned. Between 
the gnat and the udumbara 5 there is observed 
unity and diversity also. As a fish is in water 
distinct (from it), such is their relation ; (such is) 
the relation of the drops of water with the leaf of 
the lotus. 

The preceptor said : 

Then those Brahma^as, who were the best of 
sages, having again felt doubts, interrogated the 
grandsire of the people who spoke to them thus. 

1 Here, says NtlakawMa, the author indicates an objection to the 
proposition stated just before. But the passage is not clear. 

2 This, says Nilaka^Ma, is a reply to the Sankhyas, who hold the 
two to be distinct. Nilaka#///a adds, that if the two are distinct, 
nature will, conceivably, adhere even to an emancipated creature; 
and if they are one, then the being or self would be really engaging 
in action and so forth, and that activity being really a property of 
the self, could not be destroyed save by the destruction of the self. 
Hence that view is also wrong. 

3 Like that of sea and wave, Nilaka^a. 

4 Unity of Brahman and diversity of manifestation of nature, 
Ar^-una Mijra, who adds — by reason of the association they are 
spoken of as one, by reason of the unity and diversity they are 
distinct. The next sentence contains three parallel cases. 

5 Cf. as to all this, -Santi Parvan, chap. 194, st. 38 seq. (Moksha 
Dharma); chap. 249, st. 20 seq. ; chap. 285, st. 33 seq. 



Chapter XXXIV. 
The sages said : 
Which (form of) piety is deemed to be the most 
worthy of being performed ? We observe the various 
modes of piety tobe as it werecontradictory. Some say 
(it 1 remains) after the body (is destroyed) ; some say 
that is not so. Some (say) everything 2 is doubtful ; 
and others that there is no doubt. Some say the 
permanent (principle) is impermanent, and others, too, 
that it exists, and (others) that it exists not 3 . Some 
(say it is) of one form or twofold, and others (that 
it is) mixed 4 . Some Brahma^as, too, who know the 
Brahman and perceive the truth, believe it to be one ; 
others distinct; and others again (that it is) manifold 5 . 
Some say both time and space (exist) 6 , and others that 
that is not so. Some have matted hair and skins ; 
and some (are) clean-shaven and without covering. 
Some people are for bathing ; some for the omission 7 
of bathing. Some are for taking food ; others are 
intent on fasting. Some people extol action, and 

1 I.e. the piety, Ar^una Mura; the self, Nilakaw/^a. 

2 I. e. such as piety, &c, Ar^una Misra. 

3 I follow Ar^una Mijra, who says 'permanent' means soul, &c. 
The correct expression would seem to be 'that which is called 
permanent by others is impermanent.' 

4 This is the view of those who hold the theory of Parwama, 
or development, says Arg-una Mura. 

5 'To be one* = knowledge to be all of one description, * dis- 
tinct^ knowledge having various entities for its distinct objects 
(this is the view of the holders of the Vi^Tzanavada, says Ar^una 
Mi^ra); manifold=that the selfs are numberless. The words here 
are nearly identical with those at Gita, p. 83, see note 4 there. 

fi I. e. help in action, Ar^una Mma. 
7 See Apastamba I, 1, 1, 2 (comment). 



others tranquillity. Some extol final emancipation; 
some various kinds of enjoyments ; some wish for 
riches, and others indigence. Some (say) means 1 
should be resorted to ; others that that is not so. 
Some are devoted to harmlessness, and some given 
up to destruction; some are for merit and glory; 
and others say that is not so. Some are devoted 
to goodness ; some are in the midst of doubts ; some 
are for pleasure, and some for pain 2 . Some people 
(say) meditation 3 , other Brahma^as (say) sacrifice, 
and others, gifts ; but others extol penance, and other 
persons sacred study ; some knowledge, and renuncia- 
tion 4 ; and those who ponder on the elements 5 , 
nature 6 . Some extol everything, and others nothing 7 . 

1 I. e. for the acquisition of anything desirable, Arg-una Mi^ra, 
who adds, 'by those who wish for piety.' NilakawMa says means = 
' meditation and so forth ; ' as to ' that is not so ' he cites what he 
calls a »Sruti, which is however one of the Karikas of Gau</apada 
on the MaWukya; see p. 432. 

2 This, too, is not quite clear, but Nilaka/z/^a says, ' meditation 
should be practised for release from pain, and for acquisition of plea- 
sure ; ' ' and others say not so, it should be done without desire.' 

5 That is to say, they hold that meditation should be practised. 

i Ar^una Mrsra seems to take this to mean 1 renunciation of 
knowledge,' i. e. a blank, and says this was the view of the Madhya- 
mikas, — I suppose the Madhyamika Bauddhas. 

5 I. e. the iiTarvakas, Ar^una Mirra. 

0 .SVeta^vatara, p. 276, and -Sahkara's commentary there. 

7 Were there optimists and pessimists at the time of the Anu- 
gita in India? This verse, however, does not occur in some MSS. 
Nilakaw/Zta's note on this passage may be of some interest. He says, 
' Some hold that the self exists after the body is lost ; others, that is 
the Lokayatas or iTarvakas, hold the contrary. Everything doubtful 
is the view of the Syadvadins; nothing doubtful that of tb€ Tairthikas, 
the great teachers (I presume, about their own respective doctrines). 
Everything impermanent, Tarkikas ; permanent, Mimawsakas ; no- 
thing exists, the £unyavadins ; something exists, but only momentarily, 



And, O best of the gods ! piety being thus confused 
and abounding in contradictions, we are deluded, 
and come to no determination. People are acting, 
(saying) this is good, this is good. And he who is 
attached to a certain (form of) piety, always esteems 
that. Here (therefore) our understanding breaks 
down, and our mind is distracted. We wish, O best 
(of beings) ! to be informed of what is good. Be 
pleased now to proceed to state what is (so) myste- 
rious, and what is the cause of the connexion be- 
tween the Kshetra^/la and nature. Thus addressed 
by those Brahma^as, the venerable, holy, and talented 
creator of worlds told them accurately (what they 

Saugatas; knowledge is one, but the ego and non-ego are two 
different principles, the YogaHras ; mixed, U</ulomas ; one, is the 
view of the worshippers of the Brahman as possessed of qualities ; 
distinct, other Mimawsakas, who hold that the special actions are 
the cause (of everything, is meant, I presume) ; manifold = the 
atomists ; time and space = astrologers. Those who " say that is 
not so," that is to say, that what we see has no real existence at 
all, are the VWddhas, ancient philosophers ; omission to bathe = the 
condition of Naish//$ika BrahmaMrins ; bathing = householder's 
condition; " means should be resorted to, that is not so," those 
who are against all meditation, &c, according to the -Sruti text, 
which Nilakaw/^a quotes ; (i merit and glory, that is not so," some 
say there is no merit as the Lokayatas or ^Tarvakas ; " know- 
ledge, renunciation," the former is to be gained only by means of 
the latter; "ponder on elements "= who are intent on the inves- 
tigation of the true nature of things ; nature = abundance of 
resources, by which alone knowledge is produced, not by mere 
renunciation.' It will be understood, that this commentary assumes 
a different syntactical construction of the original in some places 
from that adopted in our translation. 



Chapter XXXV. 
Brahman said : 
Well then, I will declare to you what you ask 
of me, 0 best (of men) ! Learn what a preceptor 
told a pupil who went to him. Hearing it all, 
deliberate on it properly. Non-destruction of all 
creatures, that is deemed to be the greatest duty \ 
This is the highest seat 2 , free from vexation and 
holy in character. The ancients who perceived the 
established (truth) call knowledge the highest happi- 
ness. Therefore by pure knowledge one is released 
from all sins. And those who are constantly engaged 
in destruction, and who are infidels 3 in their conduct, 
and who entertain avarice and delusion, go verily to 
hell. Those who without sloth perform actions with 
expectations, rejoice in this world, being born again 
and again. But those wise and talented men, who per- 
form actions with faith, free from any connexion with 
expectations, perceive correctly 4 . Now I will proceed 
to state how the association and dissociation of 
Kshetra^a and nature (take place). Learn that, 
O best (of men) ! The relation here is said to be 
that between the object and subject 5 . The subject 

1 See p. 291 supra, and note 3 there. 

2 So literally ; the sense is — that which one is to aim at. 

3 The original is nastika, the contrary of that ' astikya,' which at 
Gita, p. 126, we have rendered by ' belief (in a future world),' follow- 
ing -Sridhara. Ramanu^a, whose commentary came to hand too late 
for any other than a very occasional use in the translation of the 
Gita, renders it by ' belief in the truth of the teaching of the Vedas.' 

4 I. e. learn the truth. 

5 I use the terms subject and object here in the philosophical 
sense explained by Sir W. Hamilton, viz. the thinking agent and the 
object of thought respectively. And cf. also the passage referred to 
in note 3 on p. 379 infra. 



is always the being, and nature is stated to be the 
object. It has been explained in the above mode, 
as (having the relation) of the gnat and the 
udumbara 1 . Nature which is non-intelligent knows 
nothing, though it is the object of enjoyment 2 . Who 
enjoys and what is enjoyed 3 is learnt from the .Sastras. 
Nature is said always to abound in the pairs of 
opposites, and to be constituted of the qualities ; 
the Kshetra^a is free from the pairs of opposites, 
devoid of parts, and in essence free from the 
qualities. He abides in everything alike 4 ; and is 
connected with (all) knowledge 5 ; and he always 
enjoys nature as a lotus-leaf (enjoys) water. Even 
brought into contact with all qualities, a learned 
man remains untainted 6 . There is no doubt that 
the being is unattached just like the unsteady drop 
of water placed upon a lotus-leaf 7 . It is established 
that nature is the property 8 of the being. And the 
relation of the two is like that of matter and the 
maker 9 . As one goes into (a) dark (place) taking 
a light (with him), so those who wish for the supreme 
go with the light of nature 10 . While there is oil 

1 P. 374 supra. The relation is one of close connexion, coupled 
with some identity of nature (because, says Nilaka^a, an entirely 
extraneous thing could not get into the inside of the fruit, and the 
gnat's body therefore must have come from the fruit itself), but 
still the elements are distinct. 2 See p. 371 supra, note 4. 

3 Cf. Maitri, p. 108. 4 Cf. Gita, pp. 105, 106. 

5 Knowledge of the Kshetra^;7a forms part of all real knowledge. 
Arg-una Mura's reading and interpretation are different. He says, 
' As he is seen coming to light everywhere alike, so/ &c. 

6 Cf. Gita, pp. 55-110. 7 Again the common simile. 

8 The original is dravya, rendered ' matter ' in the next sentence. 
Ar^una Mijra paraphrases it by ' upakarana/ paraphernalia. 

9 So the original, the sense is not clear. But see.SVeta.rvatara,p.368. 

10 Knowledge, which, says Nrlaka72//$a, is a manifestation of 
nature. Arguna Mura says the knowledge of the truth which the 

[8] B b 

3 8o 


and wick \ the light shines ; but the flame is ex- 
tinguished when the oil and wick are exhausted. 
Thus nature is perceived 2 ; the being is laid down 
(as being) unperceived. Understand this, O Brah- 
ma&as ! Well now, I will tell you something more. 
One who has a bad understanding does not acquire 
knowledge even with a thousand (admonitions). 
And one who is possessed of knowledge enhances 
(his) happiness even with a fourth share 3 . Thus 
should one understand the accomplishment of piety 
by (apt) means. For the talented man who knows 
(these) means, attains supreme happiness 4 . As a 
man travelling along some way without provisions 
for the journey, travels with great discomfort, and 
may even be destroyed on the way, so should one 
understand, that by action 5 the fruit is or is not 
produced. For a man to see within (his) self 6 
what is agreeable and what is disagreeable to him 
is good. And as one who is devoid of a perception 
of the truth rashly travels on foot by a long way 
unseen before 7 , while (another) goes by the same 

self acquires is by means of nature. Cf. Sahkhya-karika 56, and 

1 So Nilaka^Ma. Ar^una Mura does not take gu«a here to 
mean 1 wick.' 

2 I.e., I presume, in its manifestations; it is perceived for some 
time and then vanishes. Cf. Sahkhya-karika 59-6 1 ; the Purusha is not 
' perceived ' in this sense. 3 Viz. of admonition, Ar^una Mijra. 

4 Cf. Gita, p. 70, where the same phrase occurs. 

5 The fruit of this is uncertain; knowledge which is in one's 
self is the thing to be worked for. 

C} I.e. the mind, Nilaka^Ma. The meaning is, he should not 
care for external pleasure and pain. Cf. Gita, inter alia, p. 50. 

7 This seems to be so left imperfect in the original. The con- 
struction seems to be this: the progress of the latter is as great as that 
of one who drives in a chariot as compared with that of one who goes 
on foot with much suffering. Cf. the construction on next page. 



way in a carriage 1 drawn by horses, and going 
swiftly, such is the progress of the men of under- 
standing. Having climbed up a mountain one 
should not look at the surface of the earth 2 . One 
sees a man travelling in a chariot, and void of intel- 
ligence, afflicted by reason of the chariot. As far as 
there is a carriage-path, he goes in the carriage ; 
where the carriage-path stops, a learned man goes 
on abandoning the carriage. So travels the talented 
man, who understands the procedure respecting 
(knowledge of the) truth and devotion 3 , and who 
knows about the qualities, comprehending the grada- 
tions 4 one above the other. As one who without 
a boat dives into the ocean with his arms only, 
through delusion, undoubtedly wishes for destruction ; 
while a wise man likewise knowing distinctions 5 , 
and having a boat with good oars, goes in the water 
without fatigue, and soon crosses the reservoir, and 
having crossed (it) goes to the other shore, throwing 

1 I.e. the -Sastras, says NilakawMa. Cf. Gita, p. 117. 

2 When one has arrived at knowledge, — the highest seat, says 
Nilakaw/^a, — one need not perform the dictates of the -Sastras, 
which are only preliminary to the acquisition of knowledge. Cf. 
Gita, pp. 48, 73. Cf. as to this figure of the chariot and the next 
one about the boat, Brzhadarawyaka, p. 695. 

3 I adopt Ar^una's rendering of the original here, viz. Yoga. 
The meaning, on that rendering, is the same as it is in the Gita. 

4 According to Ar^una MLrra, action with desire, action without 
desire, and lastly, knowledge. According to Nilaka;/Ma, action 
laid down in the -Sastras, then Yoga, and then the condition of 
Hawsa, Paramahawsa, &c. 

5 Literally, one knowing divisions. I presume the meaning is 
distinctions between various things as to which suits which, and so 
forth. The boat, says NilakawMa, is a preceptor, and even a pre- 
ceptor is not to be sought for after a man has achieved Yoga; 
hence the text proceeds to speak further on of casting aside the 
boat. Wishes for destruction = is sure to meet destruction. 

B b 2 


aside Lhe boat, and devoid of (the thought that this or 
that is) mine. This has been already explained by the 
parallel of the carriage and pedestrian. One who 
has come by delusion through affection, adheres to 
that like a fisherman to his boat, being overcome 
by (the thought that this or that is) mine. It is 
not possible to move on land after embarking in 
a boat. And likewise one cannot move in water 
after entering a carriage. Thus there are various 
actions in regard to different objects \ And as 
action is performed in this world, so does it result 
to them 2 . That which sages by their understanding 
meditate upon, which is void of any smell whatever, 
void of taste, and void of colour, touch, or sound, 
that is called the Pradhana 3 . Now that Pradhana 
is unperceived ; a development of the unperceived 
is the Mahat ; and a development of the Pradhana 
(when it is) become Mahat is egoism. From egoism 
is produced the development, namely, the great 
elements ; and of the elements respectively, objects 
of sense are verily stated to be the development 4 . 
The unperceived is of the nature of seed 5 , and 
also productive in its essence. And we have heard 

1 I.e. appertaining to the various orders of householders, &c., 
NilakawMa. But I am not aware of any authority for this sense of 

2 I.e. those who perform them. 

3 NilakawMa says, ' Having stated above the means of knowledge, 
he now states the proper object of knowledge.' 

4 See p. 332 supra. The original for development is gu;*a, 
literally quality. 

5 The meaning of this passage seems to be identical with that 
of Sahkhya-karika 3. Productive (Prasavatmakam) is probably to 
be explained as Prasavadharmi is at Sahkhya-karika 1 1 (see com- 
mentary of Va^aspati, pp. 59, 60), viz. always undergoing develop- 
ment. The great elements are of course the tanmatras. 



that the great self is of the nature of seed and 
a product. Egoism is of the nature of seed and a 
product also again and again. And the five great 
elements are verily of the nature of seed and 
products. The objects of the five elements are 
of the nature of seed \ but they do not yield pro- 
ducts. Learn about their properties. Now space 
has one quality, air is said to have two qualities ; 
it is said that light has three qualities ; and water, 
too, is of four qualities ; and earth, abounding with 
movables and immovables, the divine source of all 
entities, full of examples of agreeable and disagree- 
able (things), should be understood to be of five 
qualities 2 . Sound, tonch, colour likewise, taste, and 
smell as the fifth — these, O best of the twice-born ! 
should be understood to be the five qualities of 
earth. Smell always belongs to the earth 3 ; and 
smell is stated to be (of) numerous descriptions. 
I will state at length the numerous qualities of 
smell 4 . Smell is agreeable or disagreeable, sweet, 
sour, and bitter likewise, diffusive and compact 
also, soft, and rough, and clear also 5 - — thus should 

1 This is not clear, unless 'product' above means productive, and 
seed means a product, it being a product of the ahkura or sprout. 
Nilaka;///$a says, 'seed=cause ; products effect. The unperceived 
is an effect, and so the contrary doctrine of the Sankhya is here 
shown to be wrong. The objects are causes, as their enjoyment 
causes an impression.' 2 See pp. 285, 286 supra. 

3 That is to say, smell is the special property of the earth only, 
the other qualities are common to it with the other elements. The 
word in the original is gu;za or quality everywhere. 

4 See Santi Parvan (Moksha Dharma), chap. 184, st. 27. 

5 Bitter, Nilaka?///;a exemplifies by the smell of the chili, appa- 
rently interpreting ka/vi, as it may be interpreted, to mean sharp ; 
diffusive = overcoming all other smells, like Asafoetida ; compact^ 
made up of many smells. Nilakaw///a adds, that soft is like that of 


smell, which belongs to the earth, be understood 
to be of ten descriptions. Sound, touch, and colour 
like wise, and taste, are stated to be the qualities 
of water. I will now give (some) information about 
taste. Taste is stated to be of numerous descrip- 
tions. Sweet \ sour, bitter, sharp, astringent, and 
saltish likewise — thus are the forms of taste, which 
is a development of water, said to be of six descrip- 
tions. Sound, touch, and likewise colour ; thus is 
light said to have three qualities. The quality of 
light is colour, and colour is stated to be of numerous 
descriptions. White, black ; red likewise, green, 
yellow, and grey likewise, short, long, narrow 2 , 
broad, square, and circular — thus is the colour of 
light said to be of twelve forms. It should be 
understood 3 by aged Brahma^as, who speak the 
truth, and are conversant w T ith piety. Sound and 
touch also should be understood ; air is said to have 
(these) two qualities. And touch is the quality of air, 
and touch is stated to be of numerous descriptions. 
Rough, cold and hot likewise, tender and clear also, 
hard, glutinous, smooth, slippery, hurtful, and soft 4 
— thus the quality of air is properly said by Brah- 
ma/zas who have reached perfection, who are con- 
versant with piety and perceive the truth, to be of 
twelve descriptions. Now space has one quality, 

liquid ghee, rough of the oil of mustard, and clear as of cooked rice. 
The »Santi Parvan passage omits ' sour.' 1 Cf. Gita, p. 118. 

2 Literally, lean and fat. These are rather unusual qualities to 
attribute to colour. The -Santi Parvan passage gives more. 

3 Sic. Does it mean ' it is understood? ' Cf. Pacini III, 3, 113. 

4 Tender=like the touch of a son, &c. ; clear=like that of an 
excellent cloth, NilakawMa; glutinous = like that of oil; smooth = 
like that of a gem; slippery = not really smooth, but appearing to 
be such, like that of saliva (?), Ar^una Mi«rra. The enumeration of 
these in the *S'anti Parvan loc. cit. is again different. 



and that is stated to be sound only. I will speak 
at length of the numerous qualities of sound. 
Sha^a, 7^'shabha, together with Gandhara, Ma- 
dhyama, and likewise Panama, and beyond these 
should be understood to be Nishada and Dhaivata 
likewise 1 ; agreeable and disagreeable sound also, 
compact, and of (many) ingredients 2 . Thus sound, 
which is produced in space, should be understood 
to be of ten descriptions. Space is the highest 
element 3 , egoism is above that ; above egoism is 
understanding, and above that understanding is the 
self 4 ; above that is the unperceived, and above 
the unperceived is the being. One who knows 
which is superior and inferior among entities, and 
who knows the proper procedure in all actions, 
and who identifies himself with every being 5 , repairs 
to the imperishable self. 

Chapter XXXVI. 

Brahman said : 
Since the mind is ruler of these five elements, in 
(the matter of) absorbing or bringing (them) forth 6 , 

1 This is the Hindu Gamut. 

2 These are not in the £anti Parvan ; of many ingredients = 
collection of sounds, Ar§-una MLrra. 

3 Being all-pervading, Ar§-una MLrra. Cf. its position at Taitti- 
nya, p. 67. 

4 Cf. KaMa, pp. 114, 115, 149, and *Sahkara/('arya's commentary 
there, for an explanation of the whole passage. And see Sankhya- 
sara, p. 16, as to what are here called self and understanding. 

5 Cf. Gita, p. 64, where the words are identical. 

6 The elements are perceived or are not perceived by the senses 
under the direction of the mind; absorbing = destroying ; bringing 
forth = producing, NilakawMa. See p. 268 supra, and *Santi Parvan 
(Moksha), chap. 240, st. 12. 


the mind itself is the individual self. The mind 
always presides over the great elements. The un- 
derstanding proclaims its power 2 , and it is called the 
Kshetra^a. The mind yokes the senses as a cha- 
rioteer (yokes) good horses. The senses, the mind, 
and the understanding are always joined to the 
Kshetra^a 3 . That individual self, mounting the 
chariot to which big horses 4 are yoked, and in which 
the understanding is the drag ', drives about on all 
sides. The great chariot which is pervaded by the 
Brahman °, has the group of the senses yoked (to it) y 
has the mind for a charioteer, and the understanding 
for a drag. That learned and talented person verily, 
who always understands thus the chariot pervaded 
by the Brahman, comes not by delusion in the midst 
of all entities 7 . This forest of the Brahman 8 begins 
with the unperceived,and ends with the gross objects 9 ; 

1 The word is the same as at Maitri, p. 41, the comment on 
which should be seen. 

2 I. e. the mind's power is to be perceived by itself, Nilaka»//*a. 
The meaning seems to be that the understanding can only operate 
on what the mind places before it. 

3 The passage at Ka//$a, p. 1 1 1 seq., and Ankara's commentary 
there, throw light on this, though the figure is not drawn out in the 
same way in both places. For a definition of Kshetra^v/a, see 
-Santi Parvan (Moksha), chap. 187, st. 23. 

4 I. e. the senses. 

6 I. e. that which holds the horses in check. Nilaka#//$a seems 
to render it by ' whip/ but that is not correct, I think. 

6 So Ar^una Mijra. Nilaka«//2a says, ' The senses, &c, when 
they turn towards the outer world make the self drive about, 
as an individual self; when turned inwards they show him that he 
is the Brahman.' Nilakaw/^a thus likens this to the KaMa passage. 
See also p. 187 and notes there. 

7 Or it may mean, among all men. 

8 See p. 164 supra, note 2 ; and p. 285, note 4. 

9 That is to say, it includes all Sawsara, all the elements recog- 
nised by the Sankhya philosophy, save the Being or Purusha. 



and includes movables and immovables, receives 
light from the radiance of the sun and moon, is 
adorned with planets and nakshatras, and is decked 
on all sides with nets of rivers and mountains, and 
always beautified likewise by various (descriptions 
of) waters ; it is (the means of) subsistence for all 
entities \ and it is the goal of all living crea- 
tures. In this the Kshetra^a always moves about. 
Whatever entities (there are) in this world, movable 
or immovable, they are the very first 2 to be dis- 
solved; and next the developments produced from the 
elements 3 ; and (after) these developments, all the ele- 
ments. Such is the upward gradation 4 among entities. 
Gods, men, Gandharvas, Pisakas, Asuras, Rakshasas, 
all have been created by nature 5 , not by actions, nor 
by a cause. These Brahma;/as 6 , the creators of the 
world, are born here again and again. And what- 

1 Cf. p. 371 supra. 

2 Another reading means ' they are dissolved in the waters/ As 
to the order, cf. Vedanta Paribhasha, p. 48, and p. 335 supra. 

3 I take these to mean the gross elements of which things mov- 
able and immovable may be said to be made, if one may use 
a non-idealist phrase in the Sahkhya philosophy. Then the ele- 
ments next spoken of are the subtle ones or tanmatras. Cf. the 
references in note 2. As to developments, see p. 382, note 4. 

4 Viz. gross object, gross element, subtle element. 

5 The original is svabhava, which Ar^una Mijra renders by 
Prakr/ti. ' Actions ' both Nilaka7/Ma and Ar^una Mi^ra take to 
mean sacrifices, &c, and 'cause * the former interprets by Brahman ; 
the latter by tanmatras or subtle elements, and adds, 1 the sense is — 
not by sacrifice or tanmatras only/ Nilaka;////a says, ' The gods, 
&c, are produced by nature, as the gods, &c, seen in a dream.' 
The meaning seems to be that there are energies in nature which 
evolve these forms of being. Cf. also Gita, p. 65. 

0 I presume this means that the patriarchs (MarM'i and others, 
says Nilaka«/^a) are also born again and again — that is to say, in 
different kalpas, I suppose — by nature only. 


ever is produced from them 1 is dissolved in due 
time in those very five great elements, like billows 
in the ocean. The great elements are in every way 
(beyond) the elements that make up the world 2 . 
And he who is released, even from those five ele- 
ments, goes to the highest goal. The Lord Pra^a- 
pati created all this by the mind 3 only. And in the 
same manner 4 the sages attained the godhead 5 by 
means of penance G . And in like manner, those who 
have achieved perfection, who have acquired concen- 
tration by a course of penance, and who likewise feed 
on fruits and roots, perceive the triple world 7 here 
by penance. Medicines, and herbs, and the various 
sciences are all acquired 8 by means of penance 
alone. For all acquisition 9 has penance for its 
root. Whatever is difficult to obtain 10 , difficult to 

1 I think this must mean the elements, though it might at first 
sight be referred to the Brahmawas. 

2 L e. the gross elements, I take it ; the others are the tanmatras. 

3 I.e. the meditation which constitutes true knowledge, Ar^una 
Mijra. But see GM, p. 87, note 1, and Sankhya-sutra. 

4 I. e. by the mind, as to which cf. Taittinya, p. 89 ; KaMa, p, 164. 
Ar^una Mijra says, ' This apparent deviation from the ordinary 
modes of cause and effect is not altogether without parallel, so he 
adds this to show that.' 

5 Literally, ' the gods,' but the meaning seems to be that given 
in the text, as Arg-una MLsra says. 

6 This is only the concentration of mind and senses on one 
object, Nilaka7zMa. See p. 166, note 1 supra. 

7 See p. 174 supra. 

8 Literally, 'are accomplished/ which seems to mean that they 
are acquired so as to be practically at one's command when 

9 The original word is derived from the same root as the subject 
of the last note. 

10 Difficult to obtain=the seat of Indra, &c. ; to learn=Vedas, 
&c. ; to vanquish = fire, &c. ; to pass through = a great deluge, &c, 



learn, difficult to vanquish, and difficult to pass 
through ; all that can be accomplished by penance, for 
penance is difficult to overcome. One who drinks 
spirituous liquors, one who kills a Brahma/za, one 
who steals, one who destroys an embryo, one who 
violates the bed of his preceptor \ is released from 
that sin only by penance well performed. (Those) 
men, Pitrzs, gods, (sacrificial) animals 2 , beasts and 
birds, and all other creatures movable or im- 
movable, (who are) constantly devoted to penance, 
always reach perfection by penance. And in like 
manner the noble(-minded) gods went to heaven 3 . 
Those who without sloth perform actions with ex- 
pectations, and being full of egoism, they go near 
Pra^apati 4 . Those high-souled ones who are devoid 
of (the thought that this or that is) mine, and devoid 
of egoism, by means of a pure concentration (of 
mind) on contemplation, obtain the great and highest 
world. Those who best understand the self, attain- 
ing concentration (of mind) on contemplation 5 , and 
having their minds always tranquil, enter into the 
unperceived accumulation of happiness 6 . Those 

NtlakawMa. Ar^una Misra seems to interpret the last word, where 
his reading is doubtful, to mean ' difficult to do.' 

1 Cf. ^andogya, p. 361. Except the destruction of the embryo 
(see Taitt. Araw. p. 870, but at Brz"hadara?zyaka, p. 795, Kaushitaki, 
p. 77, and Apastamba I, 6, 19, 16, the commentators render Bhruwa 
by ' learned Brahmawa'), the rest are the great sins. But note that 
stealing gold, not theft generally, is mentioned as a great sin. 

2 Or, perhaps, cattle. The original is pam. 

3 See p. 160 supra, and cf. p. 178. 

4 I.e. Kajyapa, as gods, &c. This seems to be Arg-una MLrra's 
interpretation. This condition is inferior to that described in the 
following sentence. 

5 See p. 162, note 1. 

G Nilakaz/Ma's rendering is ' that by which (worldly) happiness is 


who are free from (all thought that this or that is) 
mine, and who arc free from egoism, attaining con- 
centration (of mind) on contemplation \ enter the 
highest world of the great, which is the unperceived. 
Born from that same unperceived 2 (principle), again 
acquiring knowledge, and getting rid of the (quali- 
ties of) passion and darkness, and resorting to the 
pure (quality of) goodness, a man gets rid of all sins, 
and abandons everything as fruitless. He should 
be understood to be the Kshetra^a. He who 
understands him understands the Vedas 3 . With- 
drawing from the mind the objects 4 of mental opera- 
tions, a sage should sit down self-restrained. (He) 
necessarily (becomes) that on which his mind 5 (is 
fixed). This is the eternal mystery. That which 
begins with the unperceived and ends with the gross 
objects 6 is stated to be of the nature of ignorance 7 . 
But (you should) learn that whose nature is devoid 

heightened.' He compares B/Yhadara7zyaka, p. 816. See also 
Taittiriya, p. 112. 

1 See Gita, p. 128, note 1, where dhyana and yoga are taken 
separately. Here the compound is in the singular. Nilaka;;Ma's 
reading is different. 

2 The sense here is not quite clear. It seems, however, to be 
this. The acquisitions mentioned in the preceding sentence take 
the acquirers to some temporary world from which they afterwards 
return ; but when they get rid of the qualities, they get final eman- 
cipation. As to the unperceived, cf. inter alia Gita, p. 112, note 2. 

3 Cf. Gita, p. in, and note 2 there. That seems to approach 
the question from the opposite point of view. 

4 So Ar^una Mwra. At Gita XVI, 16, X-itta means the opera- 
tion itself. That also will do here. 

5 Cf. Gita, p. 78 ; Maitri, p. 178 ; Prajna, p. 194 ; and the quota- 
tions at Sahkhya-sara, p. 3. 

6 This phrase has occurred before ; it means all the developments 
which make up worldly life. See Sahkhya-sara, p. 5. 

7 See p. 371 supra. 



of qualities. Two syllables 1 are death ; three syllables 
the eternal Brahman. Mine is death, and not mine 
is the eternal 2 . Some men of dull understandings 
extol action. But as to the high-souled ancients 
they do not extol action :i . By action a creature is 
born with a body and made up of the sixteen 4 . 
Knowledge brings forth 5 the being, and that is 
acceptable and constitutes immortality. Therefore 
those who are far-sighted have no attachment to 
actions. This being is stated to be full of know- 
ledge, not full of action °. The self-restrained man 
who thus understands the immortal, changeless, 
incomprehensible, and ever indestructible and 
unattached (principle), he dies not 7 . He who thus 
understands the self to which there is nothing prior, 
which is uncreated, changeless, unmoving 8 , which 
is incomprehensible (even) to those who feed on 
nectar, he certainly becomes immortal 7 and not to 
be restrained 9 , in consequence of these means 10 . 

1 See iSanti Parvan (Ra^adharma) XIII, 4. Cf. Maitri, p. 180. 
This means the two and three syllables of ' mama ' and ' na mama,' 
mine and not mine. Cf. Brz'hadara/zyaka, p. 970, and ^andogya, 
p. 118, and p. 548, for a similar conceit. 

2 Final emancipation follows on abandoning the idea of ' mine ; ' 
bondage on harbouring it. 3 See Mii^aka, p. 279. 

4 The eleven organs and the five great elements which go to form 
the body. See Sahkhya-karika 3, and comment thereon ; Santi Par- 
van, chap. 210, st. 32 seq. ; chap. 242, St. 7 seq. ; Prajna, p. 230. 

5 I. e. shows. 6 Cf. Gita, p. 118; iSanti Parvan, ch. 242, st. 15. 

7 See p. 367 supra, note 6 ; and cf. Ka//$a, pp. 155, 156. 

8 I. e. which remains unconcerned, cf. I^a, p. 10. Apurvam (to 
w hich there is nothing prior), Ar^unaMma renders by c not familiarly 
known/ and Nilaka;z/^a by ' not understood by any other means of 
knowledge.' See also Bn'hadarawyaka, p. 502, and .Sahkara on that. 

9 This is not very clear, but I suppose the meaning to be the 
same as that of 'unconquerable ' at p. 161, and see p. 231. 

10 I. e. the means mentioned further on, says NflakawMa. 



Expelling all impressions \ and restraining the self 
in the self 2 , he understands that holy Brahman, 
than which nothing greater exists. And when the 
understanding is clear, he attains tranquillity 3 . And 
the nature of tranquillity is as when one sees a 
dream *. This 5 is the goal of those emancipated 
ones who are intent on knowledge. And they see 
all the movements 6 which are produced by develop- 
ment. This is the goal of those who are indifferent 
(to the world). This is the eternal piety. This is 
what is acquired by men of knowledge. This is the 
uncensured (mode of) conduct. This goal can be 
reached by one who is alike to all beings 7 , who is 
without attachment, who is without expectations, 

1 Impressions from external causes. Cf. inter alia Sarikhya-sutra 
III, 83; see, too, pp. 247-358 supra and notes there. 

2 I. e. restraining the mind in the lotus-like heart, Nilaka^/Ma. 
Cf. as to this, pp. 248, 372 inter alia. 

3 Cf. GM, p. 51. See also Maitri-upanishad, p. i76,andMu«</aka, 
P. 3M- 

4 Ar^una Mijra says, ' The nature of tranquillity is this, that in 
that state you perceive everything to be unreal like what is seen in 
a dream.' Nilaka;z/^a says, ' The nature of tranquillity is this, that 
in that state the self abides without attachment to the body, and any 
external objects, but working within itself as in a dream.' But see 
on this Ka/^a, p. 147. 

5 Viz. tranquillity, Nilaka»Ma. 

6 I. e., says Nilaka^Ma, they see all worldly objects past and 
future. Ar^-una Mura, ' They see the actions performed for some 
wealth and so forth.' I am not satisfied with either meaning. 
Ar^una Mura's is besides based on a reading different from that 
adopted in the text, namely, Parimawa^ah, instead of Pariwama^ah. 
I think ' pari;zama ' is the development which, according to the 
Sarikhya philosophy, produces the universe, and the movements 
are the actions which that development — namely, here the activity 
of egoism and its products — occasions. Cf. as to some extent 
supporting this, Sankhya-sara, p. 16. 

7 See inter alia GM, pp. 68-70. 



and who looks alike on everything 1 . I have now 
declared everything to you, O best of Brahma/^a 
sages ! Act thus forthwith ; then you will acquire 

The preceptor said : 
Thus instructed by the preceptor Brahman, those 
high-souled sages acted accordingly, and then at- 
tained to the worlds 2 . Do you, too, O noble person, 
of pure self! duly act according to the words of 
Brahman which I have stated. Then will you 
attain perfection. 

Vasudeva said : 
That pupil thus instructed in the highest piety 
by the preceptor, did everything (accordingly), O 
son of Kunti ! and then attained final emancipation. 
And the pupil, having done all he should have done, 
attained to that seat, O supporter of the family of 
the Kauravas ! going to which one grieves not :? . 

Arf una said : 
Who indeed, was that Brahma;/a, O Krishna ! 
and who the pupil, O Canardana ! If this verily 
is fit to be heard by me, O Lord ! then tell it me. 

Vasudeva said : 
1 4 am the preceptor, O you of mighty arms ! and 

1 See inter alia Grta, pp. 68-70. 

2 I. e., I presume, Bhur and the rest. But see also jOandogya, 
pp. 272, 541, 620, and Br/hadarawyaka, pp. 302, 608. 

3 See p. 285 supra, and cf. inter alia A^andogya, p. 550. 

4 I. e. I, the Kshetragwa. am the preceptor, and the mind is that 
which has to be taught. This shows that one's instructor must be 
oneself, NilakawMa. Ar^una MLsra says, ' I am the preceptor, the 
mind is the pupil. The meaning of this is that anybody who has 
not acquired knowledge is treated here as a pupil ; there is no other 
special pupil intended.' Cf. also p. 310 supra. 

394 ANUGiTA. 

know the mind to be my pupil. And, O Dhana/^aya! 
1 have related this mystery to you out of love for 
you. If you have love for me, O supporter of the 
family of the Kauravas ! then having heard this 
(instruction) relating to the self, always duly act 1 
(according to it). Then when this piety is duly 
practised, you will attain the absolute final eman- 
cipation, getting rid of all sins. It was this same 
thing I stated to you before 2 when the time for 
battle had come, O you of mighty arms ! There- 
fore fix your mind on this. And now 3 , O chief of 
the descendants of Bharata! it is long since I saw 
the lord my father. I wish to see him, with your 
consent, O Phalguna 4 ! 

Vaisampayana said : 

When Krishna, spoke these words, Dhanai^aya 
replied (saying), O Krishna. ! let us verily go to-day 
to the city of Ga^asa 5 . Be pleased, O you who 
understand piety ! to see there king YudhishMira, 
who is of a devout heart, and after taking leave of 
him to go to your own city/ 

1 NilakawMa interprets the words without supplying anything, 
thus ' be devoted to yama niyama/ &c. Yama &c. are the eight 
requisites for Yoga or concentration of mind as taught by Pata^ali. 

2 That is to say, in the Gita. 

8 Here he takes up the thread of the story. In the first chapter 
it was hinted that Krzsh«a was anxious to go to Dvaraka. 

4 This is a name of Ar^una. 

5 I. e. Hastinapur, the capital of the Pa/z^avas. They were, when 
the dialogue was held, at Indraprastha. See p. 229 supra. 



In this Index, Roman and Italic letters, long and short vowels 
have been classed together. 

A, the letter, page 90. 

Abandonment, 49, 67, 71, 101, no, 
121, 122, 123, 154, 168, 177, 182, 
246, 280,283,326, 369, 370, 371, 
373> 39°- See Renunciation. 

Abhimanyu, 37, 39. 

Abhiras, 295. 

Abiding in everything. See Within. 

Abiding together. See Unity. 

Abode of Brahman. See Identifica- 
tion, Seat, and Unity. 

Abortive, nothing in Yoga, 47, 72. 
See Action, Life, Resolution, 
and Vain. 

Abridging, 357. 

Absolute, 248, 310, 367, 394. 

Absolution. See Release. 

Absorbent, 84, 104, 106, 112, 191,258, 
268,279,286,318. See Assimi- 
lation, Dissolution, Life-winds. 

Absorption, 331, 341, 342, 351, 366, 
385. See Assimilation, 
bstinence, 50. 

Abstraction, 10, 68, 69, 70, 75, 77, 
78, 79, 86, 100, 114, 125, 128. 
See Concentration. 

Abuse, 166, 323. 

Acceptable, 391. 

Acceptance, 324, 325, 359, 364. 

Accessible, Supreme Being, 71, 79. 
See Approaching and Attain- 

Accomplishment of all duty, 54, 114, 
169, 193,337,344, 380, 388, 389, 

Accumulation, 355, 364, 368. 

— of honey, 188. 

— of sin and merit. See Happiness, 

Merit, and Sin. 
Acid, 118. 

Acquisition, 48, 49, 55, 59, 70, 74, 
84, i*5, 323, 327, 332, 366, 372, 
376, 388, 392. See Body. 

— highest, 70, 225. 

— new, for Kr/'shwa, 54. 

— of anything desired. See Desire. 

[8] C C 

Act, auspicious. See Auspicious. 

— thought and word. See Body, 

Mind, and Speech. 
Action, 48, 49, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 59, 
60, 62, 63, 65,67, 77,81,82,95, 
98, 99, 102, 103, 106, 108, 109, 
no, in, 115, 117, 118, 121, 122, 
123,124, 125, 127, 128, 152, 153, 
156, 179, 180, 182, 184, 185, 188, 
191,193,232, 233,238, 240, 241, 
243,244, 256, 261, 278, 279, 280, 
283, 286,289, 293, 297, 302, 306, 
3o7,309,3i3,3i4,3i5,3i6, 319, 
355,357,358, 3 6 5, 368, 369, 370, 
374,375,377, 380, 381, 382, 385, 
387, 389, 39i, 393. 

— abandonment of. See Abandon- 

ment and Inaction. 

— bond of, 47, 53, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 

64, 65, 82, 85, 107, 108, 115, 
123, 125, 307. See Taint. 

— burning of. See Burning. 

— capacity for, 65, 104, 241. 

— causes of, 65, 123, 278. 

— dedication of, to Brahman, 55, 6r, 

64, 83, 85, 100, 105, 128, 168. 
See Renunciation. 

— defect in, cured, 121. 

— destruction of, 241, 242. See De- 


— different from soul. See Soul. 

— evil, 121, 127, 235, 238, 240, 242, 

257, 302, 320. 

— exhaustion of, 236, 237, 240, 241, 


— ferocious. See Ferocious. 

— freedom from. See Freedom. 

— fruit of. See Fruit. 

— instrument of. See Instrument. 

— man of, 73, 255, 256. 

— marks of, 239, 321. 

— meritorious, 72, 76, 109, 130, 233, 

238,240,242, 257, 314, 320, 321. 

— motive to, 48, 49. See Duty and 


396 bhagavadg{tA, sanatsugatIya, anugita. 

Ac tion, ordinary and special, 102. 
organs of, 337. See Organs and 

performance of, 10s, 378. 

— prescribed, 53> S4> 67, 115, 117, 

1 18,120,122,124,125, 126,305, 
309, 353, 381. Sec Duty. 

— prohibited, 60, 1 1 7, r 19, 1 20, 125, 


prompting to, 123. 
pursuit of, 59, 60, 63. 
release from. See Freedom. 

— ripening of, 241. 

— success of, 59. 

— to propitiate Supreme. See Pro- 


— unnecessary, 54. 

— vain, 82. And see Destruction, 


— world of, 239. 
Active mind, 70. 

— principle. See Soul, not active. 
Activity, 65, 88, 104, 108, no, 114, 

160,185,319, 332, 334, 351, 358, 
374. See Soul, not active. 

Acute, 163, 164. 

Adhibhuta, 77, 78. 

Adhidaiva, 77, 78. 

Adhiya^wa, 77, 78. 

Adhvaryu. See Priest. 

Adhyatma, 77, 9°, 3*6, 338, 342. 
See Soul, science of. 

Adityas, 88, 92, 94, 219. 

Admonition. See Advice. 

Advice, 174, 380. 

Adviser, 105. 

iEon. See Kalpa. 

Afar, 104, 369. 

Affection, 50, 51, 56, 59, 68, 103, 
124, 127, 166, 178, 193, 194, 246, 
250, 322, 324, 342, 382. See 
also Aversion, Favourite. 

Affliction, 1 01, 1 07, 122,284, 322,323, 
381. See Trouble. 

Affluence, 304. 

Affright. See Fear. 

Age, 59, 79, 80, 330, 353. See Kalpa. 

— old, 44, 77, 103,109,140,151, 170, 

187,194,233,247, 249, 250, 289, 

349, 35 6 , 37i, 384. 
Agent, 55, 65, 123, 124, 278. See Soul. 
Agitation, 42, 50, 56, 66, 68, 108, no, 

344, 366, 369. 

— of world, 101. And see Per- 

turbation, Vexation. 
Agni, 219, 220, 345. 

Agnihotra, 129, 191, 321. 
Agnishfoma, 158. 

Agreeable, 50, 66, 85, 101, 103, no, 
118,119, 122,151, 177, 183, 189, 
246,278,312, 360, 362, 370, 371, 
.380, 383, 385. 

Agriculture, 127. 

A^yabhaga, 276. 

Ahavaniya, 262. 

Ailment, 233, 237, 245, 321, 343, 

356. See Disease. 
Aims of life, 100, 117, 125, 156, 177, 

3H, 33i, 378. 
Air, 73, 82, 179, 260, 289, 305, 316, 

339, 343, 361, 368. 
Airavata, 89. 

Aitareya-ara/zyaka, 87, 90, 102, 123, 
180, 239, 249, 250, 259, 339. 

— brahmawa, 19, 221, 265, 276, 277, 


— upanishad, 120, 123, 153, 179, 187, 
a 189, 191. 

Akhyanas, 145, 170. 

Alarka, 296, 297, 298, 299. 

Alarm at sight of universal form, 94, 

96, 98. 
Alexander the Great, 223. 
Alike to all, 65, 68, 70, 71, 85, 101, 

106, no, 128, 292, 356, 379, 

392, 393. See Equability. 
All-comprehending. See Universal 


All-pervading. See Pervading prin- 
All, supreme, 97. 

Alms, 43, 216, 360, 361, 362, 363. 
Alone. See Solitary. 
Altar, 262. 

Amazement, 93, 94, 130, 300. See 

Ambansha, 301, 303. 
Ambiguous. See Equivocal. 
Amusement, 97,251. See Recreation. 
Analyser, 173. 
Analysis, 174. 

Anandagiri, 18, 49, 87, 113, 159, 186, 

251, 266. 
Ananta, 89. 
Anantagita, 28. 
Anantavi^aya, 38. 
Ancestors, 41. See Manes. 
Ancient being. See Primeval. 
Ancients, 59, 78, 86, 87, 260, 340, 

369, 378, 391. See Elders. 
Ancient times, those who know about, 

101. See Old times. 



Anger. See Wrath. 
Angirasa, 314. 

Animals. See Beasts and Offerings. 
Animate, 74, 244, 356. 
Animating new body, 45, 112. 
Animosity, 60, 99, 167, 182, 183, 281 

321. See Hatred. 
Anointment, 93. 
Antelope, 155, 295. 
Antipathy, 168. See Animosity. 
Antiquary, Indian, 27, 28, 139, 222. 
Anugita, 158, 161, 162, 166, 256. 

— age of, 206 seq. 

— authorship of, 204 seq. 

— comparison of, with Apastamba, 

215 seq. ; with Gita, 207 seq. 

— divisions of, 198, 200, 201, 204. 

— extent of, 198 seq., 204. 

— geography of, 222. 

— gods mentioned in, 219, 220. 

— interpolations, 205. 

— language of, 226. 

— mountains mentioned in, 222. 

— numbering of chapters, 201. 

— Parvan of Bharata, 197, 199, 200, 

— recapitulation of Gita, 197. 

— scheme of, 197 seq., 206. 

— state of society disclosed in, 207, 


— style of. See language of. 

— substance of sections of, 201. 

— tribes in, 222. 

— upanishad, 200. 

— verse of, 226. 
Anus, 258, 261. 
Anush/ubh, 142. 
Anxiety, 48, 302, 366, 367. 
Apana, 258, 338. See Life-winds. 
Apastamba, 14, 20, 21, 22 seq., 24, 

29,30,32,69, 101, 103, n8, 120, 
147, 176, 177, 208, 210, 2 1 1, 215, 
216,217, 218, 225, 236, 243, 275, 
291,302,322, 353, 358, 359, 360, 
361,362,365, 367, 370, 375, 389. 
Ape, 39. 

Appearance. See Entity and Real. 
Application. See Assiduous. 
Appointment, 365. 
Apportionment, 59. 
Apprehension, 82, 257, 283, 314. 
Approaching Brahman, 59, 75. See 

— preceptor. See Preceptor. 
Appropriating, 60, 243, 365. 
Appurtenances, 357. See Belongings. 

Apsarases, 178, 347. 
Aquatic beings, 89. 
Ara«i, 284, 308. 
Ara^yakas, 17. 

Argument, 90, 102, 124, 276, 323. 

Ar^una, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, 17, 28, 34, 35, 
37, 38,40,42,47,48,52,53,54, 
56,58, 59, 62, 63, 69, 71, 72, 73, 
75, 76, 77, 79, 81, 82, 84, 87, 88, 
89,90, 91, 92, 93, 96, 98, 99, 109, 
117,121, 122, 125, 128, 130, 131, 
294, 3i°, 393, 394- See Bha- 
rata, Favourite, Forgetfulness, 
Kunti, and Pritha. 

— Mijra, 199, 200,201, 204, 227, 232, 

236,237,238,239,240,241, 242, 
243, 244,245,246,247,248,249, 
250,252,253,254,255,256, 257, 
258, 259, 260, 262, 263, 264, 265, 
266, 269, 270, 271, 272,273, 276, 
277, 278, 280, 281, 282, 284, 286, 
287, 288, 289, 290, 292, 293, 300, 
301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 306, 308, 

3°9,3 I o,3i2,3i3, 3M, 315, 3' 6 , 
334,335, 339, 340, 34' } 342, 343, 
344, 345, 34 6 , 347, 348, 349, 35©, 
352, 353, 354, 355, 356, 357, 36o, 
361, 362, 363, 364, 365, 366, 367, 
375, 376, 379, 380, 381, 384, 385, 
386,387,388,389, 390, 391, 392, 

Arka, 219, 346. 
Arms, 93, 94, 381. 

— mighty, 39, 45, 51, 55, 58, 63, 64, 

71, 72, 74, 86, 94, 107, 121, 123, 
229, 252, 393, 394. 

— thousand, 94, 98, 293, 294. 

— unnumbered, 94. 
Army, 38, 294. 

Array. See Battle-array. 
Arrogance, 116, 128. See Boastful, 

Egotism, Pride, and Vanity. 
Arrows, 42, 294, 296, 297, 298, 299, 

300, 301. 
Arteries, 257. 

Articulation. See Speech. 
Artisans, 208, 365. 
Aryaman, 89. 
Aryas, 222, 223. 

Aryavidyasudhakara, 27, 33, 224. 
Asad, 1 20, 121. 
Asafoetida, 383. 

C C 2 

398 bhagavadgItA, sanatsugatiya, anugita. 

Ascent, 321, 385. 
Ascertainment of truth, 64, 

A sect ics, 6 1, 63, 66, 78, 1 23, 159, 2 1 2, 
312, 316, 354, 358, 363. 

Ashes, 62, 276. 

Asita, 87. 

Asking alms, 362. 

Ajoka, 223. 

Aspirations. Sec Expectations. 
Asramas, 30, 216, 307, 315. See 

Ass, 20. 
Assault, 41. 

Assemblages of men. See Society. 

Assiduous, 50, 63, 72, 73, 83, 101, 
112,115,125, 161,253,255,360, 
361. See Industry. 

Assimilation with Brahman, 52, 59, 
66, 69, 70, 85, 99, 100, 104, 106, 
107, 109, no, 128, 156, 176, 178, 
253, 308, 313, 316, 342, 370. 

Association, 233, 355, 359, 370,374, 
378. See Company, Dissocia- 
tion, and Society. 

— with preceptor, 177, 178. 

— with senses, 288. 
Astringent, 363, 384. 
Astrologers, 377. 
Asura, 83. See Demons. 
Ajvalayana, 61, 68, 119, 236, 358. 
Ajvamedha, 156. 

— Parvan, 197. 

— Parvan, sections of, 198 seq. 
Ajvattha, 89, n 1, 189, 247. 
Ajvatthaman, 38. 

Ajvins, 92, 94. 

Asylum, 84, 129, 361, 363. See Re- 

Atharva-veda, 18, 19, 180. 
Atheism, 115. 
Atmosphere. See Air. 
Atom, 78, 194. 
Atomists, 377. 
Atri, 314. 

Attachment, 48, 50, 52, 53, 54, 55, 

59, 60, 61, 64, 65, 66, 67, 82, 
99, 101, 103, 104, 107, 109, III, 
116, 118, 122, 124, 125, 127, 154, 
161, 166, 181, 182, 232, 236, 241, 
242, 246, 250, 289, 322, 324, 328, 
34i, 357, 3 62 , 3 6 4, 365, 367, 368, 
37i, 377, 379, 39 r , 392. 

Attack of vice, 167. 

Attainment to Brahman, 52, 54, 59, 

60, 6r, 62, 64, 71, 75, 76, 78, 79, 

80, 8 1, 82, 84, 85, 86, 87, 99, 100, 
104, 106, 116, 127, 129, 162, 164, 
•67, 173, 174, 175, 185, 189,191, 
370, 372, 373, 385, 392. See 

Attendance, 324. See Preceptor. 

Attention, 231. See Assiduous. 

Attraction, 327. 

Attractive, 189. 

Attrition, 308. 

Auspicious act, 120, 324. 

Austerity. See Penance. 

Author. See Creator. 

Authority, 54, 117, 243. 

Automaton. See Free-will and Ma- 

Autumn, 159. 

Avarice, 41, 43, 108, 109, 114, 117, 
155, 166, 181, 284, 302, 303, 320, 
332, 335, 344, 357, 361, 378. 
See Covetous. 

Aversion, 50, 51, 56, 62, 63, 68, 76, 
101, 103, no, 122, 123, 124, 
128, 322, 363. See Affection. 

Avimukta, 257. 

Awake. See Day and Night. 

Axe, 294. 

Back, 367. 

Backbiting, 114, 168, 183, 323, 326, 

Badaraya«a, 30, 33. 

Bahu. See Bhuman. 

Bali-offering, 216. 

Balls of food for ancestors, 4 1 . 

Bamboo, 346, 359. 

Bawa Bhatta, 13, 27. 

Banks of rivers, 344. 

Bark, 361. 

Barley-seed, 353. 

Basis. See Real. 

Bathing, 4 8, 64,122,361, 364, 375, 377. 
Battle, Ar^una directed to engage in, 
44, 47, 55, 78, 9 6 , 127, 128. 

— array, 4, 37. 

— field, 3, 4, 5, 37, 38, 42, 294, 296, 

323, 394- 

— righteous, 46. 

— running away from, 127. 
Baudhayana, 32. 

Beams. See Rays. 

Beasts,89, 90, 105, 109, 1 16, 167, 284, 

289, 290, 321, 345, 353, 356, 


Beauty, 177, 178, 238, 256, 260, 261, 



264, 267, 268, 270, 272, 275, 286, 

307, 323, 347- 
Bed, 389. 

Bees, 155, 188, 309. 

Beggar. See Ascetic and Asking. 

Beginning and end and middle, 44, 

46, 66, 88, 90, 93, 94, in, 307, 

335, 35i, 352. 

— void of, 44, 86, 94, 103, 104, 106, 

157, 313. 
Behaviour. See Conduct. 
Being. See Spirits. 

— Ancient, 96, 97. See Primal. 

— Best, 77, 87, 92, 113, 114, 377. 

— Divine, 78, 87, 186, 187, 188, 189, 

190, 191, 192. 

— Eternal, 87, 94. 

— Primal, in. 

— Supreme, 54, 57, 78, 81, 83, 85, 

in, 113, 157, 188, 281, 284. 
See Brahman and God. 
Beings, beginning of. See Source. 

— created. See Creatures. 

— embodied. See Embodied souls. 

— friend of. See Friend. 

— higher, in. 

— living. See Creatures. 

— lord of. See Lord. 

— seed of. See Seed. 

— tempers of. See Tempers. 

— two, 113. 

— two classes of, 93, 115. 

— within all, 113, 194. See Within. 
Belief. See Convictions and Faith. 
Belongings, 60, 68, 128, 160, 170, 

2 47, 324, 3 6 5, 3 6 9, 373- See 

Beloved. See Favourite, Husband. 
Belt. See Girdle. 
Beneficial speech, 119. 
Benefit, 76, 178, 182, 184, 185, 189, 

309, 324, 325, 360. 
Benevolence, universal, 66, 94, 99, 

100, 101, 114, 322. 
Beyond. See Highest. 
Bhagavadgita, 135, 137, 138, 142, 

J 43, M4, M5, M 6 ,M7, 148,150, 

151,152,153, 154, 155, 158,159, 

160, 164, 165, 167, 168, 170, 171, 

!72,i73, 175, 176, 177, i79, l8 o, 
184,185, 1S6, 188, 189, 193,194, 
T 97,203, 207, 208, 210, 215,218, 
222,226, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 
235,236, 239, 240, 242, 243, 244, 
245,246, 247, 248, 249, 250,251, 
253,254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 260, 

261, 262, 266, 270, 277, 278, 279, 
281, 282, 283, 284, 285, 288,289, 
291,292, 295, 305, 306, 307, 310, 
313,315, 317, 3i8, 319, 320,321, 
330,331, 332, 334,335, 338, 342, 
343,344, 345, 346, 349, 351,352, 
353,355, 358, 359, 360, 362, 363, 
364,365, 366, 367, 368, 369, 37o, 
37i,372, 373,375, 378, 38o,38i, 
384,385, 387, 388, 390, 391,392, 
393, 394. 

Bhagavadgita, appropriateness of, 4, 
6, 135. 

— author of, 6, 28. 

— Brahmanization of, 4, 6, 21, 22. 

— character of, 4, 7, 8, 10, 13, 17, 25. 

— connexion of, with Bharata. See 

appropriateness, supra. 

— date of, 17, 19, and Introduction, 


— dissemination of, 129, 130. 

— frame of, 2, 3. 

— genuineness of, 2, 4, 5, 6. 

— inconsistencies of, 11. 

— language. See style, infra. 

— names of, 2, 28. 

■ — non-systematic. See character, 

— Parvan of the Mahabharata, 2. 

— Phalajruti in, 143. 

— Philosophy of. See character, 


— position in Sanskrit literature, 17, 

34, 138. 

— relation to Buddhism, 24, 34. 

— relation to Vedas, 16, 17. See 

character, supra. 

— relation to Yoga-sutras, 8. 

— responsible for want of history, 1. 

— scheme of, 2, 3. 

— stanzas, common with other 

works, 18, 27. 

— stanzas of, number of, 35. 

— study of. See dissemination, 


— style and language of, 4, 11, 13, 

14, T 5. 

— teaching of, 16. 

— terminology of, 11. 

— text of, 34. 

— upanishad, 2, 200. 

— verse of, 15. See History. 
Bhagavan, meaning of, 157. 
Bh«W/arkar, Professor R. G., 28, 107, 

137, 199, 227. 


Bharadva^a, {14. 

Bharata, 39, 43, 44, 46, 55, 57, 59, 

&h 7 1, 7 5, 79, 80, 92, 102, 

105, 106, 107, 108, in, 114, 
115, 117, 119, 122, 126, 129, 
149, 150, 170, 176, 194, 231, 
% 254, -55, 256, 391 - 
Bharata. Sec Bharata and Maha- 

— varsha, 39. 
Bhargava, 314. 

Bhartrihari, 14, 32, 220, 221, 239. 
Bhasa, 222, 346. 
Bhashya. Sec Pata^g-ali. 
Bhaitogi, 33. 
BhSu Dajtj Dr., 27. 
Bhavabhuti, 13. 
Bhikshu-sCitra, 32, 33. 
Bhima, 37, 38. 

Bhishma, 3, 38, 39, 42, 95, 96. 

— Parvan, 2, 6, 40. 

— roaring of, 38. 
Bhramara, 188. 

Bhr/gu, 89, 294. See Bhargava. 
Bhuman, 173. 
Bhur, 174, 393. 

Bhutas, 85, 118, 306, 345, 354. 
Bhutis, 92. 
Bile, 343. 
Billow, 388. 
Bilva, 360. 

Bipeds, 171, 209, 339. 

Birds,9o, 109, 142, 164, 189, 321,345, 

353, 37i, 389. 
Birth, 45, 48, 58, 59, 76, 86, 103, 
105,109, no, 170, 176, 177, 194, 

257, 302, 313, 339, 341, 390. 
See Death, and Meditation at 
time of death. 

— after lapse of time, 339. 

— as devotee, 72. 

■ — bond of, 49, 62, 115, 201. 

— causes of, 48, 105. 

— certainty of, 45, 154. 

— divine, 29, 59. 

— freedom from, 56, 59, 67, 79, 

105, 107, 109, 188, 241. 
- in low species, 152. 

— knowledge of, 58, 72. 

— low, 85. 

— number of, 49, 58. 

— of deity, 59. 

■ — previous. See Life. 

— repeated, 49, 58, 59, 67, 73, 75, 

79, 105, 107, 154, 185, 191, 242, 


Sec Return. 
Birth, sinful, 85, 255. 
Biting, 282. 

Bitter, 118, 363, 383, 384. 
Black, 179, 384. 

Blame and praise, 101, no, 185, 324, 

Blank, 376. 
Blind man, 155. 
Blindness, 320, 322. 
Bliss, 52, 66. See Brahmic state. 
Blood,43,i 5 5, 241, 252, 275, 335,342. 
Boar, 37. 

Boastful, 167, 170, 181, 324. See 

Boat, 31, 381, 382. 

— of knowledge, 62. 

Bodily and mental, 247, 251, 359, 
362, 364. 

Bodily, mental, vocal, 119 seq. 

Body, 55, 64, 69, 71, 72, 77, 83, 92, 
102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 
111,112, 1 13, 118, 123, 128, 155, 
173, 176, 177, 178, 179, 186, 187, 
191, J 93, 235, 236,237,240,242, 
245,246, 248, 249, 250, 252, 253, 
257,259, 262,279, 288,289,290, 
302,307, 326, 331, 332, 342, 344, 
345, 362, 367, 376, 391, 392. 

— acquisition of, 44. 

— city of nine portals, 65, 108, 317. 

— development of, 252. 

— distinct from soul, 44, 45, 375. 

— distribution of, on death, 290,302. 

— leaving, 59, 66, 78, 79, 112, 235, 

237,238, 239, 250, 252, 253, 255, 
257, 266, 331. 

— liquids in, 342. See Liquids. 

— movement of, 343. 

— of Kr/sh«a, 92, 93. 

— passages of, 79. See Passages. 

— perishable, 44, 45. 

— produced from qualities, 109. 

— release from. See leaving, supra. 

— ruler of, 112. 

— source of, 244. 

— subtle, 190, 333. 

— support of, 53, 60, 159, 291, 318, 

359, 3 6 3, 3 66 - 

— supporter of, 228, 262. 

— two kinds of, 160. 

See Bond and Deities. 
Boehtlingk, 144. 

Boisterous. See Mind and Senses. 
Bond, 66, 107, 146, 246, 247, 248, 



317,323, 342, 35i, 355, 368, 371, 

Bond, of qualities, 107. See Action 

and Birth. 
Bone, 252, 343. 
Books, 57, 326. 
Boon. See Present. 
Borrowing. See Common passages. 
Bosom, 239. 

Boughs, small, 313, 371. See 

Bows, 37, 39, 42, 293, 294, 296, 311. 
See Salutation. 

Brahma, 79, 80, 93, 96, 219, 220, 231, 
234,244, 257, 264, 271, 312, 314, 
3i5,3i7, 323,325, 328, 332, 333, 
337,339, 345, 352, 354, 355, 360, 
372, 378, 385, 393- See Priest. 

Brahma Gita, 198 seq., 255, 310. 
See Anugita. 

BrahmaMrin, 69, 79, 119, 146, 152, 
153,169, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 

216.242, 283, 284, 312, 316, 326, 
354, 358, 360, 361, 362, 364. 

— Naish/^ika, 377. 

Brahman, 52, 56, 61, 62, 64, 65, 66, 
70, 72, 77, 79, 81, 84,87,90,91, 
102,103, 106, 107, 108, no, 113, 
120,121, 127, 128, 146, 147, 149, 
163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 170, 
171,172, 173, 174, 175, 178, 180, 
181, 182, 185, 186, 187, .189, 190, 
191,192, 226,230, 234,235,238, 

241.243, 244,245,246, 248, 250, 
265,277, 282, 283, 284, 286, 287, 
288,296, 306, 307, 308, 309, 310, 
339,341, 342, 344, 347, 354, 367, 
368,369, 372, 375, 377, 386, 387, 
391, 392. See God, Being-Su- 
preme, Seat, and Vedas. 

Brahmananda. See Felicity. 

Brahma-ya^la, 61, 184. 

Brahma-loka, 20. 

Brahma-vidya, j 66. 

Brahma-sutras, 31. 

Bnihmawa, 21, 22, 23, 24,38,48,65, 
86, 119, 120, 126, 147, 150, 158, 
159,160, 161, 165, 171,172,173, 
174, 175, 179, 182, 185, 189,193, 
209, 210, 2 17, 218, 239, 245,248, 
252,254, 255, 256, 261, 263, 264, 
265,266, 267, 270, 271, 272,273, 

288,293, 295, 296, 299, 300, 303, 
304, 306, 307, 308, 309, 310, 311, 
315,320, 322, 325, 326, 329,332, 

338,339,345, 346, 347, 348, 353, 
a 380, 384, 387, 389, 393. 

Brahma^a Gita. See Brahma Gita. 

Brahmawa's wife. See Brahmawa. 

Brahma/zas. See Vedas. 

Brahmanical age, 4. 

Brahmanism, 4, 6, 22, 25, 26. 

Brahmic state, 52, 66, 176. 

Branch. See Knowledge. 

Branch and moon, 142, 146, 172 

Branches downwards, in. 

— many, 47, 294, 313, 371. 
Brave, 122, 160, 294, 300, 341. See 


Breach. See Regulation and Duty. 

Breast, 233. See Bosom. 

Breath, 64, 67, 78, 201, 238, 252, 270, 

276, 341. See Life-winds. 
Bribing, 91. 

Bridge of piety, 315, 348. 

Br/hadarawyakopanishad, 6, 81, 119, 
149,152, 153, 155, 158, 159, 160, 
161,162, 166, 171, 172, 173, 174, 
192, 193, 204, 208, 231, 239, 249, 
251, 255, 258, 259, 261, 264, 268, 
271,274, 279,283,287,289,290, 
295,304, 3i3,3M, 324, 327, 342, 
347, 353, 381, 389, 390, 39i. 

Br/hadratha, 180. 

Br/'haspati, 89, 214, 314, 346. 

Br/'hatsaman, 90, 180. 

Brilliant, 78, 93, 187, 192, 287, 347. 

Bringing forth. See Production. 

Broad, 384. 

Brooding on evil, 168. 

Brothers, 40, 290. 

Brothers-in-law, 40. 

Brow, 67, 78, 257. See Head. 

Brute force, 116. 

Brutes. See Beasts. 

Buddhism, 9, 20, 23, 24, 25, 26, 69, 
146,147, 212, 213, 214, 215,224, 
225, 226, 306, 376. 

Biihler, J. G., Dr., 14, 20, 21, 27, 
32, 33, 208, 213, 215, 224, 353. 

Bull, 345. 

Burden, beasts of, 321. 
Burnell, Dr., 20, 31. 
Burning taste, 118. 

— of action by knowlcdge,6o,62,2 79 # 

— of Arg-una's skin, 40. 


Burning of soul, ,| 5, 

Business, 183. See Management. 

Butter, 83, 184, 276. 

Butterflies, 95, 155. 

Buying and selling, 323. 

Calamity, 50. Sec Distress. 

Calmness, 119. Sec Tranquillity. 

Calumny, 116, 129, 325. See Carp- 
ing and Censoriousness. 

Capacity of doing action. See Ac- 
tion and Activity. 

Capital, 394. 

Captivity, 207, 233. See Bond. 
Car, great, 37, 38, 39, 42, 46, 381, 

382, 386. 
— without horse, 40. 
Carelessness. See Heedlessness. 
Carnal. See Love. 
Carping, 56, 81, 130, 320, 364, 368. 

See Calumny. 
Carriage. See Car. 
Caste, ax, 23, 24, 25, 30,59, 126, 129, 



■ — author of, 59. 

— comminglings, 41, 45. 

— rites of, 41. 

Casting aside, 343, 344, 357. 

Cataclysm, 94. 

Cattle, 59, 127, 345, 389- 

Cause, 96, 19?, 247, 278, 309, 335, 
3 8 3> 387, 388, 392. See Con- 

— material, 58, 106, 113, 191, 244. 

See Action, Inconstant, Nature, 

and Source. 
Caution, 63, 97. See Heedlessness 

and Circumspection. 
Cave, 333, 363. 

Celebration of God's name. See 

Celestial pleasures, 84. 
Censoriousness, 166, 167, 181, 182, 


Censure, 150. See Blame. 
Centering. See Concentration. 
Ceremonies, 112, 169, 171, 172, 293, 


See Rites. 
Ceylon, 223. 

Change, 157, 327, 33i, 345, 356, 372. 
See Development and Un- 

Channel. See Current. 

Chanting verse, 15. 

Characteristics. See Qualities. 
Chariot, 187, 221, 294, 380. See Car. 
Charioteer, 4, 338, 386. 
Charioteer's son. See Kar«a. 
Charity, 169, 324. 
Charm. See Enamoured. 
Chastity, 275. 

Cheat, 91. See Crafty and Deceitful. 
Check, 243, 306, 328, 357. See 

Childhood, 178. See Infancy. 
Children, 63, 64, 116, 124, 154, 159, 

161,185,246,304. See Heroes. 
Chili, 383. 

Choristers. See Gandharvas. 
Churning, 89. 
Circular, 384. 
Circumference, 306. 
Circumspection, 364. See Caution. 
City, 251, 318, 394. See Body. 
Class, 65, 103. 

Classical Sanskrit. See Kavyas. 
Cleanness,68, 103, 114, 119, 126,128, 

359, 360, 363, 364. See Purity. 
Clear, 383, 384, 392. See Mind 

and Undistinguished. 
Cleverness, 128, 324. 
Closing. See Eyelid. 
Cloth, 45,68, 217, 359, 360, 364, 384. 
Cloud, 72, 179. 
Cognition, 332. 
Cold, 118, 238, 384. 
Cold and heat, 44, 48, 68, 88, 101, 

167, 284, 323, 356. 
Colebrooke, H. T., 2, 7, 29, 32, 186, 


Collections, 188. 

Colour, 92, 93, 94, 179, 247, 252, 
258, 260, 285, 286, 342, 368. 
See Objects of sense. 

Combination. See Production. 

Combustible, 45. 

Comfort, 95, 98, 118. 

Coming and going, 44, 80, 84, 231. 

Commentators on Gita, 11, 35. 

Commission. See Omission. 

Common earnings. See Earnings. 

— passages, 18, 27, 139, 140, 202 

seq., 225, 354. 

— people, 5 1 . 
Compact, 383, 385. 
Companion, 40, 159. See Associa- 

Company, 97, 293, 359. 
Comparison ot one's own with 
others' pleasures and pains, 71. 



Compassion, 87, ior, 114, 231, 243, 
326, 359, 362, 364. See Affec- 
tion and Pity. 

Compounds, 13, 90. 

Comprehension. See Understanding. 

Comprehensiveness, 124, 372. 

Compulsion. See Free-will. 

Concealed. See Nature. 

Concentration, 12, 61, 65, 66, 68, 69, 
73, 78, 79, 99, io°> 101, 105, 1 10, 
12 8, 153, 160, 169, 18 r, 185, 189, 
232, 242,243,247, 248,249,250, 
251,254,255,257, 279,280,285, 
287, 299, 300, 301, 315, 326,332, 
340, 342, 344, 360, 361, 362,363, 
366, 368, 388, 389, 390, 394. See 

— of breath. See Breath. 
Conch, 38, 39. 

Conclusion. See Resolution. 

Condition. See State. 

Conditioning of soul, 107. 

Conduct, 9, 115, 159, 170, 178, 232, 
359, 3 6 2, 364, 3 6 7, 368, 3 6 9,378, 
392. See Ill-conducted, and 
Goodness, Darkness, Passion, 
and Sinful. 

— of one transcending qualities. 

See Qualities. 

— of steady-minded man. See 


— unknown. See Unknown. 
Confidence, 326. 

Confinement of mind, 79. See 

Confluence, 287. 

Confusion, 43, 49, 50, 52, 59, 160, 
182, 254, 269, 308, 377. See 
Distraction and Soul. 

Conjunction, 330. 

Connexions. See Kinsmen. 

Conquered. See Accomplishment. 

Conquest. See Victory. 

Conscience, 41. 

Consciousness, 82, 88, 102, 103, 176, 

181,188,238,239,242,245, 290, 

334, 35o, 356, 359- 
Consequences, 156, 124, 126. See 

Consonants, 348. 
Constancy. See Perseverance. 
Constant, 100, 120, 125, 248, 289, 

331, 332, 360, 369, 375, 376. 
Constituents, 246, 318, 336, 343, 344. 

See Ingredient. 

Constitution, 236. 
Constraint. See Free-will. 
Consubstantial, 163. 
Consummation of devotion, 72. 
Contact with Brahman. See Assimi- 

— with knowledge, 72. 

— with objects, 44, 66, 126, 154, 

335, 343. 
Contamination. See Taint. 
Contemn, 246. See Despise. 
Contemplation, 47, 49, 50, 61, 100, 

in, 156, 162, 169, 181,234,245, 

283, 309, 389, 390. 
Contemporary Review, 5, 18. 
Contempt, 97, 120, 154. 
Contentment, 54, 60, 68, 86, 87, 101, 

166, 168, 240, 286, 288, 302,325, 

326, 334, 361. 
Continence, 169, 361, 389. 
Continuous meditation, 78, 79, 100, 


Control of nature. See Nature. 

— of senses. See Restraint, Senses. 

— of tongue. See Taciturnity. 
Controversialists, 90, 365. 
Contumely, 324. 
Conversation, 87, 232. 
Convictions, 55, 239, 304, 305. 

— demoniac, 118. 

— wrong, 52, 1 20, 320. See Notion, 


Cooked rice, 384. 

Cooking, 53, 279, 363. 

Copulative compound. See Com- 

Copyright, 5, 18. See Common pas- 
Coronet, 93, 96, 98. 
Corruption of women, 41. 
Cotton, 300. 
Counsellor, 280, 283. 
Counting of sins, 89. 
Country, 342. 

Courage, 48, 70, 90, 94, 102, 103, 
114, 124, 125, 126, 127,167,168, 
176, 182, 288, 301, 302, 325,332, 

Course of life. See Lite. 
Cousin, Victor, 1. 
Covering, 375. 

Covetous, 125. See Avarice. 
Cow, 65, 89, 209, 265, 353. 
Cowell. See Maitri Upanishad. 
Crafty, 125. See Cheat, Deceitful. 
Craving, 107, 166, 181, 342. 

.jo.) bhagavadgJtA, sanatsugAtIya, anugita. 

Created thingSj [24, 157, 190, 234, 

258, 260, 262. 
Creation, 90, 106, 107, 124, 31 3, 317, 

33-> 3 3 3 > 3 3 4> 34°, 3 44 > 345, 

J47j 35i, 352, 388. Sec Power, 

Source, and World, 
of man, 53. See Man. 

— of sacrifices, 52. 

Creator, 53, 59, 83, 86, 87, 90, 97, 
101,104, 121, 170, 231, 315, 334, 

338, 347, 354, 377, 387. 

Creatures, 54, 65, 69, 71, 74, 76, 86, 
88, 113, 114, 115, 118, 119, 156, 
167, 168, 183, 193,241,243,244, 
2 45, 246, 250, 257, 263, 268, 269, 
272, 273, 274, 275, 281,289,290, 
291,294,307,315, 318,321, 324, 
325,326,334,335, 339, 342, 345, 
347,354,357, 359, 3 6 2, 363, 364, 
365,371,374, 378, 385, 387, 389, 
39i, 392. 

Crooked. See Straightforward. 

— movement, 339. 
Cruel, 125, 181, 182. 
Cruelties,i66,i67,i68, 243, 323, 326. 
Crumbling of earth. See Earth. 
Culmination, 69. See Knowledge. 
Cunningham, 223. 

Curiosity, 311. 

Currents, 95, 187, 238, 318, 321, 322, 

325, 327, 329, 343- 
Curse. See Speech. 
Curtailing, 343, 344. See Abridging. 
Cutting. See Indivisible. 

Daityas. See Demons. 

Dakshi«a, 119, 261, 280. 

Danavas, 354. 

Dancers, 183, 208, 325. 

DaWin, 13, 144, 205. 

Danger, 47, 56, 125, 157, 167, 188, 
I 9°, 335» See Fear. 

Darkness, 75, 78, 87, 104, 107, 108, 
109, 110, 117, 118, 119, 120,122, 
124, 125, 126, 168, 180, 214,239, 
276,278, 284, 301,302,318,319, 
320,321,322,323, 328, 329, 330, 

33i, 334, 345, 349,356, 379,39°- 
Dajahotr/ &c, 262 seq., 266. 
Dajakumara/£arita. See DaWin. 
Dajaratha, 221. 

Davids, T. W. R., 23, 25, 64, 66, 
87, 306. 

Day and night, 51, 79, 80, 81, 276, 

277, 33o, 352, 354, 356. 
Deaf, 321, 322. 

Dear to Cod. Sec Favourite, God. 

Death, 44, 45, |6, 52, 56, 66, 77, 78, 
81, 84, 86, 89, 90, 95, 103, 105, 
108, 109, 115, 122, 142, 150,153, 
154, 155, 156, 163, 170,176,178, 
185,189, 191, 232, 233,237,238, 
249, 250,270,289,290,297,298, 
380, 381, 391. 

— according to quality, prevailing, 


— before and after, bliss, 66. 

— before and after, faith necessary, 


— certainty of, 45, 154, 355. 

— death of, 154. 

— fear of, 152. 

— in performing one's duty, 56. 

— life and infancy, 44. 

— meditation at time of, 78. 

— non-existent, 149, 151, 152. 

— release from, 77, 105, 152. See 

Age, old. 
— ■ time of, 52, 80. 

— world of. See World, mortal. 
Debasement of self, 68. 
Deceitful, 164, 324, 364. See Crafty. 
Decision. See Action. 
Declivity, 281. 

Decoration, 207, 324, 387. 

Decrying food, 216, 360. 

Dedication. See Action. 

Deed. See Act. 

Deer-skin, 68, 159, 360. 

Defeat. See Victory. 

Defects, 56, 65, 121, 122, 127, 166, 

168, 170, 182. 
Defiance, 324. 
Defiling. See Taint. 
Degradation, 157, 191, 243. 
Degrees. See Gradation. 
Deities, 123, 153, 179, 220, 243, 259, 

276,279,317, 334, 337,343,347, 

353> 358, 361, 362, 367. See 

Divinities, Organs. 
Deity, form of, 76, 78, 80. See 

Being-Supreme, Brahman, and 


Dejection, 42, 50. See Despondency. 
Deliberation. See Thought. 
Delight, 41, 177, 285, 324. See Joy, 

Deliverance. See Emancipation. 
Deliverer, 100. 

Deluge, 97, io6, 260, 388. See De- 
struction, Dissolution. 



Delusion, 42, 49, 52, 53, 55, 56, 57, 
58, 59, 62, 65, 66, 72, 75, 76, 81, 
82, 83, 86, 92, 104, 107, 108, 109, 
no, in, 112, 114, 115, 116,122, 
124, 126, 128, 129, 130,152,153, 
154, 155, 157, 161, 162,166,176, 
181, 182, 183, 184, 189,190,233, 
243, 256, 284, 293, 301,302,303, 
304, 317, 319, 320, 322,326,330, 
33i, 332, 333, 335, 343, 344,351, 
382, 386. 

■ — net of, 1 1 6. 

— power of, 59, 75, 76. 

— release from, 75, 76. 
Demerit. See Defects. 

Demon, 87, 89, 91, 94, 96, 151, 152, 
See Asura. 

Demoniac, 75, 83, 115. 

— birth, 116. 

— convictions, 118. 

— endowments, 114, 115. 
Departed spirits, 118. See Manes. 
Departure from world, 77, 78, 79, 

80, 81, 166, 191. 
■ — of soul. See Body-leaving and 

Dependence on God, 59, 66, 73, 75, 

— on none, 54, 60, 367, 368. 
Dependent, 167, 256, 290. See In- 

Depreciation of Ar^una's merits, 46, 

Descent, 321. 

Description of Brahman, 164. 

Desertion of man by God, 71. 

Deserving man, 169, 183. 

Designation of Brahman, 120. 

Desire, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 56, 57, 
58, 60,63, 65,66,67,69,70,74, 
75, 76, 78, 83, 84, ior, 102, 108, 
no, in, 115, 116, 117,118,121, 
123, 128, 151, 153, 154, 155,165, 
166, 169, 173, 176, 181,184,233, 
241, 246, 263, 269,275,283,284, 
288, 289, 300, 302,313,314,322, 
323, 324, 325, 326,327,342, 344, 
347, 349, 356, 357, 364,365,366, 
369, 37o, 376, 381. 

— capacity of obtaining, 92,171,287, 

327, 332, 373. See Objects of 

Despair. See Despondency. 

Despise, 370. See Contemn. 
Despondency, 40, 42,43,70,125,126, 
250, 320, 363. See Dejection. 
Destructible, 113, 244, 292. 
Destruction, fire of. See Fire. 

— of action, 60, 61, 355. See Action, 

destruction of. 

— of entities, 106, 154, 180,250,276, 

307, 335, 357, 365, 376, 378. 

— of food, 279. 

— of life. See of entities, supra, 

and Death. 

— of men, 190. 

— of nature, 106. 

— of others, 120, 348. 

— of self. See Self-destruction. 
— ■ of warriors, 95, 96. 

— of worlds, 55, 107, 115, 314. See 

Creatures, Deluge, Dissolution, 
Life, Nature, Production and 
destruction, and Ruin. 

— time of, 237. 
Determinate, 52, 63. 
Determination, 255, 260, 268, 299, 

348, 349, 35o, 368, 377. See 

Devadatta, 38. 
Devaki, 229. 
Devala, 87. 

Devamata, 226, 274, 275. 

Devatadhyaya-brahmawa, 20. 

Devayana, 314, 316. 

Development, 77, 103, 104, 109, 156, 
165, 166, 170, 184,186,288,318, 
33i, 334, 37o, 372, 375, 382,387, 

— of intelligence, 293. 

Devotee, 58, 61, 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 
7o, 71, 72, 73, 75, 79, 81, 84, 
85, 86, 87, 99, 100, 101, 102, 
104, 112, 129, 186,187,188,189, 
190, 191, 192, 193, 209,243,248, 
249, 266. 

— four classes, n, 75. 
Devotion, 9, 12, 17, 23, 48, 49, 50, 

52, 53, 55, 58, 60, 61, 62, 63, 
64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 
73, 78, 79, 81, 83, 84, 85, 87, 
99, 100, 103, no, 119, 128, 129, 
130, 173, 185, 232,243,255,299, 
308,310, 311, 324, 349,360,361, 
362, 368, 369, 381, 389. 

— mode of, 83. 

— same as renunciation, 67, 85. 

See Renunciation. 

— unconsummated, 72. 


Devout, 85, . See Pure. 
Dexterity, 38, 127, 326, 362. 
Dhaivata, 385. 

Dhammapada, 35, 50, 51, 52, 69, 71, 
84, 101, 102, 108, no, 123, 241. 

Dhanaffjraya, 38, 48, 49, 63, 74, 93, 
ioo, 125, 1 30, 230, 310, 394. 

Dharma, 219, 223, 306. 

Dhatu. Sec Elements. 

Dhrish/adyumna, 39. 

Dhrishfaketu, 37. 

Dhr/tarash/ra, 3, 35, 37, 39, 40,41, 
42, 43, 95, 135, 136, 141, H9, 
150, 151, 155, 156,157,158,162, 
163, 164, 165, 166,170,174,175, 

Dhyanayoga, 128. 
Diadem. See Coronet. 
Dialects &c. of South India, 222. 
Dialogue, 5, 130, 263. And see 

Dice, 91. 

Difference, apparent, 104, 105, 124, 

193. See Soul, State, Unity. 
Difficult deeds, 296. 

— penance, 300. 
Difficulty, 120, 128, 388, 389. 

— oflookingatUniversalform,93,99. 

— of worship, 1 00. 
Diffusive, 383. 

Digestion, 113, 236, 252, 273, 275. 
Dignity, 74. 
Din, 38, 39, 356. 
Dinner, 97. 

Directions. See Quarters. 
Direct knowledge, 82. 
Director, 281, 385. 
Disagreeable. See Agreeable. 
Disaster, 160. 

Discarding of entities. See Indiffer- 
ence to worldly objects. 

Discernment, 50, 53, 56, 67, 74, 76, 
91, 1 10, 112, 114, 117, 118, 123, 
125, 126, 154,155,166,183,256, 
320, 331. 

Disciple. See Pupil. 

Discomfort, 380. 

Discontent. See Contentment. 

Discrimination. See Discernment. 

Discus, 93, 98. 

Discussion, 276. See Controversial- 

Disdain. See Arrogance. 
Disease, 103, 118. See Ailment. 
Disgrace, 42, 46, 86. See Honour. 
Disguise of Dharma, 223. 

Disgust, 151, 324. 
Dishonest, 243. 
Dishonour. See Honour. 
Disorder. See Body and Mind. 
Disparagement of gods &c, 209, 2 14, 

Disposition, 43, 117, 182. 

— evil, 320. 

Disrespect, 83, 97, 159, 324, 368. 

Dissatisfaction. See Disgust. 

Dissociation. See Association and 

Dissolution, 80, 82, 84, 92, 112, 189, 
!92, 3i7, 335, 344, 387. See 
Destruction and Order of dis- 

Distinction, 83, 124, 126, 157, 285, 

33i, 335, 34i, 37o, 374,375,38i. 

See Difference. 
Distinguished, 168. 
Distinguishing power, 318. See 

Distraction, 49, 67, 269, 377. See 

Distress, 75,101, 368. See Calamity. 
Distribution of food, 119, 273, 275. 
Ditch, 155, 302. 
Diversified. See Variegated. 
Diversity, 313, 344, 374. 
Dividing soul. See Indivisible. 
Divine Being. See Being. 

— form. See Form. 

— nature, 75, 83, 367, 383. 

— speech, 265. 

— state. See Brahmic state. 
Divinities, 59, 75, 76, 77, 84, 115, 

123, 178. See Deities. 
Division, 327, 381. 

— of honey, 188. 
Doctrine, esoteric &c, 149. 

— holy, 82, 185, 255, 256. 
Doer. See Agent and Soul. 
Dog, 20, 65, 142, 160. 
Dolphin, 90. 

Domain. See Kingdom. 
Domination of Supreme, 75. 
Dominion. See Kingdom. 
Door, 270. 

Doubt, 72, 260, 375, 376. See Mis- 
givings, Objects of sense. 

— secret and open, 149. 
Downfall, 233, 355. See Fall. 
Downwards. See Branches and Up. 
Drag, 386. 

Drama. See Kavyas. 
Draupadi, 37, 39. 



Dravk/as, 225, 295. 

Dream, 349, 269, 387, 392. 

Drink, 113, 159, 183, 236, 259. See 

Objects of sense and Senses. 
Drinking, 48, 279, 354, 389. 
Driving. See Car. 
Dro«a, 37, 39, 42, 95, 96. 
Drooping of Arg-una's limbs, 40. 

See Despondency. 
Drupada, 37, 39. 
Drying up of mouth, 40. 

— of organs, 43. 

— of souls, 45. 

Dulness, 320, 391. See Ignorance. 
Dumb, 321. 

Duryodhana, 37, 38, 39. 

— leaders of his army, 39. 
Dushyanta, 39. 

Dust, 57. 

Duty, 21, 43, 46, 54, 55, 56, 59, 67, 
74, 108, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 
119, 120, 122, 125, 126, 127, 128, 
129, 157, 178,209,210,231,247, 
255,291,295, 296, 302, 322, 325, 
326, 329, 348, 359, 360,361,362, 
364, 365, 378, 393- See Ac- 
complishment, Action, pre- 
scribed and prohibited, Right 
and wrong. 

Dvaraka, 198, 230, 394. 

Dwelling in Brahman, 71, 75, 80, 82, 
84,85,100,106,194. See Assi- 
milation and Attainment. 

— of a Brahma«a &c, 159. See 

House and Residence. 

— of a donor, 185. 

Eagle, 90. 

Earnings, 54, 60, 363, 364. See Gain. 
Ears, 65, 103, 112, 253, 25 9, 261, 290. 

See Senses. 
Earth, 73, 74, 94, 102, 112, 113, 126, 

r 56, 179,187,192,260,261,290, 

291, 303, 304, 305, 339, 343, 352, 
364, 365, 381. 

— sovereignty of, 40. 
Ease, 65, 314. 

East, 354. 
Easy, 82. 

Eating, 61, 62, 64, 69, 85, 113, 118, 
363, 364, 365. 

Eclipses, 224, 330. 

Edge, sharp. See Arrows. 

Effect, 119, 383, 388. See Cause. 

Effects, household, 253. 

Effeminate, 42. 

Effort, personal, 46. See Assiduous. 

Effulgence, 94, 95. See Radiance 
and Refulgence. 

Eggs, 321, 339, 353. 

Ego and non-ego, 377. 

Egoism, 52, 55, 65, 74, 101, 102, 103, 
1 ] 8, 123, 124, 128, 153, 246, 280, 
287, 313, 317, 318,326,332, 333, 
334, 335, 33 6 , 338, 350, 355, 356, 
362, 366, 368, 370, 37ij382 } 383, 
385, 389.- 39o, 392. 

Egotism, 118, 124, 128, 268. See 
Arrogance, Pride, and Vanity. 

Eight, 373. 

Elders, 291. See Ancients. 

Elements, 84, 102, 179, 184, 238, 245, 
246, 247, 334>335,34°, 343, 34<5, 
34S, 352, 353, 355, 357, 368, 371, 

— gross. See Constituents and Ele- 


— subtle, 186, 285, 287, 313, 317. 
Elephant, 65, 89, 155, 208, 345. 
Elevated place, 68. 

Elevation of self. See Exaltation. 
Eleven, 318, 336. 

Emanation, 87, 88, 89, 91, 106, in, 

Emancipated. See Emancipation. 

Emancipation, 48, 50, 52, 54, 58, 59, 
67, 69, 72, 73, 89, 90, 99, in, 
1 15, 120, 122, 125, 127, 146, 156, 
157,162, 165, 170,176, 178, 184, 
189, 190, 191, 221,231,232,242, 
243, 245, 246, 247, 248,249, 252, 
-53, 254,255,265,276,278,280, 
284, 286, 287, 293, 301,306,307, 
309, 310,311, 312, 313, 314,317, 
322, 325, 326, 331, 333, 336, 344, 
362,363, 364, 366, 367,368,370, 

393, 394- 

— path of, 47, 48, 54, 58, 72, 73. 
Embodied soul, 44, 45, 46, 50, 51, 57, 

63, 65, 77, 100, 107, 108, 109, 

117, 122, 154, 158. 
Embodiment of Brahman, no. 
Embryo, 389. 
Emperor, 72, 232. 
Empty. See House. 
Emulation. See Superiority. 
Enamoured, 96, 107, 334. 
End, evil,' 72, 81, 103, 243. 

— of the great cause, 192, 287. 

408 bhagavadg{tA, san atsu gat! ya, anugita. 

End of things, 46, 354, 355. Sec 

Destruction of entities, 
of worldly life, 111. Sec Aims, 

Beginning, and W icked. 
Endowments, [14, 115, 36 2, 388. 
Endurance, 167, 168, 182, 246, 323. 
Enemy, 4 j, 46, 56, 57, 58, 67, 68, 82, 

9 9, 1 01, 1 10, 1 15, 116, 246, 282, 

283, 296, 300. 

— destroyer of, 42. 

— destruction of, 48, 302. 

— restrainer of, 231, 253, 312. 
Energy, 91, 106, 118, 124, 125, 177, 

255, 387. 
Engagement. See Appointment. 
Enjoyer, 105, 116, 379. 

— of qualities. See Qualities. 

— of sacrifices, 67, 84. 
Enjoyment, 40, 43,53,61,66, 84, 105, 

in, 112, 115, 116, 126, 154, 165, 
166, 167. 181, 182, 184, 188, 190, 
236,240,241, 268, 269, 283, 289, 
290,291,300, 304, 327, 328, 334, 

365, 375, 379? 383. 

— capacity of, 104. 

— higher and lower, 240. 

— nothing beyond, 115. 

- — repeated, 126. See Pleasure. 
Enlightenment, 107, 155, 265, 287, 

293,325, 329, 333, 348, 351, 356, 


Enmity, 99. See Benevolence. 

Enormity, 181. See Sin. 

Entities, 75, 76, 80, 82, 83, 88, 90, 
106, 107, in, 113, 126, 180, 190, 
192,244,260, 292, 312,313,315, 
316, 317, 318, 333,335,337, 338, 
339, 34i, 342, 347,351, 352, 353, 
357, 367, 368, 369, 370, 386, 387. 

— cause of. See Source. 

— distinctions between, 104, 318, 

328, 352, 375. 

— lord of, 83, 88. 

— supporter of, 80. 

— threefold division of, 337. See 

Creation, Destruction, Produc- 
tion, Source, Unity, and Within. 
Entity, real, 124, 154, 157, 176, 191, 
307,308, 309, 312, 333, 335, 343, 
370, 372. 

Entrance into the Supreme, 82, 94, 
95, 99, 128, 285. See Assimila- 
tion and Essence. 

Enumeration of qualities, 124. 

Environment, 355. 

Envy, 166, 362. See Superiority. 

Ephemeral. Sec Perishable. 

Epic Age. See Greek poetry. 

Equability, 47, 48, 49, 60, 65, 71, 86, 
100, 101, 103, no, 325, 326, 359, 
366, 372, 373. See Alike and 

Equal, 97, 116. See Power, un- 

Equanimity. See Equability. 

Equilibrium, 217, 331. 

Equivocal words, 52. 

Error, 65, 369. See Conviction false. 

Esoteric. See Doctrine. 

Essence, 50, 58, 59, 74, 76, 78, 107, 
109, no, 128, 130,370, 379, 382. 

Eternal, 62, 74, 76, 79, 80, 81, 87, 94, 
100,110, 1 12, 128, 157, 186, 187, 
188, 189, 190, 191,192, 230, 233, 
238, 241, 245, 247, 248,255,265, 
277, 3i3,3i4,3i7,33i,334, 339, 
35o, 376, 39i. 

Eternity of soul, 43, 44, 45. 

Evening, 361. 

Evenness, 67, 69. 

Everlasting, 45, 58, 79, 157, 233, 317, 

355, 369, 37o. 
Evil, 103, 105, 115, 121, 126, 127, 247, 

276, 277, 289, 366. 

— action, 121. 

— cause of, 156. 

— conduct. See Ill-conducted. 
■ — doers, 59, 75. See Wicked. 

— duty, 56, 127. 

— end, 72. 

— of attachment. See Attachment. 

— perception of, 103. 

— release from, 60, 81. 

— speaking, 182. 

— world, 60. 
Exaltation of self, 67. 
Examination. See Test. 
Example, 41, 54, 59. 
Excellent, 86, 92. 
Excess, 159. 

Exclusion. See Objects of sense. 
Exclusive. See Concentration. 
Excretions, 4, 65, 155, 236, 252, 261, 
336, 338. See Organs and Senses. 

— menstrual, 275. 
Excretive organs, 297. 

Exercise, 69, 236, 323, 360. See 

Exertion. See Assiduous. 
Exhalation, 264, 265, 372. 
Exhaustion, 355. 

Existence, 1 05, 1 20,1 76, 2 92, 35 1, 377. 


Existence and non-existence, 44, 84, 
96, 103, 191, 194, 276, 277, 331, 

375, 377. 
Exoteric. See Doctrine. 
Expanse, 258. 

Expectation, 60, 68, 1 19,120,292,324, 

Experience, 50, 57, 66, 68, 73, 81, 82, 
99, 112, 126, 179, 185, 186, 187, 
188,189, i9°> !9i> 192,193,231, 
245,248,249,250,253,256, 263, 
309, 316, 342, 344, 368. 

Expiation, 324. 

External and internal. See Bodily 
and Mental. 

— objects. See Objects of sense. 

— world. See World. 
Extinction. See Fire. 
Exultation and grief, 50,65, 249, 285, 

300, 325. See Joy. 
Eye, 65, 67, 69, 187, 189, 219, 253, 
258, 259,260,290, 307, 347, 359, 
366. See Senses. 

— divine, 72, 239. 

— many an, 93, 94. 

— of knowledge. See Knowledge, 

eye of. 

— on all sides, 93, 103, 332. 

— sun and moon, 94. 

Eyelid, opening and closing, 64, 161, 
356, 372. 

Faces downwards, 287. 

— in all directions, 90, 93, 103, 253, 

332, 345. 
Factiousness, 182. 
Failure. See Success. 
Faith,56, 62,63, 72, 73, 76,77, 82, 84, 

99, I02, II 5 , 117, Il8, II 9 , 121, 

321, 324,325, 358, 365, 366,378. 

Fall, 84, 107, 113, 116, 240. See 

Falsehood. See Truth. 

Faltering, 46. 

Fame, 46, 90, 116, 236, 287, 358. 

— of Krishna, 96. 
Family, destruction of, 41. 

— extinction of, 41. 

— rites of, 41, 42. 

Fancies, 60, 67,70, 1 16, 171,184, 185, 
247, 284, 288, 355. See Pon- 
dering and Thought. 

Far and near. See Afar. 

Far-seeing, 160, 391. 

Fastenings, 356. 

Fasts, 76, 283, 324. 
Fat, 384. 

Father, 40,83,97,107, 176, 194,233, 
243, 290, 303, 304, 394. 

— and son, 98. 
Father-in-law, 40. 
Fatigue, 357. 

Fault-finding. See Calumny and 

Faults, 247, 293, 320. 
Fauriel, M., 6. 

Favour, 71, 128, 129, 130, 161, 310, 

372. See Soul. 
Favourite, 17, 75, 85, 86, 87, 101, 

102, 129, 183, 230, 394. 

— name, 79. 

Favouritism, 59, 85, 182. See Im- 

Fear, 46, 50, 58, 67, 69, 86, 94, 96, 98, 
101, 114, 122, 126, 151, 155, 159, 
161, 167, 246, 250, 285, 387, 292, 
294,295, 3 2 o, 325, 329, 33o, 344, 
357, 362. See Danger. 

Fearful. See Difficult and Terrible. 

Feathered arrows, 298. 

Feeling, 104, 112, 288. See Organs 
and Senses. 

Fees. See Gift. 

Feet, 53, 94, 103, 119, 235, 253, 261, 

332, 339, 359, 367, 380. 
Felicity, 162. 

Fellow-student. See Student. 
Felons, 41. 

Females, 41, 85, 90, 241, 255, 275, 
277,287,295,324,346,347. See 
Corruption and Male and fe- 

Ferocious, 115, 116, 323. 

Fetter, 53, 62, 64, 123, 127. See 

Action and Bond. 
Fibres, 176, 249. 
Fickleness, 167. See Mind. 
Field, 41, 72, 354- 
Fierce. See Ferocious. 
Fig tree, 89. 

Figure and trope. See Bhagavadgita 
and Sanatsu^atiya, and Simile. 

Finding fault. See Carping. 

Fire, 45, 57, 61, 62, 67, 73, 74, 80, 83, 
88, 94, 95, 97, 102, 112, 113, 
127,156,192, 242, 247, 257, 259, 
260,261,262, 268, 270, 271, 276, 
277,279,283, 288, 307, 308, 319, 
336,338,342, 346, 353, 360, 362, 
380, 388. 

--- and smoke, 57, 127. 

4io bhagavadgItA, sanatsugatiya, anugita. 

Fire, discarding, 67. 
- of destruction, 95. 

— of knowledge, 60, 62. 

See Brahman and Sense. 
Firm, (5, 49, toi. See Fixed. 
Firmness in vows, 83. 
of belief, 77. 

— of mind, 49. 

of resolution, 70, 125. See Cou- 
rage, Faith, and Understanding. 
First, 161, 34 s, 352 seq. 
First-born. See First. 
Fish, 90, 155, 374. 
Fisherman, 382. 
Fit donee &c. Sec Gift. 
Fixed firmly, 29, 89, 111. 
Fixing. See Concentration. 
Flame. See Fire. 
Flamingo, 138, 189. 
Flesh, 252, 335, 343, 367. 
V lickerings, 69. 
Flippancy, 183. 

Flower and fruit, 85, 93, 285, 286, 
309, 3i3, 365, 37i 5 388. 

— bunches, 313. 
Flowery talk, 47. 
Flowing element, 342. 
Foam and water, 104 . 
Foe. See Enemy. 

— terror of, 42, 43, 58, 62, 76, 82, 84, 

9i, 97, 99, 126, 232, 234, 311. 

Foetus, 57, 144, 176, 240, 242. 

Following. See Imitation and Obe- 

Folly, 126. See Frenzy. 

Fondness, 74. See Acquisition. 

Food, 83,118, 1 19, 144, 156, 159, 188, 
279,343, 353, 360, 363, 364, 388. 
See Eating. 

— cooking for oneself only, 53. 

— digestion and distribution of, 273, 


— fourfold, 113. 

— moderation in. See Eating. 

— origin of creatures, 54. 
Forbearance. See Forgiveness. 
Force. See Brute force. 

Forest, 173, 259, 284, 285, 286, 288, 
307, 342, 361, 362, 363, 372,386. 

Forester,2i7, 307, 316, 345,354,358, 

Forest-products, 361. 
Forgetfulness of Ar^-una, 230. « 

— of Krishna, 230. 

— of one's nature, 50, 152, 154. 

Forgiveness, 86, 90, 101, 103, 114, 
126, 176, 181, 182, 183, 320, 321, 
325, 326, 359, 362, 373. 

Form divine, 92, 93, 229. 

— divine, entry into. See Entrance. 

— divine, sight of, desired by gods, 99. 

— divine, wonderful, 94. 

— fierce, 95. See Terrible. 

— human. See Human. 

— infinite, 97, 98. 

— material of Brahman, 58. 

— of Brahman. See Brahman. 

— ■ universal, 97, 98, 99, 130. See 

Former life. See Life, previous. 
Formless, 233, 247. 
Forms, many, 83, 92, 93, 274. See 


— of all, 93. 

— of nature, 74. 

Fortnight,8i, 188, 316, 330, 352,356. 
Fortune, 90, 131. 
Four-handed, 98. 

Fragrance, 74, 247, 257, 258, 286, 29 1 , 
309. See Objects of sense, Per- 
fume, and Senses. 

Free, 60, 65, 243, 342. 

Freedom from action, 5 2, 54,56, 127, 
256, 257, 362. 

— from delusion, 75, 76. 

— of will. See Desire and Free-will. 
Freeman, E. A., 5, 18, 203. 
Free-will, 53, 56, 80, 8 2, 1 28, 1 56, 157. 
Frenzy, 115, 116, 151, 168, 183, 323. 

See Folly. 

Friend, 40, 41, 58, 67, 68, 72, 84, 97, 
98, 101, no, 167, 181, 183, 184, 
233, 246, 290, 295, 364. 

Friendly, 101, 342. 

Frivolous, 308. 

Fruit, connexion of, with action, 65. 

— of action, 48, 49, 58, 59, 60, 65, 

67, 73, 76, 8t, 84, 85, 100, 101, 
109, 118, 1 19, 120, 121, 122, 123, 
124, 125,126, 153, 156, 158,165, 
188, 191,236,240,243, 264, -.07, 
312, 325, 326, 348, 355, 365,369, 
373, 38o, 382. 

— of Sarikhya and Yoga, 64. 

— of worship, 76, 81, 84. See 
Flower, Phalajruti, and Tree. 

Frustration of desire, 50. See Desire. 
Fuel, 62, 247, 259, 261, 268, 283, 286, 

290, 291, 307, 308, 342. 
Fugitive. See Perishable. 
Full of Brahman, 59. 


4 II 

Funeral rites. See Balls of food. 
Future, 76, 79, 90, 170, 194, 269, 314, 

3 2 5, 331, 366, 392. See Entities 

and World. 

Gadfly, 284. 

Ga^asa, 394. 

Gahnavi. See Ganges. 

Gain and loss, 47, 151, 170, 246. See 

Camas, 224, 225, 226, 364. 
Gamadagni, 294, 295, 300. 
Gambling, 324. See Game. 
Gambu, 346. 

Game, 91. See Gambling. 
Gamut, 385. 

Ganaka, 5, 54, 215, 222, 303, 304, 

Ganame^aya, 229. 

Ganardana, 41, 42, 52, 88, 99, 233, 

Ga«as, 346. 
Gandhara, 385. 

Gandharvas, 89, 94, 178, 347, 387. 

Gawiiva, 40. 

Ga«g-am, 223. 

Ganges, 90, 222, 354. 

Gapa, 89, 184. 

Garhapatya, 262. 

Garrulity, 168, 181. See Taciturnity. 
Garu<ia, 90. 
Gasp, 239. 
Gastric. See Fire. 
GaiWapada, 160, 324, 376. 
Gautama, 208, 213, 218, 224, 236, 

3i4 ? 353, 354, 359,362, 363, 365. 

See Buddhism. 
Gayadratha, 96. 
Gayatri, 90, 353. 
Gem, 384. 
General, 89. 

— his position in army, 38. 
Generation, 74, 89, 260, 287, 336. 

See Organs and Senses. 
Generosity. See Gifts. 
Genital organ, 261, 336, 338. 
Gentle, 114, 119, 341. 
Germs, 339. 
Ghee, 384. 

Gifts, 21, 22, 23, 81, 84, 85, 86, 98, 
99, 114, 116, 118, 119, 120, 121, 
122, 127,147,167, 169, 173, 182, 
183, 184, 218,242, 282, 326, 321, 
324, 325, 326,330, 340, 359, 364, 
376. See Dakshiwa. 

Girdle, 217, 360. 

[8] D 

Gishwu, 219, 332. 

Gita. See Bhagavadgita. 

Given up to God. See Devotion. 

Gladstone, W. E., 4. 

Gleaning corn, 21, 217. 

Glorification, 64, 83. 

Glorious, 172, 289, 303. 

Glory, 43, 74, 86, 91, 93, 96, 97, 
98, 112, 126, 158, 164, 179, 180, 
185, 186, 192,276,287,308,376, 

Glow-worm, 239. 
Glutinous, 384. 
Gwanakanda. See Vedas. 
G«anendra Sarasvati, 33. 
Gnat, 374, 379- 

Goal, 59, 61, 65, 67, 69, 73, 75, 79, 
80, 81, 83, 85, 86, 87, 97, 99, 
100, 102, 104, 106, 107, 1 17, 156, 
163,167, 182, 231,233,255, 256, 
258, 3n,3i5, 333, 349, 358, 372, 
387, 388, 392. 

Goat, 290, 321, 353. 

God, 98, 192, 284. 

— dear to man of knowledge, 75. 

— form of, 76, 78. 

— full of. See Full. 

— manifest, not to all, 76. 

— mover of world. See Movement. 

— not active agent, 59, 65, 106. 

See Soul. 

— primal, 96. 

— source unknown, 86. 

■ — superior none, 74. See Brahman, 
Deity, Dependence, Hatred, and 

Goddess, 347. 

Godlike. See Endowments. 

Gods, 16, 53, 61, 80, 84, 86, 87, 88, 
93, 94, 95, 99, 105, 108, 109, 
118,119, 126,146, 151, 153, 160, 
169, 186,241, 250, 254, 255, 282, 
283, 305, 3o6, 3i6, 320,322,324, 
327, 33i, 338, 345,347,354, 377, 
387, 389, 390. 

— censure of, 150. 

— disparagement of. See Disparage- 


— first of, 87, 93, 95, 97- 

— lord of, 84, 87, 93, 95, 96, 98. 

— nature of. See Endowments. 

— sacrifice to, 61. 

— sovereignty of, 43. 

— ■ world of, 84, 254, 322. See World. 
Going and returning. See Coming 
and going, and Return. 


412 bhagavadgItA, sanatsugatiya, anugita. 

Gold, 68, i 10, 189, 209,333,353, 365, 

Goldstiiekcr, Prof., 3, 5,6, 8, 14, 20, 
33, 74i 79, 89, 1 18. 

Good, 4a, 43, 52, 53, 59, 68, 85, 91, 
105, 1 oS, 109, 1 15, 1 18, I 20, 124, 
168, 175,178, 19', 243,276,277, 
282, 287, 290, 292,293, 300, 301, 
302, 311, 314, 316,319,320, 325, 

326, 348, 349, 358, 359 5 3 68 , 377, 

— deeds,doers 0^72,75,105,153,243. 
Goodness, 75, 91, 106, 107, 108, 109, 

117, 1 18, 120, 122, 124, 125, 126, 
184, 276,278,300, 306,318,319, 
326,327,328, 329,330,331,334, 
373, 374, 376. 
Government of tongue. See Taci- 

— of world. See Universe. 
Governor. See Ruler of universe. 
Govinda, 40, 43. 

Gracious, 95, 98. 
Gradation, 381, 385, 387, 388. 
Gradual progress, 70. See Improve- 
Grain, 361. 
Grammarian, 174. 

Grammatical blunders of demons, 

Grandsire, 38, 40, 83, 194, 244, 271, 
289, 295, 300, 303, 304, 314, 374. 

— great, 97. 
Grandson, 40. 

Grass, 68, 142, 159, 360. 
Gratitude, 176, 177. 
Great, capacity of becoming, 92. 
See Large. 

— men, 54, 72. 
Greatness, 333, 347, 354. 
Greatness of Supreme, 92, 97, 128, 

157, 287, 336. 

— worldly, 151, 178. 
Greek poetry, 5, 18, 203. 
Green, 384. 

Grey, 179, 384. 

Grief, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 66, 101, 
1 15, 1 18, 1 26, 1 28, 166, 181, 183, 
193, 250, 284, 285, 301, 320, 326, 

327, 343,354, 355, 35 6 , 356, 366, 
393. See Sorrow. 

Griffiths, R. T. H., 90. 

Grote, G., 5, 6. 

Group. See Collection. 

— of senses. See Senses. 
Gu^/akeja, 39, 43, 88, 92. 

Guesses at truth, 8, 12. 

Guests, 216, 243, 285, 286, 306, 358, 

361, 364. 
Guide, 348. 
Guilt, 98. See Fault. 
Guru. See Preceptor. 
Gurujishyasawvada, 199 seq. See 

Guruskandha, 222, 346. 
Gyotish/oma, 156, 164. 

Habit of pondering, 78, 250. 
Habitation, 251. See Dwelling. 
Hair, 40, 93, 130, 362. 

— matted. See Matted hair. 

— thick, 39. 
Half-hearted, 73. 

Hall, F. E., 8, 10, 28, 141, 197, 201, 
202, 204, 219,221, 222, 244, 280, 
285,300,317, 327, 332, 333, 334, 
337, 338, 373, 390, 392. 

Hamilton, Sir W., 378. 

Hawsa, 381. 

Hands, 53, 261, 359, 367. 

— four, 98. 

— joining, 93, 94,96, 294, 311. 

— on all sides, 103, 203, 253, 332. 

— one thousand. See Arms. 
Hanging, 237. 

Hankering. See Craving, Desire. 

Hanumat. See Ape. 

Happiness, 51, 63, 65, 66, 70, 76, 85, 
87, 101, 103, 107, 108, no, 116, 
117, 126,170,185, 189,233,242, 
250,255,270,285, 300,311, 314, 
325, 34i, 342, 347, 348, 369,378, 
380, 389. See Enjoyment, 
Pleasure, and Unhappiness. 

Hard, 341, 384. 

Hari, 92, 130, 219, 347. 

Harmlessness, 83, 86, 101, 103, 114, 
119, 124, 325, 364, 373, 376. 

Harsha&irita, 28. 

Harshavardhana, 27, 28. 

Harshness, 114, 181, 256. See Mer- 

Haste, 175. 

Hastinapur, 2, 394. 

Hateful to Supreme Being, 85. See 
Likes and dislikes. 

Ha/>6a-yoga, 297. 

Hatred, 68, 85, 99, 101, 116, 168, 
182,194, 281,288, 289,301, 320, 
323, 365. See Antipathy. 

Haug, M., 19, 221, 276, 277. 

Haughty, 167, 168, 320, 324. 



Head, 69, 79, 93, 103, 238, 253, 332, 

367. See Bow. 
Heads smashed, 95. 
Headstrong, 125,320. See Stubborn. 
Health, 118. 

Heard instruction, 49, 105, 173, 283. 
Hearer, 282, 283. 

Hearing, 130,246, 258, 259, 309, 351. 
See Heard, Instruction, Senses. 

Heart, 42, 43, 50, 51, 52, 64, 69, 70, 
79, 85, 87, 88, 98, 104, 113, 114, 
118, 119,122,129, 153, 177, 183, 
187, 192,194,232,239,242,251, 
252,278,281, 282, 283, 287, 293, 
303,308, 332, 342, 345, 350, 361, 

Heat, 84, 95, 237, 329, 330. See 

— and cold. See Gold and heat. 
Heaven, 42, 46, 47, 48, 49, 72, 81, 84, 

93, 94, 120, 125, 126, 130, 156, 
158,159,165,179, 187, 192,240, 
264,281,289,290, 307,322,325, 

— degrees in, 240. 

— sovereignty of, 43. 

— touching, 94. 

— voice from, 295. 
Heaviness, 320, 327. See Lazy. 
Heedlessness, 63, 97, 108, 109, 126, 

152,153,155, 156, 168, 169, 170, 
176, 183, 253, 324, 359. 
Hell, 41, 42, 116, 155, 183, 190, 233, 
240, 259, 321, 378. 

— ways to, 116. 
Helpless, 336, 365. 
Helplessness of Arguna, 43. 
Herbs, 83, 1 1 3, 346, 388. See Vege- 

Heretics, 171. 
Hermitage, 221, 285, 294. 
Hero, 37, 95, 98, 295. 
Hidden. See Concealed. 
Hideous, 343. 

Highest, 74, 99, 108, 113, 244, 309, 

368, 369, 372, 389, 390. See 

High position, 68, 178, 233. 
High-souled, 75, 79, 83, 94, 96, 98, 
151,294,295,296, 314, 327, 348, 

389, 39i, 393- 
Hill, 284, 287. See Mountain. 
Himalaya, 29, 89, 222, 346. 
H irawyagarbha, 108,111,186,315,333. 
History, 1. 


Holes, dwellers in, 345. 
Holiness. See Purity. 
Holy, 87, 119, 331, 333, 336, 347, 
354,377, 378, 392. See Devout. 

— dialogue, 129, 130. 

— means of immortality, 102. 

— men, 72. 

— world, 84. 
Home, 113, 170, 355. 

— of woes, 79. 

Homeless, 101, 103, 352, 355. 
Homeric question, 4, 5. 
Honey, 188, 190. 

Honour, 116, 118, 119, 160, 243, 246, 
302, 361, 363. 

— and dishonour, 68, 101, no. 
Hope, 82, 115. 
Horizontally, 287. 

Horrific. See TerJble. 
Horses, 89, 187, 381, 386. 

— white, of Arg-una, 38. 
Hospitality, 286, 294. See Guest. 
Host, 358. 

Hosts. See Army. 
Hot, 118, 246, 384. 
Hotr/. See Priest. 
House-decoration, 207, 3^4. See 

Householder, 307, 316, 354, 358, 

360, 362, 377. 
Hr/'shikeja, 38, 39, 43, 96, 121, 242, 

248, 270, 363, 367. 
Hue. See Colour. 
Human form, 76, 83, 87. 

— world, 20. See World, human. 
Humility, 65, 116, 314, 326. See also 

Hunger, 151, 356, 359. 
Hunter, 142, 167. 
Hurry. See Haste. 
Hurtful, 384. 

Hurtfulness. See Harmlessness. 
Husband and wife, 98, 256. 
Hymns, 94, 102, 280. See Saman. 
Hypocrite, 53, 164. 

Ida, 257, 277, 318. 

Idealism, 107, 387. 

Identification with Brahman, 52, 61, 
62, 64, 65, 69, 70, 71, 75, 83, 
106,114, 120, 128, 156, 162, 164, 
167,169, 176, 181, 188, 189, 190, 
191, 193, 234, 283, 385. See 

— of self with all, 62, 64, 246, 307, 

310. See Unity. 



Identification of self with wife &c, 

10^, 248. 
Identity. See Soul. 
Idiots, 321, 

Ignominy, j 3 3. Sec Disgrace. 
Ignorance, 63,65, 76, 87, 100, 103, 

109. 1 14, 116,120, 151, 155,157, 

i^o, 168, 171, 178, 186,267, 319, 

3-^, 357, 39o. 
about Supreme, 75, 76, 309. 
Ignorant people, 55, 63, 76, 109,151, 

156, 158. 
Ikshvlku, 58. 

Ill-conducted, 71, 85, 105, 321. 
Ill-success. See Success. 
Illumination of world, 178, 186. 
Illustrious. See Great men. 
Image, 208, 242. See Embodiment 

and Representative. 
Imitation, 55. 
Immaculate. See Soul. 
Immaturity, 320. 

Immediate knowledge. See Direct. 

Immortal, 43,44, 45, 84, 86, 102, 103, 
109, no, 143, 152,153, 166, 168, 
170, 176, 179, 180,182, 185, 187, 
189,190, 191, 192,193, 244,255, 
282, 313, 343,357, 3 6 7,372, 373, 

Immovable, 100, 159, 266, 307, 321, 

330, 33i, 353, 355, 383, 387. 
See Movable. 

Immutable. See Unchangeable. 

Impartiality, 85, 101, 128. See Alike 
and Equability. 

Impassable, 284, 285, 389. 

Impatience, 166. 

Impediment. See Obstacle. 

Imperceptible, 234, 241. See Per- 

Imperfect. See Knowledge. 

Imperfection, 168. 

Imperishable, 58, 81, 128, 245, 248, 

357, 3 6 7, 385- 
Impermanence. See Perishable. 
Impiety, 41, 125, 158, 246, 319, 348. 

See Piety. 
Implement. See Instrument. 
Important. See Excellent. 
Impression, 247, 264,266, 318, 358, 

383, 392. 
Improvement, 321. 
Impure, 1 18, 125, 154. 

Inaccessible, 295. 

Inaction, 48, 53, 60, 67, 115, 122, 125, 
320. See Freedom from action. 

Inanimate creation, 77, 244. 
Inattention. See Heedlessness. 
Incarnation, 59, 221. See Manifesta- 

Incautious, 97. See Heedlessness. 
Incendiary, 41. 

Inclination, 282, 283,318. See Dis- 

Incombustible, 44, 45. 

Incomprehensible, 391. See Un- 

Inconstancy, 287, 289, 335. 

Incontinent, 236. 

Incorrect. See Conviction and 

Indecision. See Misgivings. 
Indefeasible, no. 
Indefinable, 44, 94, 97. 
Independence, 326. See Dependent 

on none. 
Indescribable, 100. 
Indestructible, 44, 45, 46, 54, 66, 77, 

78, 80, 94, 96, 99, 100, 113, 173, 

179, 244, 248, 257, 292, 391. 
India, South. See Dialect and 


Indication of Brahman, 102. 
Indicative use of words, 272. 
Indifference, means of, 341. 

— to ordinary books, 49. 

— to worldly objects, 9, 10, 69, 71, 

89, 101, 103, in, 128, 168, 169, 

Indifferent, 68, 82, 100, no, 113. 

Indigent, 256, 304, 376. 

Indignities, 233. See Ignominy. 

Indische Studien, 33. 

Individual soul. See Soul. 

Indivisible, 45. 

Indolence, 108, 320. See Lazy. 
Indra, 88, 89,96,175, 219, 250,261, 

282, 316, 338, 346,388. 
Indraprastha, 229, 394. 
Indu, 346. 

Indulgence of senses, 54. See Senses. 

Industry, 91. See Assiduous. 

Inexhaustible, 44, 45, 58, 59, 75, 76, 
83, 84, 90,92,94, 106, 107, in, 
113, 124, 187, 250, 332, 372. 

Inexpugnable, 312. 

Infamy. See Disgrace. 

Infancy compared to death, 44. 

Inference, 160, 291, 367, 373, 374. 

Inferior. See Beasts, Entities, and 

Infidel, 378. 



Infinite, 93, 96, 97, 98, 344, 348. 
Information. See Knowledge. 
Ingenious, 173. 
Ingredient, 385. 
Inheritance, 21, 217. 
Initiation, 285, 286, 347, 361. 
Injury, 101, 114, 119, 124, 159, 167, 

168, 176, 182, 318, 323. See 

Insatiable. See Desire. 
Inscriptions, 13, 28, 223. 
Insects, 225, 321, 339. 
Insignificant, 124, 335. 
Inspiration, 76, 281. 
Instruction, 21, 22,23, 87, 102, 105, 

172,176, 177, 218, 248, 251, 254, 

264,281, 282, 283, 290, 312,324, 

359, 365, 393, 394- 

Instructor. See Preceptor. 

Instrumental, 123, 278,348,357,365. 

Intellect, 86, 90, 257, 309, 320. 

Intelligence, 86, 125, 127, 234, 241, 
242, 263, 269, 276, 284, 286, 296, 

Intelligent. See Unintelligent. 

Intent, 66, 73, no, 308, 392. See 

Interest, 54, 193. 

Interminglings. See Caste. 

Interpolation in Mahabharata, 4, 34, 
340. See Anugita. 

Interspace between earth and sky, 94. 

Intoxicating drinks, 183, 279. 

Introspection, 105. 

Invincible, 180, 389. See Uncon- 

Invisible, 192. See Movement, con- 
cealed, and Regulation. 

Involuntary action. See Free-will. 

Irascible, 167. See Wrath. 

Iron, 208, 242. 

Irregular worship, 84. 

Lopanishad, 54, 62, 71, 104, 106, T53, 
160, 180, 187, 192, 193, 194,248, 

305, 39i- 
Lvara, 219, 315, 354. 
Lvaragita, 2. 

Itihasa, ancient, 198, 207, 210, 226, 
238, 256, 261, 268, 270, 274, 277, 
282, 289, 293, 296, 303, 310. 

Jaws, 94, 95. 

Jewels, 347, 353. 

Joint, 237, 258, 356. 

— earnings. See Earnings. 

Journey, 380. 

Joviality, 326. 

Joy, 86, 96, 98, 101, 116, 131, 183, 
185, 284, 300, 301, 325, 326, 357, 

363, 378. 
Joy and sorrow, 125, 183. 
Judgment, 51, 76. See Discernment. 
Juice, 113, 236, 238, 252, 363. 
Jungle. See Forest. 
Just, 123. 
Justice, 131. 

Kadamban, 27, 28. 
Kaffirs, 97. 

/fakrapravartana. See Wheel, turn- 
ing of. 
ATakravartin, 232. 

Kalidasa, 13, 14, 28, 29, 30, 80, 220, 

221, 224. 
Kalpa, 82, 387. 
.Kalukyas, 28. 
Kamadhenu. See Cow. 
-KaWala, 23, 322, 343. 
ATandra, 219, 220. 
iTandraya«a, 164. 
Ka/7/£ipura, 223. 
Kapila, 89, 105, 124, 211. 
KarmakaWa. See Vedas. 
Karmamarga, 171. 
Karmayoga, 105. 
Kar«a, 7, 38, 95, 96. 
Kartavirya, 221, 293. 
jKTarvaka, 24, 214, 376, 377. 
Kin, 37, 39. 
Kajika, 32. 

Kajyapa,205, 231, 232,234, 235,245, 
314, 389. 

Kathasaritsagara, 32, 206. 

Kathava/e, A. V., Prof., 137, 199* 

Ka^opanishad, 45, 46, 57, 65, 66, 67, 
76, 78, 79, 80, 1 08, in, 112, 124, 
129, 152, 153, !54> 156,157,158, 
160, 162, 163, 169, 170,172, 173, 
175, 176, 179, 180, 186, 187, 188, 
192, 193,211, 212, 233, 234,2^6, 
247,249,253,264, 286,313,317, 
333, 337, 338, 339, 34i,34<>, 37o, 
385, 386, 388, 391, 392. 

Aaturhotra, 277. 

Katyayana, 32. 

Kaumudi. See Siddhanta-kaumudi. 

Kaunteya. See Kunti. 

Kauravas, 2, 3,6, 26, 38,39,40,62, 88, 

98, 135, 136, 311, 312, 393, 394. 
Kaushitaki-upanishad, r 12, 180, 208, 

249, 259, 264,268, 271, 277, 314, 

362, 389. 


Kautsa, 214. 

K&vyas and Na/akas, 1 3, 1 5, 1^2, 144. 
Keeping people to duty. Sec Duty. 
Kekit&na, 37. 
Kenopanishad, 163, 257. 
Kerala, 223. 

Kejava, 35, 40, 49, 52, 87, 96, 130, 

229, 230. 
Keshub Chunder Sen, 26. 
Kejin, 121. 
Kettledrum, 38. 

Pandas, 16, 1 1 r, 146, 164, 171, 172. 
See Vedas. 

A7'findogya-uparjishad, 17, 20, 58, 64, 
68, 79, 81, 84, 88, 90, 91, 114, 
120, 141, 143, 145, 150, 152, 156, 
158, 161, 164, 165, 166,167,170, 
171,172, 173,174, 175, 176, 178, 
179, 187, 189, 190, 191, 193, 194, 
243, 246, 249, 252, 258,259, 262, 
263, 264, 265, 266,268, 269, 270, 
312, 314, 320, 321, 322,331, 337, 
339, 340, 345, 347, 353,389, 39i, 

Killing, 96, 116. See Murder. 

Kind. See Compassion. 

King, 23, 30, 72, 82, 89, 90, 95, 162, 
167, 169, 170, 171, 175, 178,179, 
181, 185, 233, 294, 296,299, 303, 
346, 347, 348. See Ruler. 

Kingdom, 43, 96, 302, 303, 304, 305. 
See Sovereignty. 

Kinnaras, 347, 354. 

Kinsmen, 40, 41, 42, 68, 159, 233, 
246, 281, 294. 

Aintamatfi, 179. 

ATitraratha, 89. 

Knowable. See Knovvledge,objectof. 

Knower. See Knowledge, subject of. 

Knowledge, 12, 17, 44, 46, 47, 52, 55, 
56, 57, 58, 59, 60,61, 62, 63, 65, 
67, 68, 72, 73, 75, 81, 82, 83, 
84, 86, 87, 89, 91, 99, 100, 101, 
102, 103, 104, 106, 107, 108, 109, 
113, 114, 115, 123, 124,126,127, 
128, 129, 147, 154, 156,158,159, 
162, 164, 166, 167,168, 173, 174, 
175, 176,177,178, 179,180,181, 
187, 188, 189, 190, 194, 231, 
239, 242, 245, 247, 253,254, 256, 
261,262, 263, 264, 266, 267, 276, 
279, 280, 286, 287, 288,292, 307, 
308, 309, 310,312, 313,314, 315, 
316, 317, 319, 320,322,326, 331, 

332, 335, 337, 339, 341,344, 348, 
349, 35o, 351, 352, 355,367, 368, 
369, 37o,37r, 372, 373, 374, 375, 
377,378,379, 380,381, 388,389, 
390, 39i, 392. 
Knowledge, boat of. See Boat. 

— branches of, 84, 315. 

— ceasing of, 239. See Perception. 

— clear, 126. 

— complete, 73. 

— constancy in. See Perseverance. 

— culmination of, 127. 

— deprivation of, by desire, 75. 

— destruction of, 113. 

— devotion better than, 73. 

— direct, 82. 

— exhaustive, 73. 

— eye of, 106, 112, 239. 

— fire of. See Fire. 

— goal attainable by, 104. 

— highest, 73, 106, 151, 240, 261. 

— immediate. See Direct. 

— imperfect, 55, 125, 309. 

— incorrect, 125. 

— inexpugnable. See Inexpugnable. 

— insignificant. See Insignificant. 

— lamp of, 87. 

— light of, 66. 

— little, 115. 

— loss of, 75. 

— man of, 11, 51, 54, 56, 57, 62, 

72, 73, 75, 9i, 119, 146, 156, 
158, 373, 392. 

— modification of, 312. 

— mysterious, 81. 

— object of, 83, 94, 97, 103, 104, 

123, 172, 262, 310, 312, 382. 

— of creation, 341. 

— of everything, 1 14. See Universal. 

— of geography, 222 seq. 

— of God, 99. 

— of previous lives, 58. 

— of self, 46, 51, 65, 87, 126, 334. 

— of supreme, 87. 

— of truth, 103, 335, 348, 381. 

— practical, 349. 

— prompting to, 123. 

— pursuit of. See Perseverance. 

— removal of, 113. 

— seeker of, 75. 

— source of, 248, 308. 

— subject of, 97, 123, 262. 

— sword of, 63, 37 r. 

— three branches. See Branches, 


— through faith, 63. See Faith. 



Knowledge, want of, 49, 73, 84, 162. 
See Ignorance. 

— within oneself, 62, 66, 380. 

See Progress, Sacrih'ce, and 
ATola, 223. 

Kolha/kar, V. M., 137. 
Kosegarten, 139. 
Kosh^avat, 222, 346. 
Kratu, 83. 
Kr/pa, 38. 

Kr/*sh«a, 3, 4, 9, 11, 12, 34, 4°, 4*, 
48, 49, 52, 56,58, 59, 63,67, 71; 
72, 73, 78,88,91,95,96,97,98, 
99, 102, 106, 1 10, 1 1 1, 117, 121, 
130, 131, 197,198,205,229, 230, 
231,254,284,310,393,394. See 
Being-Supreme and Brahman. 

— Dvaipayana. See Vyasa. 

— imitation of, 55. 

— nought to do, 54. See Embodi- 

Krita, 353. 

Kritavirya. See Kartavirya. 

Kshatriyas, 22, 23, 24, 43, 46, 126, 
127, 128, 152, 155, 162,165,174, 
179, 185, 205, 209, 217,221,255, 
295, 300, 329, 345. 

— kinsmen of, 295, 296. 
Kshetra, 102, 104, 105, 106, 310, 

350, 372. 

Kshetra^-;7a, 102, 105, 106, 109, 253, 
284, 287, 288, 293, 308, 310, 350, 

351, 352, 374, 377,378, 379,386, 
387, 390, 393- 

Kubera, 88, 347. 
Kulluka Bha//a, 262. 
Kumarasambhava, 29, 69, 80, 220, 

Kumarila, 31. 
Kunte, M. M., 30. 
Kunti, 38, 40, 44, 47, 50, 53, 57, 66, 

7i, 74, 78, 79, 82, 84, 85, 95, 

102, 106, 107, 116, 117, 127, 

128, 254, 393. 
Kuntibho^a, 37. 

Kuru, 47, 72, 108. See Kauravas. 
Kurukshetra, 3, 37, 198. 
Kuja grass, 68, 159. 

Labour, 69, 100, 184, 323, 324, 356. 
Ladle, 261. 

Lalita Vistara, 146, 183, 208, 212, 

226, 261, 275, 284, 289, 337. 
Lamentation. See Grief. 
Lamp, 69, 242, 253. 

Lamp of knowledge. See Knowledge. 
Lances, 294. 
Land, 339, 382. 

Language, 90. See Bhagavadgita, 
Dialects, and Style. 

Lapse of time, 58. 

Large, 285, 327, 357. 

Lassen, 2, 31, 34, 35, 91. 

Lassitude, 320. 

Last moments. See Death. 

Laudation, 324. See Praise. 

Law, 4, 207, 268, 269. See Regu- 

— sacred, 82. 

Lazy, 125, 126, 151, 320, 326. See 

Indolence and Stolidity. 
Leaf, 85, 313, 361, 365, 371, 374. 

— of Ajvattha, 111, 189. 
Lean, 288, 384. 

Learned, 44, 49, 50, 55, 56, 60, 63, 
64, 65, 66, 87, 102, 121, 122, 152, 
T 54, 1 57, 160, 161, 162, 164, 172, 
174, 176, 185, 257,260,270,278, 
279, 284, 312, 315, 332,337, 339, 
341, 360, 367, 37o,37i,374,378, 
379, 381, 386. See Well-read. 

Learner. See Pupil. 

Learning, 65, 114, 124, 128, 178, 182, 

232, 239, 269, 308,326,341,348, 
353, 359, 388, 389. See In- 
struction and Study. 

Leavings, 53,62, 118, 358, 360. 
Left-hand, snooting, 96. 
Leg, 189. See Feet. 
Leibnitz, 268. 
Letter, single. See Om. 
Letters, 90, 264. 
Lewes, G. H., 57. 
Libation to manes, 41. 
Liberality. See Gifts. 
Licking, 95, 113. 

Life, 40,54,74, 89,118,160,162, 177, 
181, 192,246,268,269,276,279, 
289, 290, 291, 295,302,317,318, 
321, 325, 355, 357- See Birth 
and Death. 

— conditions of, 233. 

— course of, 89, in, 190, 191, 201, 

233, 235, 243, 245,253,258,259, 
284, 285, 287, 306,312,313,338, 
34i, 355, 357, 35953 6 r,368,37o, 
386, 390. 

— exhaustion of, 236. 

— form unknown, in. 

— forms of, 154, 321. 

— higher, 285, 322. 


1 ,ife, limit of, 244, 311. 

— long, j 36. 

— many a, 58, 73, 75. 

— offering to supreme, 87. 
previous, 56, 58, 72, 1 17, 188, 243, 


— subtle, 284. 

transient and miserable, 79, 86. 

— vain, 54. 

Life-winds, 6r, 62, 67, 78, 79, 113, 
123, 125, 140, 157,189,190, 237, 
238, 242, 246, 257,258,259, 263, 
264, 265,266,270,271,272,273, 
274, 275, 276, 277, 280,289,290, 
292, 318, 331, 336,353,372,373. 

— concentration of. See Breath. 

— production and preservation of, 


Light, 69, 74, 1 10, 163, 180, 186,260, 
305, 316,319, 330, 332,334,344, 
3 6 9, 379, 380, 387. See Object 
of sense. 

— of knowledge, 66, 108. 

— within oneself, 66. See Enlight- 


Lightness, 319, 327, 332. 

Lightning, 179, 337, 340. 

Likes and dislikes, 56, 71, 118, 288, 
289. See Affection and Aver- 

Limbs, 50, 177, 242, 342, 359, 366. 
Limitation. See Perfection and 

Linen, 360. 

Lion, 38, 90, 295, 345. 

— manner of, 353. 

Liquid, 354. See Flowing element. 

Liquors, 389. 

Lisping, 322. 

Literature, r, 13, 15. 

Littleness, 46, 191. 

Livelihood. See Body, support of. 

Lokayatas. See isfarvakas. 

Long, 384. 

Longing. See Desire. 

Looker on, 55. See Activity, Soul, 
passive spectator. 

Looking-glass. See Mirror. 

Lord, 65, 83, 87, 88, 92, 97, 105, 109, 
113, 116, 128, 165, 173,188,190, 
231,263,267, 293,294,303,333, 
345, 347,388, 393, 394. 

— in the bodies of all, 116, 118. 

— of all, 83. 

— of beings, 58, 273. 

— of gods. See Gods. 

Lord of sacrifices, 84. 

■ — of speech. See Speech. 

— of universe. See Universe, lord of. 

— of worlds. See Worlds, master 


— supreme, 106, 352. 
Loss, 124, 166. 

— of the Brahman, 71. 
Lotus-eye, 92, 294. 

— heart, 194, 342, 344, 392. 

— leaf, 64, 92, 289, 374, 379. 

— seat, 93. 

Love, 74, 87, 89, 394. 
Low. See High. 

Lower species, 241, 330, 339. See 

Beasts and Creatures. 
Lunar light, 81. 

— mansions, 88, 158, 346, 352, 387. 

— world, 20, 240. 

Lust, 115, 116, 117, 125, 166, 167, 

Mace, 93, 98. 
Machine, 129. 

Madhava, 38, 40, 230, 231, 252. 

MadhavaHrya, 32, 90, 1 35, 1 39, 2 14. 

Madhu, 40, 42, 71, 77, 231, 252. 

Madhusudana, 5, 19, 35, 72, 89, 91, 
92, 96, 107, 108, 113, 123. 

MadhvaMrya, 30, 31. 

Madhyama, 385. 

Madhyamika Bauddhas, 376. 

Maghavat, 219, 347. 

Mahabharata, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 28, 34, 35, 
135, i3 6 , J 37, 138, 140,155,160, 
170, 181, 187, 197,201,202,203, 
204, 205, 2 06 , 209, 221, 225,227, 
229, 234,253, 256,271.281,284, 
292, 295, 301, 304,305,308,310, 
315, 318,319,325,328,329,342, 
344, 351, 353, 354,358,36o,37o, 
374, 383,384, 385, 386, 391. See 
Bhishma Parvan. 

Mahabhashya. See Patawg-ali. 

Mahat, 157. See Understanding. 

Mahavrata, 180. 

Mahendra, 222, 223, 346. 

Mahejvari, 219, 347. 

Mahidhara, 248. 

Maintenance. See Body, support of. 

Maitri-upanishad, 50, 51, 52, 53, 61, 
68, 79, 100, 102, 105, 112, 152, 
155, 158, 160, 162,170,171,173, 
175, 185,186, 187, 189,192,194, 
252, 255, 259, 263,268,269,270, 



271, 274, 277, 305,3^0,323,361, 
370, 371, 378,379, 386,390,391, 

Makara, 90. 

Maker, 379. 

Male, 346. 

— and female, 115, 244. 
Malicious, 125. See Malignity. 
Malignity. See Harmlessness and 


Mallinath, 30, 293. 

Malyavat, 222, 346. 

Man, creation of, 74. See Crea- 

— descendant of Manns, 86. 

— highest, 129. 

Management, 324. See Business. 

MaWukya-upanishad, 79, 247, 251, 
259, 324, 376. 

Manes, 83, 85, 89, 93, 153, 169, 22 r, 
296, 306, 324, 325,345,366,389. 

Manifestation, 65, 76, 77, 83, 87, 88, 
104, 107, 108, 292,312,317,318, 
374, 379, 380. See Form, In- 
carnation, and Nature. 

Manifold, 375, 377. See Forms, 

Marcipushpaka, 39. 

Mankind, 345, 347, 348, 353, 354 
356, 378, 386, 387, 389. 

Manliness, 74. 

Man-lion, 89. 

Mansions, 108. 

Mantras, 119, 209, 264. See Verse, 

Manu, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 27, 30, 37, 
48, 58, 80, 86, 147, 153,159, 179, 
203,208,210,217, 218,225,233, 
262, 279,284,339,353,354,358, 
359, 36o, 361, 362, 363,364,365, 

Marga-firsha, 27, 90, 91. 

Mari£i, 88, 387. 

Marriage, 121. 

Marrow, 252. 

Maruts, 88, 92, 94, 346. 

Master of world, 97. See World. 

Match. See Equal. 

Material cause. See Cause and 

Materialists, 24, 27. 
Matsya-puraVza, t 1 3. 
Matted hair, 360, 375. 
Matter, 379. 
Maturity, 177. 
Maurice, F. D., 1. 

Maya, 197, 229. 
Maya. See Nature. 
McRindle, 223. 
Mean, 116. 

Means, 376, 377, 380, 391. See 

Meat, 236. 
Medicine, 83, 388. 
Meditation, 64, 79, 84, 88, 100, 103, 

105, 128, 192, 248, 249,251,252, 

299, 300, 332, 341, 349,353, 368, 

376, 377, 382, 388. 

— at time ot death, 78, 390. 

— continuous, 78, 79, 100, 309. 

— exclusive, 78, 79, 84, 99. 

— mystic, 136, 150. 

■ — on Supreme, 61, 78, 88, 99, 100, 
103, 128. 
See Concentration of mind and 
Melancholy, 125. 

Memory, 90, 98, 113, 164, 320, 332, 

- — confusion of, 50, 51. 

— destruction of, 113. 
Mendicancy, 307, 361. 
Mental operation. See Mind. 

— pain. See Pain. 

— penance. See Penance. 
Mercilessness, 114, 166, 181. See 


Merging in Brahman. See Absorb- 
ent and Assimilation. 

Merit, 12, 49, 65, 72, 76, 109, 151, 
158, 164, 165, 166, 169, 178, 184, 
185, 232,241,246,341,376,377, 

— exhaustion of, 84. See Action. 
Merriment, 97. 

Meru, 88, 222, 354. 
Meshasr/nga, 346. 
Metals, 209. 

Metre, 15, 90. 142, 226, 353. 
Midday bath, 122. 
Middle. See Beginning and Up. 
Migration, 153, 154, 185, 190,232, 

234, 244. 
Mild. See Gentle. 
Military. See Kshatriyas. 
Milk, 265. 

Mimawsa, 31, 32, 376, 377. 

Mind, 9, 43, 47, 49, 50, 51, 53, 55, 
57, 60,62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 
69, 7o, 71, 73, 75, 78, 79, 83, 86, 
87,88,99,100,101,102, 105,107, 
112, 119, 122, 123,125,126,128, 
129, 162, 163, 169, 170,172,173, 

420 bhagavadgItA, sanatsugatiya, anugita. 

»75,»77, 181, 184, 185, 187, 188, 
189,190, 193, 194, 219, 234, 238, 
251,252, 253,257,258,259,260, 
261,262, 263, 264, 267,268,269, 
275, 280, 2S6, 288, 292, 296, 300, 
301,308, 310, 317,318, 320,322, 
3*7, 332, 334, 336, 337, 338, 341, 
344, 348, 349, 35o, 352, 355, 357, 
361, 362, 366, 368, 369, 377, 380, 
Mind, Are-una's, whirls round, 40. 

— birth from, 87. 

— breaking out of restraint, 70. 

— ceasing to work. See Quiescence. 

— fickle, 9, 71. 

— friendly, 68. 

— movable and immovable, 264. 

— restraint by, 53, 70. 

— steady. See Steady-minded. 
Mine, 52, 56, 101, 128, 279, 292, 303, 

304,305, 3i3, 323, 3 2 6, 33 2 , 355, 
366,370, 371, 381, 389, 390,391. 

Minute, 78, 180, 194, 327, 332. 

Mirage, 253. 

Mirror, 57. 

Misapprehension, 184. See Convic- 
tion and Knowledge. 

Mischief. See Evil. 

Miserly, 167, 182. 

Misery. See Pain and Unhappi- 

Misfortune, 356. 

Misgivings, 63, 66, 72, 83, 87, 122, 
129,130, 152,231,263,282,311, 
312, 320, 324, 374. 

Mismanagement, 183. See Manage- 

Missile, 39. 

Mistake, 359. See Error. 

Mithila, 304, 305. 

Mitra, 219, 220, 261, 338, 345. 

— Dr. R. See Lalita Vistara. 
Mixed, 118, 122, 286, 375. 
Mle^as, 353. 

Mode of life. See Conduct, Life. 
Moderation. See Eating. 
Modesty, 114, 162, 167, 182, 281, 

306, 326. See Humility. 
Moistening, 45. 
Momentary existence, 376. 
Monism. See Unity. 
Months, 81, 90, 188, 255, 330, 352, 


Moon, 74, 81, 83, 88, 97, 112, 113, 
142, 172, 179, 189, 192, 219,224, 

257,261,277, 327, 330,338,346, 
35°, 387. See Lunar light. 

Moon, eye of divine form, 94. 

Morals, 4. 

Morning, 361. 

Morsel, 364. 

Mortal, form, 255. 

Mortals, 190, 255, 297. 

Mosquitoes, 284. 

Mother, 83, 176, 193, 233, 243, 290. 
Motion. See Moving. 
Motive. See Action. 
Mould, 242. 

Mountain, 88, 89, 180, 222, 284, 287, 

295, 346, 354, 363, 381, 387. 

See Hill. 
Moustache, 362. 
Mouth, 65, 94, ,95, 305. 

— drying up ot Ar^una's, 40. 

— like fire, 94, 95. 

— many a, 93, 94. 

Movable, 82, 91, 92, 97, 104, 105, 
587, 389. See Immovable. 

Movement, 49, 87, 123, 274, 291, 

— concealed, 232, 235. 

— of mind, 263. See Quiescence. 

— of world, 82, 89, 334, 3^0, 355, 

356, 358. 

Moving, 64, 90, no, 192, 194, 261, 

— among objects, 51. 

— everywhere, 232, 312, 370. 
Mrityu, 220. 

Mucus, 343. 
M "d, 343, 350. 

Muir, J., Dr., 14, 16, 20, 23, 90, 91, 

180, 295, 304, 305, 347. 
Muladhara, 251. 

Miiller. Max, Prof., 1, 8, 12, 16, 17, 
23, 25, 69, 79, 87, 88, 114, 123, 
171, 339. 

Mu«^akopanishad, 17, 62, 74, 84, 
104,112, 123, 153, 156, 158, 165, 
166, 167, 169, 170, 173, i75, 176, 
179, 180, 184, 185, 186, 189, 192, 
315,316,333, 339, 348, 37i, 39i, 

Mundane. See World. 

Mu%a, 176, 249, 360. 

Murder, 45, 89, 123, 290, 291, 293, 

295, 2 96, 323, 324, 389. 
Muscles, 252. 
Music, 88, 208, 325. 



Mustard, 384. 

Mystery, 58, 81, 92, 114, 129, 130, 
150, 166, 230, 254, 278, 377, 39°, 

Nagas,^8 9 , 347. 
Nagog-i Bha/fa, 33. 
Nails, 356. 

Nakshatras. See Lunar mansions. 
Nakula, 38. 

Name, 164, 352. See Favourite 

and Real. 
Nanda, 32. 

Narada, 17, 87, 89, 150, 226, 274, 

Naraya#a, 148, 219, 280, 281. 

Narrow, 308, 384. 

Na/akas. See Kavyas. 

Nature, 53, 55, 56, 58, 65, 74, 76, 
82, 102, 104, 105, 106, 107, 112, 
113, 126, 127, 128, 157, 186, 201, 
235,244,245, 253,260,288, 289, 
313,318,327,331, 333, 335, 350, 
351, 355,357, 367, 370, 371, 372, 
374,376,377, 378, 379, 38o, 382, 
387, 390. 

— active principle, 65, 106. 

— control of, 58, 82. 

— destruction of, 106. 

— divine and demoniac, 83. 

— following, 157. 

— names of, 331. 

— two forms, 74. 
Nave, 306. 

Navel, 258, 266, 271. 

Near. See Afar. 

Neck, 69, 252. 

Nectar, 62, 88, 89, 126, 391. 

Negative argument, 213. 

Nest, 142, 164. 

Net, 115, 116, 289, 387. 

Nether world, 321. See Hell. 

Night, 362, 363. See Day and Night. 

— of sage and common men, 51. 
Nihilism, 320. 

Nila, 222, 346. 

Nilaka«^a, 35, 39, 44, 45, 108, no, 
118,120, 1 a 1, 125, 127, 128, 137, 
141,144, 148, 149, 151, 153, 154, 
155,156, 157, 158, 161, 162, 163, 
164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 170, 171, 
174,178, 180, 181, 182, 184, 189, 
i9 2 ,i93, 19-I, 200,203, 213, 227, 
246,247,248, 249,251, 252, 253, 
254, 255,256, 257, 258, 259, 262, 

263,264,279, 280, 281, 282, 283, 
284,286, 287, 289, 292, 296, 297, 
299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 305, 312, 
339, 341,342, 343, 344, 345, 347, 
348,35o,35i, 352, 353, 354, 355, 
356,357,367,371, 372, 373, 374, 
384,385, 386, 389, 390, 391, 392, 

393, 394. 
Nilgiri. See Nila 
Nine portals. See Body. 
Nirukta, 144, 176, 225, 265. 
Nirvawa, 27, 212, 215. 
Nishada, 385. 

Nitijataka. See Bhartr/'hari. 
Noble birth, 1 16. 

— mind, 75, 114, 264, 295, 300, 316, 

323, 325, 389, 393- 
Noise, 251. See Din. 
Noiseless. See Noisy. 
Noisy speech, 265. 
Non-destruction. See Destruction. 
Non-entity, 102. 
Non-existence. See Existence. 
Non-nutritive, 252. 
North, 347. See South path. 
Nose, 67, 69, 257, 258, 259, 267, 343, 

349. See Senses. 
Nostrils, 65. 

Notion, false, 52, 65, 115, 253. See 

Not-self, 377. See Soul. 
November, 91. 

Nr/siwha Tapini, 20, 79, 85, 93, 105, 
112,142,152, 157, 163, 170, 171, 

Numerous. See Forms, many. 
Nushirvan, 29. 
Nutrition, 118. 
Nyagrodha, 346. 

Oars, 381. 

Obedience, 324, 358. See Scripture. 
Obeisance. See Salutation. 
Object, 123, 378, 379, 382. See Sub- 

— of desire, 51, 69, 84, 115, 116, 

124, 154, 157, 289. See Desire 
and Enjoyment. 

— of gift, 120, 324. 

— of knowledge, 83,94. See Know- 

ledge, object of. 

— of sense, 48, 50, 51, 53, 54, 56, 

57, 61, 64, 66, 67, 69, 71, 102, 


103,1 II, I 12, 131, 126, 127, 152, 

1 g |. 155, 166, 167, 168, 170, 173, 

'74. 175,184,190, 238, 247, 259, 
260,261,267,268, 269,270, 273, 
275,278,279, 284, 286, 288, 291, 
297, 300,305, 306, 313, 317, 318, 
327,334, 335, 336, 337, 340, 341, 
342,344.348, 349, 35o, 35 r, 352, 
365,367,368, 371, 382,383, 384, 
385, 386, 388, 390, 392. See 
Destruction of entities and 
Enjoyment, Perceptible and 

Oblation, 61, 77, 83, 121, 188,261. 
See Offering. 

( obligation. See Duty. 

Oblivion. See Forgetfulness. 

Obscurity. See Darkness. 

Obsequies. See Balls of food. 

Obsequious, 159. 

Observances, 67, 112, 115, 143, 145, 
147, 156, 164,167, 182,283, 324, 
355, 364. 

Obstacles, 47, 162, 168, 183, 279, 363. 

Obstinate, 71. See Headstrong. 

Obstructors, 284. 

Occupancy, 22. 

Occupations. See Duties. 

Ocean, 51, 89, 95, 100, 179, 192, 245, 

293,294,296,307, 343, 346, 354, 

374, 38i, 388. 
Odious. See Agreeable. 
Offence, 256, 303. See Sin. 
Offering, 61, 77, 83, 169, 184, 185, 

260,261,262,276, 279, 280, 325, 

353,358,360,371. See Leavings. 

— of action. See Action, dedica- 

tion of. 

— of life, 87. 

— of self, 128. 

Officiating at sacrifices, 22, 23, 218, 

324, 359- 
Offspring. See Children. 

oil > 79, 379, 384- 
Old age. See Age. 

— times, 314, 316, 358. 
Oleaginous, 1 18, 130. 

0m , 74, 79, 83, 89, 120, i2i, 163, 

282, 353. 
Omens, 40, 365. 

Omission and commission, 54, 359. 

See Action and Inaction. 
Omniscience and omnipotence, 58, 


Omniscient, 174. 
One, 102, 317, 375. 

One, everything. Sec Mind, Unity. 
Open. See Secret. 
Opening eyelid. See Eyelid. 
Operation of mind. See Mind. 
Opinion of Krishwa, 56. 
Opponent. See Enemy. 
Opposites. See Pairs. 
Opposition, 30. 
Oppression, royal, 207, 208. 
Optimists, 376. 

Order, 1 29, 307, 354, 358, 382. See 

— of dissolution of entities, 335, 387. 

Ordinances, 84, 117, 118, 119, 120. 
See Rule and Scripture. 

Organs,53,6 4 ,93, 118, 123, 189, 219, 
243,247,257,258,261, 271,287, 
292,318,336,337, 357, 359, 364, 
391. See Bodily and mental, 
Drying up, and Senses. 

Origin. See Source and Species. 

Orissa, 222. 

Ornaments, 93, 326. 

Ostentation, 103, 114, 115, 116, 118, 
1 19, 159, 160, 161, 164, 165, 282, 

324, 363. 
Overcome. See Invincible. 
Oviparous. See Eggs. 

Pain, 70, 76, no, 118, 120, 159, 169, 
233,238,239,245, 250, 291, 292, 
301. See Pleasure and pain. 

Pairs, 48, 60, 63,74, 76, 111,160, 167, 
168,233,244, 246, 247, 257, 276, 
277,292,351, 357, 358, 366, 369, 

37o, 379- 
Palace, magical, 197, 229. 
Palaja, 360. 
Palate, 252, 262. 

PaWava, 2, 6, 37, 38, 39, 62, 67, 91, 
93, 95, 99, no, *3 6 , 197, 229, 
230, 255, 394. 

PaWavas, leaders of the army of, 3. 

PaWu. See Paw/avas. 

PaWya, 223. 

Pacini, 32, 33. 

Pa^a^-anya, 38. 

Pa#£ahotr/, 270. 

Panama, 385. 

Paw^atantra, 29, 139, 206. 

Parade. See Ostentation. 

Parallel, 97, 116, 187. 

Paramahawsa, 381. 

Paraphernalia, 379. See Appurte- 

Pararara, 33, 164. 



Para jar y a, 32, 33. 

Parajurama, 221, 294, 295, 299. 

Pardon, Arguna asks, 97, 98. 

Pariyatra, 222, 346 

Part, 112, 379. See Soul, individual. 

Partha. See PWtha. 

Partiality. See Favouritism and 

Parvati, 219, 347. 

Passages of body, 79, 253, 265, 273, 
275, 277, 318, 343. See Body. 

— of heart, 252. 

Passing through, 388, 389. See Im- 

Passion, 57, 70, 75, 89, 106, 107, 108, 
109, no, 117, 118, 119, 120, 
122, 124, 125, 126, 276, 278, 292, 
301,302, 318, 319, 323, 325, 328, 
329,330,331, 334, 342, 343, 345, 
356, 363, 369, 390. 

Past. See Birth, Entities, and Fu- 
ture life. 

Pataw^ali. See Yoga-sutras. 

— Mahabhashya, 19, 32, 139, 140, 

152, 211, 223, 346. 

Path, 47, 59, 64, 72, 80, 81, 82, 116, 
125, 127, 153, 156, 165, 248, 
331, 348, 364, 369, 380, 381. 
See Southern. 

Paths, three, 354. 

— of emancipation, 47, 52. 

— unfamiliar, 380. 
Patience. See Forgiveness. 
Patriarchs, 86, 354, 387. 
PauWra, 38, 295. 

Peace, 91, 323. 
Pearls, simile of, 74. 
Pebbles, 365. 
Pedestrian, 382. 

Penance, 11, 12, 59, 61, 67, 73, 74, 
81, 85, 86, 98,99, 114, 117, 118, 
119, 120, 121, 122, 126, 129, 
147, 164, 165, 166, 170, 173, 
178, 182, 184, 221, 231, 242, 
247, 248, 254, 258, 259, 288, 
296, 299, 300, 308, 311, 312, 
315, 326, 339, 355, 356, 367, 
369, 376, 388, 389. 

People. See Creatures. 

— common. See Populace. 
Perceptible, 76, 80, 96, 180, 192, 

193, 257, 264, 309, 313, 377, 
380, 385, 386. 
Perception ot worlds, 174. 

— organs of, their operations, 57, 

64, 108, 112, 123, 238, 270, 316, 
329, 331, 336. See Organs and 

Perception, personal. See Experi- 

Perfect, 173, 186, 248, 251, 287. 

Perfection, 52, 54, 62, 72, 73, 79, 100, 
107, 116, 117, 127, 176, 232, 
233, 234, 287, 300, 302, 310, 
3M, 334, 384, 388, 389, 393. 

Performance. See Pride. 

Perfume, 93, 112. See Fragrance. 

Peril, 42. See Danger. 

Periplus, 223. 

Perishable, 44, 66, 76, 77, 79, 8r, 
120, 154, 158, 304, 307, 355, 

375, 37 6 - See Inconstantly. 
Permanent. See Constant. 
Permeating. See Pervading. 
Permission. See Preceptor. 
Perplexed, 98. 

Perseverance, 51, 60, 79, 87, 103, 

in, 114, 120, 175, 255. 
Perspiration, 339. 

Perturbation, 110,352. See Agita- 

Pervading principle, 44, 45, 80, 82, 
83, 87, 88, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 
98, 100, 104, 106, 113, 127, 
187, 242, 244, 253, 258, 307, 

3i7, 332, 385. 
Pessimists, 376. 
Phalanx, 38. 
Phalajruti, 143. 
Phalguna, 394. 

Philanthropy. See Benevolence. 

Philosopher, 44, 377. 

Philosophy, Indian, 7, 26. 

Phlegm, 155, 343- 

Physical pain. See Pain. 

Piety, 47, 59, 74, 89, no, 114, 125, 
128, 158, 159, 161, 168, 182, 
183, 230, 231, 232, 242, 243, 
246, 252, 254, 311, 314, 315, 
316, 318, 325, 326, 331, 341, 

348, 349, 35i, 359, 3 6 °, 3 62 , 

363, 364, 367, 368, 369, 375, 

376, 377, 380, 384, 392, 393, 
394. See Merit. 

- and impiety, 59, 125, 292. 

— protector of, 59, 89, 94, 125, 130, 

231, 235. 
Pilgrimage, 143. 
Pillar. See Pole. 
Pihgala, 16. 
Pihgala, 257, 277, 318. 



Pippala, 346. 
Pwaias, 545, 354, 3S7. 
Pitris, Sec I\ lanes. 
PitWyawa, 3 1 ^ . 

Pity, to, 42, 1S1, 243. See Com- 

Place and time. Sec Gift. 

Placid, [92, 194, 23.1, 245. See 

Plaksha, 354. 

Planet, 303, 346, 387. 

Play, 97. See Recreation and Sport. 

Pleasant and unpleasant. See Agree- 

Pleasure, 40, 42, 47, 50, 66, 107, 108, 
126,265,268, 270, 275, 280, 292, 
300,301, 311, 316, 322, 324, 325, 

33°, 34i, 354, 355, 357, 389. 

— and pain, 44, 47, 48, 68, 71, 86, 

101,103, 104, no, in, 112, 245, 
246, 285, 323, 356, 376. 

— celestial, 84. 

— higher, 287. 

— within oneself, 50, 54, 66, 69, 70, 

152, 253, 288, 380. See Gods 

and Happiness. 
Point, one. See Concentration. 
Poison, 41, 89, 126, 159, 190. 
Pole, 355. 

Polemic. See Controversialist. 
Policy, 9 r, 324. 
Politics, 91. 

Pondering, 78, 175, 297, 331, 334, 
349, 368. 

— objects, 50, 57, 154, 263. See 

Poor. See Indigent. 
Populace follow great men, 54. 

— keeping of to duty, 54, 55, 127. 
Portals, nine, 79, 108. See Body. 
Position in army, 38. 

— raised. See High position. 
Possession, 365. 

Powder, 113. 

Power, 58, 88, 91, 97, 102, 11 3, 182, 
287, 303, 323, 332, 360, 385. 

— creative, 170, 260, 279, 327. 

— delusive, 59. 

— desire for, 47. 

— divine. See mystic, infra. 

— exercise of, 127. 

— infinite, 94, 97. 

— intellectual. See Energy. 

— lordly, 127. 

— mystic, 76, 82, 86, 88, 89, 92, 93, 

98, 120, 131, 149, 230. 

Power of Brahman, part in patriarchs, 

— of knowledge, 167. 

— of nature, 82. 

— participation in divine, 87. 

— regard to one's own, 89, 237. 

— superhuman, 76, 89, 260. 

— unequalled, 97. See Equal. 

— worldly, 47. See Strength. 
Powerful, 269. 

Powerless, 336. 
Practicable, 82. 

Practice, 9, 71, 73, 79. See Con- 

Prag-apati, 58, 97, 219, 220, 244, 261, 
262,263,264, 2 65, 271, 282, 315, 
316,334,338, 345, 347, 353, 388, 
389. See Creator. 

Praise, 94, 280. See Blame and 

Praiseworthy, 97, 190. 

Pra^etas, 220. 

Prakriti. See Nature. 

Pralhada, 89. 

Pra«a, 258. See Life-winds. 
Pnbayama. See Breath, control of. 
Prajastr/, 280. 

Prajnopanishad, 20, 65, 79, 81, 123, 
152, 166, 176,259, 271, 390, 391. 
Pratyahara. See Senses. 
Prayer, 94. 

Preceptor, 37, 40, 43, 57, 91, 103, 
119,129, 175, 176, 177, 178, 232, 
243,264,282, 283, 307, 308, 309, 
310,311,312, 358, 360, 372, 374, 
376, 378, 381, 389, 393- 

Precious things, 353. 

Prescribed action. See Action and 

— by nature, 126, 127, 128. 
Presence of mind. See Courage. 
Present. See Future. 

— made by god, 59, 76. 

— to god. See Flower. 

See Dakshiwa and Gift. 
Preservation. See Acquisition. 
Previous life. See Life, previous. 
Preya. See Sreya. 
Pride/52, 62, in, 112, 114, 116, 124, 

128,264,294, 301,320,323,341. 

See Arrogance and Vanity. 
Priest, 89, 189, 241, 259, 261, 266, 

267, 270, 276, 278, 279, 280, 289, 

290, 293. 

Primal being, 77, 96, in. See 



Primeval, 45, 58, 81, 95, 98, 190, 333- 
Prince. See King and Ruler. 
Principle, 170. 

— none, 115, 124. 
Principles, divine, two, 187, 192. 
Prior to all, 391. 

Pr/tha, 40, 42, 45, 46, 47, 49, 52, 54, 
55, 59, 62, 72, 73, 74, 78, 79, 
80, 81, 83, 85, 92, 93, 100, 114, 
115, 120, 121, 122, 125, 126, 130, 
131,205,229,230,231, 254,255, 
256, 281, 311, 312. 

Procedure, 381, 385. 

Product, 383. 

Production and destruction, 74, 79, 
80, 82, 92, 106, 107, 127, 180, 
33i, 351, 357, 372, 385, 388. 
See Entities. 

— and development, 77, 82. 

— sevenfold, 260. 
Productive, 382. 

Progress, 380, 381. See Improve- 
Promises, 332. 

Prompting to action, 123. See Ac- 

Propagation, 53. See Generation. 

— of truth, 129, 130. 

Property, 161, 182, 183, 255, 305, 

379, 383. 

— destruction of, 41, 159. 
Propitiation, 76, 97, 98, 99, 100, 115. 
Prosperity, 43, 96, 131, 151, 166, 

167, 178, 182. 

Prostration, 97, 232. 

Protection. See Acquisition, De- 
pendents, Good, and Piety. 

Proud, 182. See Pride. 

Provisions, 380. 

Prowess, 324. See Valour. 

Publication of Gita, 129, 130. 

Pungent, 363. 

Punishment, 303. 

Pupil, 37, 43, 151, 175, 176, 177, 
252, 254, 262, 269,282, 283, 308, 
310, 311, 312, 315, 373, 378. 
See Student. 

Pura«as, 14, 18, 20, 26, 143, 224. 

Purandara, 219, 347. 

Pure, 101, 103, 114, 127, 158, 159, 
165, 170, 176,183, 185, 186, 246, 

247, 254, 336, 355, 359, 3 6 °, 3 62 , 
369, 390, 393. See Heart, Holy, 
and Sanctification. 
Purity, 52, 64, 68, 76, 85, 103, 114, 

115, 119, 122,126, 127, 162, 233, 
243, 320, 326. 
Purpose, 48, 365. 

Pursuit. See Abstraction, Enjoy- 
ment, and Knowledge. 
Puru^it, 37. 
Purusha. See Spirit. 

— sukta, 91, 280. 
Purushottama. See Being, best. 

Quadrupeds, 209, 321, 339, 353. 
Qualifications, 166, 177, 279, 312, 
348, 358. 

Qualities, 17, 21, 53, 55, 57, 59, 65, 
70, 75,=i°3, 104, 105, 106, 107, 
108, 109, no, 111,112,117, 124, 
125,126,184,185,247, 260,267, 
268,270, 274, 276, 278, 279, 285, 
286, 288,292, 300, 3or, 309, 311, 
313, 315, 317, 318,319,320,322, 
33o,33i, 332, 334, 34i,343,344, 
345, 349, 350, 351, 352, 356,367, 
369, 370, 372, 373, 374, 377,379, 
381, 383, 390, 391. 

— all-pervading, 126, 331. 

— beyond, 75, 109. 

— connexion with, 105, in, 112. 

— dealings of, 55, no. 

— development of, 108, 328, 329. 

— different from soul. See Soul. 

— doers of actions, 55, 109. 

— effects of, 48, 108, 332. 

— enjoyer of, 104, 105, 247, 328. 

— enumeration of, 124. 

— forms of, higher and lower, 323. 

— increase and diminution of, 328. 

— perturbation by. See Perturba- 


— prevalence of, 108, 319, 328, 373. 

— repression of, 108. 

— ruled by supreme, 75. 

— soul above, 109. 

— transcending, 48, 75, 109, no. 
Quarrelsomeness, 168, 183, 323. 
Quarters, 69, 94, 95, 178, 186, 192, 

347, 354- 

— of lite as a Brahma^arin. See 

Question, 62, 175, 231, 235, 252, 283, 

311, 312, 314, 374. 
Quiescence, 69, 70, 79, 105, 167, 173, 

185, 245, 263. See Mind. 
Quitting body. See Body, leaving. 
Quiver. See Tremour. 


Radiance, 94 , 1 04 , 1 86, 1 90, 3S7. Sec 

Effulgence and Light. 
Ra^adharma. Sec Mah&bharata. 
RSga-yoga, 300. 
Raghuvanua, 29, 224, 293. 
Rahasyas. Sec Upanishads. 
Rahu, 224, 303. 
Rain, 54, 84, 363. 

Rakshas, 83, 88, 118, 345, 347, 354, 

Rama, 90, 294, 300. 

Ramanu^a, 30, 31, 32, 35, 66, 84, 

89, 90, 107, 112, 116, 124, 346, 


Ramayawa, 10, 28, 90, 139, 140, 221. 

Rambling, Sec Restraint and Senses. 

Rammohun Roy, 27. 

Rash, 380. 

Rathantara, 1 80. 

Ravenous, 57. See Eating. 

Rays, 287, 289. 

Readiness of resource, 127. 

Reading much, 171, 309. 

Real and unreal, 44, 154, 155, 164, 

1 9 1 , 3 2 3, 39 2 - See Entity, real. 
Reason, 51, 124, 183. SeeMindand 

Receipt. See Acceptance. 
Receptacle, 84, 245. 
Reception, 119, 150. See Youth. 
Recitation. See Vedas. 
Reclamation of bad men, 121. See 

Recognition, 249. 
Recreation, 66. See Sport. 
Red, 179, 360, 384. 
Reduced. See Desire. 
Refinement, 112, 123, 193, 308, 358, 

361, 369. 
Reflexion, 169. 
Refuge. See Asylum. 
Refulgence, 74, 94. See Effulgence, 

Light, and Radiance. 
Regard. See Fruit. 
— for wife, child, &c, 103. See 


Regulation, 61, 76, 83, 84, 85, 150, 
170, 180,254, 257, 269, 279, 283, 
316,320,321,324,326, 355, 356, 

358, 359, 3 6 °, 36r, 367. 
Regulator, 89, 91. 
Rejection. See Casting aside." 
Rejoicing, 116. See Joy. 
Relation, 103, 104. See Soul. 
Relative, 68. See Kinsmen. 

Release, 63. See Birth, Body, Bond, 
Delusion, Free, Nature,Society. 

— from sin. See Sin. 
Relish, 118. See Taste. 
Reluctant, 72. 

Remainder of offerings. SeeLeavings. 
Remembrance of Deity, 78. 
Removal of knowledge, &c. See 

Renouncer. See Renunciation. 
Renown. See Fame. 
Renunciation, 52, 63, 64, 65, 67, 85, 

114,121, 122, 123, 127,257, 312, 

349, 361, 369, 373, 376, 377. 

See Abandonment and Action, 

dedication of. 
Repeated happiness, 126. 

— thought. See Continuous medi- 

Repentance, 167. 

Repetitions of passages, 144, 145, 

— of words and phrases, 14. 
Repining, 168, 323. 
Representative of Deity for medita- 
tion, 88. 

Repression. See Qualities. 
Reptiles, 284, 339, 353. 
Reservoir, 48, 89, 193, 344, 354, 381. 
Residence, 84, 233, 240, 250, 260,287. 

See Dwelling. 
Residue. See Leavings. 
Resolution, 47, 70, 101, no, 115,119, 

314. See Determination. 

— good, 85. 

— vain, 128. 

Resort, 50, 59, 75, 85, 102, 107. See 

Resource, 190, 377. See Readiness. 

Respect, 83, 119, 120, 159, 161, 162, 
182, 246, 283, 324, 363. 

Rest, 150. See Dependence. 

Restraint, 9, 50, 53, 56, 57, 58, 6o,6t, 
63,64, 66,67,68,69,70,71,86, 
91, 99, 100, 103, 114, 119, 125, 
126, 127, 128, 161,162, 163, 167, 
168,232, 242, 243, 248, 251, 257, 
282,296,297, 301, 306, 336, 342, 
344, 355,358, 360, 361, 362, 364, 
372, 39i, 392. 

— mutual, 315. 

Result, 126. See Consequences. 
Retard. See Wheel. 
Retrogression. See Wheel. 
Return of service, 120, 183. 

— time of, 180, 244. See Preceptor. 



Return to birth, 65, 79, 80, 8 r, 82, 84, 
in, 1 12, 1 13, 116, 165, 234, 306, 
322, 390. See Birth. 

Revelation. See Vedas. 

Reverence, 42, 78, 80, 83, 85,86, 119, 

Reviling, 166, 168, 181, 321. 
Revolution, 356, 357. See Universe 

and Wheel. 
Riches. See Wealth. 
Richest, 287. 

Right and wrong, 50, 166, 183, 319, 
366. See Duty. 

Righteous feeling, 326. 

Rigid. See Regulation. 

Rik, 18, 20, 83, 146, 162, 163, 179, 
224, 277, 280, 284. 

Rikika, 295. 

Rim, 355. 

itehabha, 385. 

.R/shis. See Sages. 

Rite. See Ceremony, Family, Fu- 
neral, and Observances. 

Ritter, 1. 

River, current of, 95. See Stream. 
Roar of Blrishma, 38. 
Robber, 41. See Thief. 
Rod, 91. 

Roots, in, 316, 361, 388. 
Rotation. See Universe and Wheel. 
Roth. See Nirukta. 
Rough, 118, 383, 384. 
Round. See Circular. 
Royal sage, 58, 86, 296, 300. 

— saint, 23, 86. 

Rudra, 88, 9 2, 94, 219,338,347, 354. 
Ruin, 51,55, 56, 63, 72, 85, 128, 151, 

— of sou!, 115, 117, 155, 236, 245, 

279. See Destruction. 
Rule. See Regulation and Scrip- 

— against, 116. See Ill-conducted 

and Ordinances. 

— heavenly, 231. 

Ruler, 249, 318, 385. See Body. 

— of men, 44, 89, 95, 209, 346. See 


— of universe, 78, 115, 167, 182, 249, 

2 79, 3 3 2 , 347« See Atheism. 
Running away. See Slinking away. 
Ruts, 356. 

Sabaras, 222, 295. 
•Sabarasvamin, 32. 
Sabha Parvan, 174, 229. 

[8] E 

Sacred learning. See Learning, 
Study, and Vedas. 

Sacrifice, 12, 22, 23, 53, 54, 60, 61, 
99, 114, 116, 118, 119, 120, i2r, 
122, 129,147, 161, 164, 167,169, 
173,180, 184,185,189, 193,218, 
241, 260, 262, 276, 279, 280, 284, 
287,288,289,290,293, 309, 324, 
325,326, 330, 334, 340, 347, 353, 
355,358,359, 360, 362, 367, 376, 

— enjoyer of, 12, 67. 

— fire, 216. 

— giver of desires, 53. 

— instrument, 61. 

— knowledge of, 62, 83, 130. 

— lord of. See Enjoyer. 

— not performing, 62. 

— rain from, 54. 

— result of action, 54, 62. 

— various classes, 61. See, too, 

Kratu and Ya^a. 

Sad, 120, 121. 

Sadhyas, 94. 

Safety. See Fear. 

Sage, 50, 51, 59, 64, 66, 67, 86, 87, 
89, 9i, 93, 94, 102, 107, 162, 
l6 4, 173, 174, 178, 209, 221, 
281, 282, 283, 286, 294, 296, 
312, 314, 315, 3 if, 322, 334, 
342, 345, 358, 3 6 o, 3 6 ', 3 6 2, 
368, 374, 375, 382, 388, 390, 

— ancient, 86. 

— divine, 87, 89, 

— seven, 29, 213, 281, 287. See 

Royal sage and Royal saint. 
Sahadeva, 38. 
Sahya, 222, 346. 
Saibya, 37- 
Saint. See Sage. 
Sakra. See Indra. 
5akuntala, 29, 39, 243. 
Saliva, 384. 
Salmali, 346. 
Saltish, 118, 384. 

Salutation, 61, 62, 8;, 93, 95, 96, 97, 
140, 176, 294, 314, 324, 351, 
366, 370. 

Salvation. See Emancipation. 

Saman, 18, 20, 83, 88, 9c, 145, 146, 
162, 163, 180, 280. 

Samana, 258. 

Samavidhana, 32. 

Sambhu, 219, 332. 



Samnyasin, Sec Ascetic. 

Sanaka, 86. 

Sanandana, 86. 

San&tana, s6, 1 49, 

Sanatkum&ra, 17, 86, 135, 141, 150. 

Sanatsi^ata, 125, 136, i 4 r, 149, 150, 
151, 152, 156, 157, 163, 164, 
165, 166, 174, 175, 179, 193, 
309, 311, 314. 

Sanatsu^atiya, 4 8 ,i35, 136, T 38, 143, 
144, 145) "4 6 » x 97j 202, 203, 206, 
245, 246, 249, 251,253, 255,282, 
285,323, 326, 327, 339, 342, 343, 

349, 35i, 3 6 ?, 364, 369. 
age ot, 140, 147, et passim. 

— character of, 144. 

— connexion with Bharata, 135, 136. 
■ — genuineness of, 137. 

— language and style, 140, 142, 143. 
metre of, 142. 

— name of, 135, 138. 

— position of, 147. 

— relation to Vedas, 145. 

— text of, 137, 138, 148, 203. See 

Sanctification, 59, 62, 64, 68, 69, 81, 

83, 85, 101, 103, 122, 193, 247, 

341. See Purity. 
Sa^aya, 3, 35, 37, 39, 42, 92, 96, 98, 

Sarikara, 88. 

£arikara>£arya, 2, 6, 19, 20, 27, 30, 
3i, 32, 35, 45, 49, 52, 58, 59, 
6 °, 6 4> 73, 79» 80, 81, 85, 87, 
88, 90, 93, 103- 105, 107, 112, 
114, 119,121,123,124, 125, 127, 
128, 129,135,137,138,141,143, 
144,151,152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 
157, 159,160,161, 162, 163, 164, 
165,166,168,169, 170, 171, 173, 
174,176,177,179, 180,181, 184, 
186, 187, 188, 190, 193, 197, 201, 
202,203,204, 206, 226, 230, 231, 
239,241,247,248,251, 255,256, 
262,263,266,271,280, 290, 313, 
327, 333, 339,342, 345, 347, 353, 
376, 385, 386, 391. 

.S'ahkara-vi^aya, 135. 

Sankhya, 8, 27, 47, 52, 63, 64, 74, 

3 A 73,J74, 383, 386, 387, 392. 

— Karika, 240, 258, 265, 286, 291, 

319,321,322, 329,331, 334,337, 
35i 5 356, 37i, 380, 382, 391. 

— Sara. See Hall, F. E. 

Sankhya Sutra, 123, 190, 244, 265, 

286,321,331, 332, 334, 337, 339, 

354, 368, 392. 
■ — Tattvakaumudi. See Sankhya 

— Yoga, 105. 
Sanskara. See Ceremony. 
Sanskrit literature, 13, 15. See Ka- 


Santi Parvan, 155, 160, 170. See 

Saptahotr/, 266. 
Sarasvati. See Speech. 
SarirakaBhashya. See SankaraMrya. 
Sarvadarjanasangraha, 32, 214. 
Sarva^a Narayawa. See Narayava. 
Sastra, 280. 

Sastras, 11, 50, 56, 74, 161, 166, 176, 

177, 303. 
Sat. See Asad and Sad. 
Satakratu, 219. 
Satapatha, 248, 265. 
Satiety, 88. 

Satisfaction. See Contentment. 
Sattva, 193. 
Satyaki, 39. 

Satyaloka. See World. 
Saugatas, 213, 377. 
Savana, 277. 

Saviour. See Deliverer. 
Savitri, 353. 

Savoury, 118. See Taste. 
Savyasa^in, 96. 
Scandal, 324. 
Scenes, 93. 

Sceptic. See Atheism, Faith and 

Schlegel, 34, 35, 38. See Lassen. 

Science, 6, 81, 90, 114, 388. 

Scripture, 117, 118, 119, 120 231, 
238, 242,290,291,314, 349, 358, 
364, 379, 381. See Sastras. 

Sea. See Ocean. 

Search for Brahman, 173. 

— for faults. See Fault. 
Season, 91, 236, 330, 352. 

Seat, 49, 64, 68, 78, 79, 80, 81, 111, 
112, 128, 129, 162, 163, 194, 230, 
234,239,240, 245,251,257, 306, 
368, 369, 378, 388, 393. 

— for practising abstraction, 68. 

— of desire and wrath, 57. 
Seclusion. See Solitary. 
Second, without, 349. 
Secrecy. See Mystery. 



Secret, 68, 91, 366. 

Sects, 7. 

Securing, 365. 

Security. See Fear. 

Seed, 74, 84, 91, 107, 241, 313, 37 r, 
382, 383. 

Seeing, 309, 351. See Senses. 

Seeker after knowledge. See Know- 

Seer, 78. 

Self, 170, 317. See Atman in the 

Sanskrit index and Embodied 

soul and Soul in this. 
Self-consciousness, 102, 322, 333, 

33 6 , 338. 
Self-contained, 1 10. 
Self-contemplation, 50. 
Self-control, 48, 126, 127, 183,236, 

246, 366. 
Self-destruction, 106, 279. 
Self-existent, 333, 354. 
Self-illumined, 342. 
Self-knowledge. See Knowledge. 
Self-possessed, 63, 24^, 248. 
Self-restraint, 9, 10, 21, 51, 6r, 64, 

65, 66, 68, 71, 77, 86, 100, ior, 

103, 114, 119, 127,149,167, 168, 
170, 173, 182, 190,243, 249,250, 
292, 300, 312,317, 320,327,332, 

342, 359, 39o, 391- 

Selling. See Buying. 

Semen, 238, 241, 261, 275, 338. 

Sen, Keshub Chander, 26. 

Sensation not permanent, 44. 

Sense, good. See Learned. 

Senses, 26,44, 50, 51, 53, 54, 55, 56, 
57, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64,66, 67, 68, 
69,70,71,79, 86,88,93,99,102, 

104, 105, 108, in, 112, 123,125, 
126, 153, 154, 160, 161, 162,165, 
167, 168, 170, 173, 182,185,186, 
187, 188, 190, 193, 232, 238, 24 2, 
246, 248,249, 251, 253, 256,257, 
261, 262, 264, 266, 267, 268,269, 
278, 279, 280,282, 283,285,286, 
290, 291, 292, 297 seq., 300,305, 
306, 313, 317,318, 329,332, 334, 
336, 337, 338, 340, 341, 342,343, 
344, 348, 349, 350, 355, 358,360, 
362, 364, 366,367, 368, 371,386, 
388. See Absorbent, Contact, 
Organs, Soul, Bodily and mental. 

—lord of, 38. 

— objects of enumerated, 102. 
— operations of, 61, 64. 
Separation, 233, 313. 

Serpent. See Snake. 
Service, 62, 127, 243, 324, 326. 

— return of. See Return. 
Serving devotee-, 59. 
Severance. See Separation and Dis- 

Shackle. See Bond. 

Shade, 286, 356. See Shadow. 

Sha^/g-a, 385. 

Shadow, 312. See Shade. 
Shaken, not to be, 161. 
Shakespeare, 113. 
Shapes, various, 92. 
Sharing with others, 364, 365. 
Sharp, 118, 383, 384. 
Shaving, 375. 
Sheep, 345. 

Shelter. See Asylum. 
Shiningbodies,88,29i, 330, 341, 353. 
Shore, 381. 
Short, 384. 

Shortcoming. See Fault. 
Show. See Ostentatiousness. 
Shower. See Rain. 
Siddhanta Kaumud^, 33. 
Siddhas, 89, 94, 96, 232, 233, 235, 

2 36, 239, 314. 
Sides, both, 68. 
Sighs, 303. 

Sight. See Scene and Visual power. 

— of Brahman, 99. 

— of universal form, 98, 99. 
Significance, 174. 
.Sikhaw/in, 39. 

Silence, 91, 245. See Taciturnity. 
Similes, 142. 

Sin, 12, 41, 42, 46, 47, 49, 53, 54, 
56, 60, 62, 64, 65, 66, 68, 70, 
7i, 73, 76, 84, 86,89, 127, 129, 
no, 139,146, 149, 151, i57,i6o, 
163,164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 170, 
181, 182, 232, 233, 241,246,288, 
290,293,296, 3n,3i4,3i7, 319, 
351,355,358, 369, 372, 378, 389, 
390, 394. See Counting. 

Sinful, 57, 62, 68, 85, 164, 283, 293. 

Singers, 232. 

Single, 284. 

Sinless, 52, 107, 114, 233, 252, 254, 

256, 314, 364. 
Sinjapa, 346. 

Sitting, 49,97, 232, 360, 390, 
Siva, 219, 333, 347. 
Sixteen, 371. 
Skanda, 89. 

e e 2 

430 bhagavadgItA, sanatsugatiya, anugita. 

Skin, .|o. 259, a6i, 267, 298, 305, 

361, 37s. See Senses. 
Sky. See Heaven. 
Slander. See Backbiting. 
Slaughter, 168, See Murder. 
Skive, 30 1 . 

Sleep, 64, 67, 69, 77, 97,108, 112,126, 
236,258,259, 268, 269,301, 320, 

lord of. See Giu/akeja. 
Slinking away from battle, 127. 
Slippery, 384. 

Sloth, 55, 192, 194, 301, 361, 378, 

Slow, 125. See Gradual. 

Small, 92, 285, 331. 

Smell. See Fragrance and Senses. 

Smile, 43, 253, 256, 265. 

Smoke, 57, 81, 127, 276, 362. 

Smooth, 384. 

Smriti, Gita regarded as, 2, 6, 30. 
— Sanatsugatiya regarded as, 138. 
Smn'tis, 7, 27, 30, 83, 153, 158, 169, 

Snake, 89, 93, 190, 281, 282, 283, 

321, 345, 347, 353, 354- 
Society, 68, 103, 364, 365. 
Sod, 68, 1 10. 

Soft, 383, 384. See Gentle. 
Soilure. See Dust. 
Solar world, 240. 
Solicitude. See Acquisition. 
Solitary, 68, 97, 151, 232, 251, 256, 

287, 34i, 3 6 3- 
Solstices, 8 r , 352. 

Soma, 84, 219, 220, 337, 340, 346, 

Somadatta, 38. 

Son, 40, 59, 74, 103, 121, 169, 170, 

178, 183, 189, 194, 284, 384. 
— of preceptor. See Preceptor- 
Sorrow, 119, 126, 330. See Grief, 

Joy and sorrow. 
Soul, 44, 49, 50, 51, 54, 64, 65, 66, 
67, 68, 70, 73, 88, 105, 107, 108, 
152, 154, 159, 160,162, 180, 190, 
191, 194, 224, 235, 237, 238, 239, 
242,246, 247, 248, 249,250, 252, 
253, 254, 256, 257, 258,262,263, 
274,276,278, 279, 280, 281, 282, 
2^6, 288, 292, 300, 304, 308,309, 
312, 331, 332, 333, 334, 33 6 ,337, 
340, 34', 342, 343,344, 345, 35', 
354, 355, 3 6 7, 3^9, 37', 372,374, 
375, 376,380, 382, 385, 389, 391, 
392, 393, 394. 

Soul, all-pervading, 45, 193. See 

— association with, 288, 336. 
beauty of, 177. 

— beginningless, 44, 45, 

— destruction of, 44 seq., 160, 374. 

— different from qualities and ac- 
tions, 55, 56, 105. 

— distinct from nature, 201, 289. 

■ — distinct from senses, 160, 173, 285, 
289, 305. 

—distinct from universe, 164. 

—embodied, 44, 45, 46, 65, 77, 232, 
238, 240, 244, 249, 252. 

— eternal. See Eternity. 

— existence of, 26. 

— favour of, 234. 

— firm, 45. 

— high and low, 232. 

— highest. See Highest. 

— immaculate, 123. 

—immortal. See Immortality. 

—indefinable, 44. 

— indestructible, 44, 46. 

— individual, 77, 112, 157, 188, 
192, 253, 258, 263, 289, 310, 
3i5, 337, 34°, Uh 350, 37i, 

— individual's relation to supreme, 
31, 55, 77, 92, 97, 103, in, 112, 
153, 154, !5 6 , 186, 189, 316,342, 

—indivisible, 45. 

— inexhaustible, 45. 

— killing and being killed, 44, 45. 

— knowledge of, 46, 66, 106, 163. 
— loss of, 151. 

— manifestation of. See Manifes- 

— migration to new body, 44. 
—not active agent, 55, 65, 105, 

106, 109, 123, 125, 285. 
— primeval, 45. 

— science of, 49, 90, 173, 181. See 

—seats of, 237, 240. 

— stable, 45. 

— unchangeable, 45. 

— union. See individual's &c, supra. 

— wonder, 46. 

Soul, supreme, 82, 86, 105, 106, 112, 
113, i5 6 , 172, i73, 175, 189, 190, 
248, 259, 284, 310, 342. 

—abode of. See Seat. 

— access to. See Attainment. 

— connexion of with world, 189. 



Soul, does nothing, 64, 65, 106, 123. 

— origin of all, 87. 

— origin of gods and sages, 86. 

— part of, individual, 31, 112, 186. 

— passive spectator, 100, J05. 

— relation of, to individual. See 

Soul, individual's &c., supra. 

— source unknown, 86. 

— union of with individual. See 


Sound, 61, 74* 127, 155, 247, 258, 
260, 266, 271, 273, 343. See 
Objects of sense. 

Sour, 383, 384. 

Source of things, 46, 74, 75, 80, 83, 
84, 87, 90, 107, 112, 127, 191, 
194, 283, 284,311, 315, 323, 333, 

334, 354, 357, 377, 383- 

— and end, 46, 84. See Beginning, 

Production, and Soul, supreme. 
South path, 314. 
Sovereignty, great, 303. 

— of earth, 40, 42, 43, 47, 96, 300. 
• — of three worlds, 40, 307. 

— within, 302. 

Space, 73, 74, 82, 106, 156, 186, 244, 
251,260, 289, 316, 339, 343,356, 
3 68 , 375, 377* See Time and 
place, and Objects of sense. 

Speaking ill, 182, 183. 

Species, origin of, 244. See Eggs. 

Spectator, soul is, 105. 

Speech, 49, 87, 90, 119, 123, 128, 
161, 177, 184,185, 243, 257,261, 
262, 263, 264, 265, 266,275,295, 
336, 338, 348, 359, 3 6 4, 366. 
See Objects of sense. 

— forms of, 265. 

Speed, 357, 364, 381. See Velocity. 
Spirit, 104, 105, 331, 333, 351, 367, 
368, 373, 380, 385, 386. 

— departed. See Departed spirits. 

— supreme. See Soul, supreme. 
Spiritual topics, 51, 296, 310. 
Spirituous, 389. 

Splendour, 91, 95, 240. 

— Brahmic, 162, 232, 287. 
Spoke, 306, 355. 

Spontaneous earnings, 60, 101, 362, 

Sport, 25 r. See Play and Recreation. 
Spring, 90. 

Sprouts, in, 313, 371, 383. 

Square, 384. 

5rava«a, 352. 

Sreya and Preya, 161. 

6'ridharasvamin, 35, 38, 45, 49, 54, 
64, 67, 71, 80, 85, 89, 96, 105, 
107, 108, 1 10, 1 12, 1 16, 1 17, 1 20, 
123, 124, 127, 129, 346, 378. 

iSYuti. See Vedas. 

Stable, 45, 367. 

Staff, 37, 217, 359, 360. 

Staggering, 356. 

Stale, 118. 

Standard, 39. 

Standing, 360. 

Stars, 179, 240. 

State, 117, 304. See Brahmic, Mind, 
and Vilest state. 

— differences of, 59, 82, 356. 

— normal, 99. 
Staves, three, 318. 

Steady, 49, 70, 103, no, 167, 357. 

Steady-minded, 49, 50, 51,52,66,68, 
69,70,78, 83, 100,101,103, 109, 
no, 117, 250, 296, 300, 352. 

Stealing. See Thief. 

Steeds, white, 38. 

Steps. See Gradually. 

Stick. See Staff. 

Stinginess, 325. See Gifts. 

Stinking, it 8. 

Stolidity, 320. 

Stomach, 93, 94, 252, 367. 

Stone, 68, 1 10, 179. 

■ — heated, standing on, 118. 

Stoppage, 357, 358. 

Store. See Provisions. 

Store-room, 253. 

Storm-gods, 88. 

Story, ancient. See Itihasa. 

Stotra, 280. 

Straightforward, 103, 114, 119, 126, 

161, 320, 325, 326, 364, 373. 
Strangers, 159. 
Straw, 142, 155. 

Stream, 90, 95, 192, 284, 287, 307, 
344, 3-f6, 354, 363, 387. See 

Strength, 74, 1 16, 1 18, 124, 178, 236, 
252, 294, 323. See Power. 

Stri Parvan, 187. 

Strong, 71, 116, 158, 346. 

Stubborn, 118, T28. Sec Head- 
strong and Obstinate. 

Student, 177, 216. See Pupil. 

Study, 22, 23, 6r, 68, 81, 98, 99, 
114, 119, 120, 121, 164, 167, 
172, 174, 1 8 j, 185, 269, 324, 
3 34, 34°, 355, *58, 360, 361, 
362, 376. 


Study of Git a, 1 30. 

of Vedas, Sec Vedas. 
Style, See AnugttS, Bhagavadgttl, 

and Sanatsu^attya. 
Subandhu, 1 3. 
Subdivision, love of, 10. 
Subduing. Sec Self-restraint. 
Subhadra, 37, 39. 
Subjects, 295, 378. See Object. 
Subjugation. Sec Self-restraint. 
Sub-quarters. Sec Quarters. 
Subsistence. Sec Entities. 
Substratum, 123, 249, 289, 292. 
Subtle topics. See Spiritual. 
Subtlety, 104, 106, 160, 241, 285, 

296, 310, 320, 336, 341, 342. 
Success, 47, 48, 49, 59, 60, 124. 
Sudra, 22, 24, 85, 126, 127, 136, 150, 

322, 329. 
Sughosha, 39. 
Summer, 122, 363. 
Summum bonum, 117, 214. See 

Aim, Emancipation, Heaven. 
Sun, 58, 65, 74, 78, 83, 88, 94, 106, 

1 10, 1 1 1, 178, 179, 186, 189,224, 

251, 277, 287, 289, 290, 303, 3 l6 , 

329,330, 337, 34 0 ,346, 35o, 352, 

354, 364, 387. 
— eye of divine form, 94. 
— one thousand, 93. 
Sunrise. See Morning, Sun. 
Sunset. See Evening, Sun. 
Sunshine, 356. 
Sunyavadins, 376. 

Superhuman cause of pain. See 

Superior to God none. See Equal. 
Superiority, feeling of, 158, 159. See 

Supervisor, 82, 83, 105, 109, 188. 
Suppliant, 169, 183. 
Support of Ajvattha, 111. 
— of body. See Body, 
—without, 72. 

See Dependent. 
Supporter, 83,84, 105, 257, 348. 
—of universe, 78, 80, 82, 91, 94, 

97, 105, 113, 180, 192, 258. 
Supreme, 49, 50, 54, 64, 65, 69, 77, 

79, 8r, 83, 85, 93, 94, 106, 113, 

176, 188, 192, 326, 369, 379. 
— belongs to none, 194. 
— form of, 193. 
— loss of, 71. 

— manifestation of, 77. See Incar- 

Supreme, part of, supports all, 91. 
See Being-Supreme, Brahman, 
and Highest. 
Surface. See Earth. 
Surya, 219. 

Sushum«a, 156, 277, 318. 
Suspension. See Hanging. 
Sujruta, 144. 
Sustainer, 83. 

Sustenance. See Body, support of. 
Sutrns, 7, 14, 30. 

Sutta Nipata, 14, 19, 24, 36, 40, 

45, 4 6 , 48, 49, 50, 5*1 56, 59, 
60, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 68, 69, 
109, in, 112, 114, 118, 121. 

Svadha, 83, 324, 370. 

Svaha, 324, 352, 366. 

iSVapaka, 65. 

Sveta, 222, 346. 

Svetajvataropanishad, 65, 68, 78, 89, 
102, 103, 104, 105, 1 12, 113,129, 
138, i57, 160, 163,165, 166, T72, 
176,179, 180, 186, 187, 189,190, 
192, 193,238,219, 265, 308, 311, 
313, 322, 327, 331, 332, 333,338, 
343, 348, 355, 37o, 37 6 , 379- 

Swallowing, 95, 353. 

Swamy, Sir M. C. See Sutta Nipata. 

Sweet, 363, 383, 384. 

Swerving. See Moving and Truth. 

Swift. See Speed. 

Sword, 63, 294, 302, 313. 

Syadvadin, 376. 

Syamaka. See Grain. 

Syena, 82, 353. 

Syllable, 391. See Om. 

Symbols, r6o, 307, 308, 309, 350, 367. 

Systematic arrangement, 7, 10, 13. 
See Philosophy. 

Tabor, 38. 

Taciturnity, ioi, 119, 159, 161, 162, 

163, 168, 173. 
Tad, 120, 161. 

Taint, 43, 49, 59, 64, 82, 106, 107, 
109, 123, 127, 154, 155, 160,163, 
186, 247, 248, 289, 366. See 

Tairthikas, 376. 

Taittiriya Arawyaka, 159, 164, 170, 
178, 186,188,190, 259, 261, 262, 
2'>6, 277, 280, 327, 347, 389. 

— Brahmawa, 261, 262, 266. 

— Upanishad, 103, 120, 123, 127, 152, 
155, T 5 6 , 161, 163, 164, 168, 171, 



1 80, 191,192, 220, 236,238,244, 
280, 293, 302, 343, 360, 361, 378, 
385, 388, 389, 390. 
Taking, 64. 

Talent, 37,72, 120, 177, 182, 191, 
377, 378, 380, 381, 386. 

Talk, 47, 64, 124, 164, 320. 

TaWya Brahmarca, 180. 

Tanks, 222, 324. 

Tapas, 166. 

Taranatha Tarkava^aspati, Prof., 28, 

33, 329, 334, 342. 
Tarkikas, 376. 
Tarpawa, 325. 

Taste, 74, 257, 258. See Objects of 
sense, Relish, and Savoury. 

— by another, 269, 270. 

— for objects of sense, 50, 166. 
Tasteless, 118, 247. 

Tawny, 179. 

Teacher. See Preceptor. 
Teaching. See Instruction. 
Tears, 42. 
Technical terms, 10. 
Teeth, 95, 113. 

Temperate. See Food and Sleepi- 
Tempers, 86, 322. 
Temporary. See Perishable. 
Temptation, 154, 327. 
Ten, 373. 
Tender, 384. 

Terminable. See Perishable. 
Termination of Life. See Death. 
Terrible, 94, 95, 98, 343. 
Test, 306. 
Texts, 102. 

— Vedic,48, 269, 290, 305, 322. See 


Thief,53, 160, 169,284,324,330,389. 
Thigh, 94. 

Thirst, 151, 168, 356. 

Thomas, E., 224, 225. 

Thomson, Archbishop, 268. 

Thought, 87, 1 15, 1 16, 192, 259, 263, 
321, 348, 350, 378. See Con- 
tinuous meditation and Mind. 

— evil, 323. 

Thoughtless, 183, 359. See Rash. 
Thread, 74, 359, 360. 
Throat, 96, 252, 262, 266, 271. 
Throwing out, 64. 
Thumb, 190, 192. 
Thunderbolt, 37, 89. 

Tie. See Bond. 

Tiele, C. P., Prof., 21, 23, 24, 27, 97. 
Tiger, 142, 153, 155. 

— like, 230, 294. 

Time, 62, 81, 90, 120, 176, 186, 244, 

— and place, soul unlimited by, 45, 

186, 343, 356. 

— lapse of, 58. See Birth. 

— of return, &c., 80. See Death 

and Gift. 

— wheel of, 343, 355. 
To-day, 305. 

Toil. See Labour. 
To-morrow, 305. 
Tone, 264. 

Tongue, 219, 252, 259, 261, 292. 

See Senses and Taciturnity. 
Tooth. See Teeth. 
Tortoise, 50, 342, 366. 
Torture, 118, 237, 240. 
Touching, 247, 257, 258, 343. See 

Town, 173, 212, 3 6r, 363. 
Trade, 127. 
Tradition, 314. 

Tranquillity, 21, 51, 52,63,65, 67,68, 
69, 70,85, 86,94, 101, 108, 114, 
119, 120, 126, 128, 129, 190, 232, 
243, 246, 247, 248, 250, 256, 257, 
277, 287, 288, 301, 307,312, 317, 
326,342, 355, 370, 372, 373,375, 
389, 392. 

Transcendent Brahman, 76, 78, 113, 
333, 35i, 372. 

— happiness, 70. 

— nature, 76. 

Transcending. See Qualities, Source. 
Transgressing. See Ill-conducted 
and Sin. 

Transient, 44, 79, 86, 154, 179, 187, 
246, 250, 355, 390. See Life. 

— penance, 120. 

Transmigration, 322. See Life, 

Travellers, 329, 380, 381. 
Treachery, 41, 151, 324, 344. 
Treasure, 115. 

Trees, 89, 1 1 r, 112, 142, 172,241, 
284, 285, 286, 294, 296,313, 316, 
373, 379, 388. 

Tremour, 40, 96, 239. 

Trespasses. See Sin. 

Triku/avat, 222, 346. 


Ti in y, 88, 220, 347. 

Trouble, 56, 71, 118, 122, 124, 183, 

329, 356, 362. Sec Agitation. 
Trumpet, 38. 
Trunk, 313, 371 . 
Trust. See Faith. 
Truth, 1 1, 60, 62, 64, 70, 83, 86, 87, 

92, 103, no, 114, 115, 119, 124, 

160, 161, 162, 167,168, 169, 170, 
[71, 172, 174, 175, 176, 177, 182, 
184, 185,280,284,293,296,311, 

3i3, JI4»315i3*4j 325,326,331, 
3 36, 3 3 8 > 344, 35i,36o, 362, 
364, 366, 367, 368, 369,370, 371, 
37 3, 375, 378, 380, 381, 384. 
1 urbid, 42. 

Turning back. See Wheel. 

Tvashiri, 219, 346. 

Twelve, 373. 

Twenty-four, 373. 

— plus one, 317. 

Twenty-two, 373. 

Twice-born, 156, 160, 163, 166, 209, 
231, 232,285,291,293,296, 299, 
304, 311, 314, 316, 327,336,339, 
340, 348, 353, 360, 373, 383. 

Twofold, 375. 

Ubiquitous, 82. 

Udana, 258. 

UVulomas, 377. 

Udumbara, 374, 379. 

Udyoga Parvan, 135, 138, 139, 140. 

U££au.rravas, 89. 

Uma, 219, 347- 

Unasked, 365. 

Unattached. See Attachment. 
Unavoidable, 46. 

Unborn, 45, 58, 76, 86, 87, 192, 194, 

Uncertain, 120, 380. 
Unchangeable, 45, 100,317,331, 333, 

37i, 39i. 
Unchecked, 357. 
Uncle, maternal, 40. 
Unconcern, 82, no, 326, 391. See 

Unconfused, 307. 

Unconquerable, 16 r, 23 r. See In- 

Uncreated, 45, 347, 391. See Self- 

Undegraded, 39, 97, 130, 310. 

Underlying principle. See Substra- 

Understanding, 47, 57, 64, 65, 67, 70. 

73, 78, 97, 100, lor, 102, 112, 
123, 125,127, 161, 175, 177, 179, 
i8r, 187, 188, 189, 190,193,236, 
247,259, 260,267,279,284,287, 
302, 306, 307, 308, 309, 3T0, 313, 
316, 318, 332, 336, 337,338, 341, 
343, 344, 348, 349, 35o, 351, 355, 
357, 366, 367, 368, 370,372,377, 
380,381,382,385,386,391, 392. 
See Knowledge. 

Understanding, world of, 333. 

Undesponding. See Despondency. 

Undeveloped, 331. 

Undiscerning. See Discernment. 

Undistinguished colours, 286. 

Unfathomable, 343. 

Unfriendliness, 320. See Antipathy. 

Ungrateful, 254. 

Unhappiness, 49, 51, 53, 66, 69, 70, 
78, 79, 86, joi, 103, 107, 109, 
255, 313, 33i, 370, 372. See 

Unholy, 116, 343. 

Unintelligent, 160, 172,312, 320, 330, 

35i, 356, 37i, 379- 

Uninterrupted, 341. 

Union, 66, 70, 71, 115, 275. 

Unity of everything, 62, 71, 75, 83, 
104, 105, 106, 107, ii2, t 1 6, 124, 
128,312,313,344,370,374. See 
Difference, Identification. And 
Soul, all-pervading. 

— of work, 6. 

Universal benevolence. See Bene- 

— form, 92, 333, 344. 

— knowledge, 76, 114. 
Universe, constituents of, 336. 

— destruction of, 80. 

— devoid of truth, 115, 315. 

— divisions of, 93, 261. 

— eternal, 158. 

— government of, 115, 327. 

— heated by universal form, 94, 


— illumination of, 178, 186. 

— lord of, 83, 86, 87, 93. See 

Atheism and Ruler. 

— movement of, 82, 87. See Move- 


— producer and destroyer of, 74, 

95, 157, 158, 287, 354, 392. 

— support of, 74, 78, 80, 82, 93, 94, 

97, 104, 112, 180, 192. 

— upholding. See Support. 



Universe, welfare of, 29, 94. See 

— within and without. See Within. 

See Body of Krishna and Ruler. 
Unknowable, 76, 104, 160, 247. 
Unknown, 159, 160, 349,368. See 

I ncomprehensible. 
Unmanageable, 57. 
Unmoved, 51,68, 69,110,248, 352, 


Unpeopled. See Solitary. 

Unperceived, 45, 46, 76, 80, 82, 88, 
96, 99, 100, 102, 193, 313, 317, 
318, 331, 332,349,350,351, 354, 
368, 371, 372, 373, 380,382,383, 
385, 386, 389, 390. 

Unpleasant, 122. See Agreeable. 

Unreal, 44. 

Unreasonable, 237. 

Unrighteous, 53. 

Unseen, 115. See Unperceived. 

Unshaking, 331. 

Unsteady. See Steady. 

Unsubstantial, 255. 

Unswerving, 125, 336. 

Untainted, 367, 369, 379. See Gift, 
Lotus-leaf, and Worlds. 

Unthinkable, 45, 78, 100, 354, 369. 

Untruthfulness, 168, 183. 

Unwilling. See Reluctant. 

Up and down, going, 109, 240, 321, 
322, 325, 327, 329. 

Upanishads, 2, 5, 7, 8, 13, 15, 16, 17, 
18, 19, 23, 26, 27, 34, 36, 135, 
141, 142, 143, 144, 147, 174,181, 

207, 2IO, 21 I, 212, 215,223, 22 6, 

— dialogues in, 5. 
Upasana. See Meditation. 
Upavarsha, 32. 
Upholding. See Support. 
Upwards and downwards, branches, 

111,184,287,354. SeeUpand 

Urine, 261. 
Ujanas, 91. 
Ushmapas, 94. 
Uttamaiyjas, 37. 

Vain, 321, 327. See Life. 
Vaijampayana, 150, 151, 229, 230, 

Vaisvanara, 191, 259, 276. 

Vaijyas, 22, 24, 85, 126, 127, 217, 

255, 329. 
Vaivasvata, 153. 

Va^aspati Mijra, 319, 322,329, 356, 

37T, 382. 
Valiant, 332. See Valour. 
Vallabha<6arya, 30, 31. 
Valour, 126, 323, 326, 367. 
Valuables. See Precious things. 
Vamadeva, 193. 
Vamadevya, 277. 
Vanishing of nature, 380. 
Vanity, 103, 114, 115, 116, 166, i8r, 

246, 320, 321. See Arrogance 

and Pride. 
Vanquished, 96, 152, 388, 389. See 

Variable, 330. 

Variegated colours, 286, 357. 

Variety. See Diversity. 

Varu«a, 89, 97, 219, 220, 345, 346. 

Vasavadatta, 28. 

Vashat, 324. 

Vajikara safigna, 9. 

Vasish/£a, 159, 160, 314. 

Vasu, 88, 92, 94. 

Vasudeva, 75, 83, 91, 98, no, 130, 

230, 235, 254, 310, 312, 393. 
Vasuki, 89, 353. 
Vayu, 219, 340. See Wind. 
Veda, 171, 172. 

Vedanta, 8, 17, 113, 123, 147, 159, 
174, 246^, 331. 

— Paribhasha, 220, 258, 286, 314, 

3 33, 338, 339, 387. 

— Sara, 186. 

— Sutras, 30,31,32, 33,105,188, 191. 
Vedas, 5, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 25, 

26, 48, 54, 61, 62, 68, 74, 78, 81, 
83, 84, 88, 91, 98, 99, 102, no, 
in, 112, 113, 114,115, H9,T2o, 
121,143, 144, 145, 146, 152, 153, 
156, 157, 158, 159, 161, 162,163, 
164, 166, 169, 170, 171,172, 173, 
174, 177, 182, 185, 193,211,214, 
226, 262, 269, 276, 306, 309,312, 
320, 322, 326, 331, 353, 354,358, 
367, 369, 378, 388, 390. 

— Atharva, 18, 19, 145. 

— consubstantial with Brahman, 163. 

— disparagement of. See Disparage- 


— like reservoir, 48. 
■ — theogony of, 220. 

— three, 19, 83, 84. 

— two KaWas of, 17, 146. 
Vedic words, 48. 

Vegetables, 83, 113, 144, 156, 353. 
See Herbs. 


Vehicle, 345. 

Veil concealing Brahman, 76. 
Velocity, 192. See Speed, 
Venerable, 32, 97, 252, 267, 282, 293, 

3n, 377. 
\ eracity. See Truth. 
Verse, sacred, 83. 
— Sanskrit, 1 5. 
Vessels, -,63. 
Vestments, 9 3. 

Vexation, 43, 56,68, 110,159, 168, 
315, 324, 330, 33 6 , 356, 378. 
Sc*c Agitation. 

Vices, 301, 302, 303, 314. See Attack 
of vices. 

Vicissitudes. See Life, course of. 

Victory, 40, 43, 47, 91, 131, 287, 296, 
305, 306, 344. 

Vidura, 136, 149, 150, 151. 

Vig-ffana Bhikshu, 197, 201, 202, 203, 
204, 354. 
Vada, 375. 

Vikar«a, 38. 

VilasavatT, 28. 

Vilest state, 116. 

Vilifying, 323. See Abuse. 

Vinata, 90. 

Vindhya, 222, 346. 

Vindictiveness, 151, 323. 

Violation. See Regulation. 

Vipra, 347. 

Vii%, 186, 315. 

Virata, 37, 39. 

Viro&ina, 175. 

Virtue and vice, 56, 115. 

Virtuous, 116, 283. 

Vishamajloki, 227, 259. 

Vishmi, 29, 76, 88, 89, 90, 94, 95, 
190, 219, 220, 221, 261,332, 333, 
338, 345, 346, 347, 354- 

— ■ Purarca, 221, 222. 

Visible. See Perceptible and Regu- 

Visual power, concentration of, 67, 

Vijvamitra, 314. 
Vijvas, 94. 

Vital parts, 237, 238, 239, 297, 298, 

299. See Soul, seat of. 
Vitality. See Life. 
Vocal. See Bodily and Speech. 
Voice. See Speeeh. 
Volition, 3 1 3. 
Vomited, 142, 160. 
Voracity. See Eating. 
Vow. See Firmness, Regulation. 

Vowels, 348. 

Vraidhas, 377. See Elders. 

Vrikodara. See Bhima. 

Vr/shalas, 295. 

V/7sh«/'s, 4 1, 4 6, 56, 91, 235. 

Vulgar, 151. 

Vultures, 40. 

VyaV/i, 32. 

Vyana, 258. 

Vyasa, 3, 6, 33, 87, 91, 130, 204, 
206, 207. 

— author of Gita, 6. 
Vyuha, 38. 

Wain, 37. 

Wakefulness, 51, 69, 269, 324. See 

Day and night. 
War. See Battle-field. 
Warmth, 238, 329. See Heat. 
Washing, 119. 

Water, 45, 64, 73, 74, 95, 156, 159, 
179, 187, 189, 193,238,260, 28r, 
283, 284, 287,289,290,339, 343, 
344, 346,353,356, 359,3 6 o,36i, 
364,3 6 5,374, 379, 382, 384, 387. 

— offering to Supreme, 85. See 

Libations and Reservoir. 
Waterpot, 359. 
Wave, 374. See Billow. 
Way. See Hell and Path. 
Weak, 269. 

— point, touching, &c, 323. 
Wealth, 40, 61, 62, 75, 88, 114, 115, 

116, 124, 125,169, 177,178,181, 
183, 184,233,243,246, 261,284, 
307,314, 325, 331, 347, 357,359, 
365, 376, 392. See Belongings 
and Property. 

— Brahmic, 162, 

— human, 16 r, 255. 

— lord of, 88. 

Weapons, 38, 41, 42, 45, 89, 90, 93, 
in, 250. 

— do not cut soul, 45, 250. 
Weary, 160, 314. 
Weaving, 74, 194. 

Weber, A., Prof., 6, 8, 23, 25, 29, 31, 

33, 139, 248. 
Welfare. See Good. 

— of all. See Benevolence. 

— of Ar^una, 86, 92, 129. 

— of oneself, 117. 
Well, 324, 354- 

Well-read, 209, 255. See Learned. 
Well-wishers, 6S. 
Westminster Review, 3, 5, 6. 



Wheel of the world, 54. See Discus. 

— holder of, 232. 

— turning of, 215, 306. 

See Time. 
Wheeler, T., 3, 5, 6. 
Whip, 386. 
Whirling of mind, 40. 
Whistling. See Bamboo. 
White, 179, 384. 
Wick, 380. 

Wicked, 75, 121, 153, 329, 330. 
Wife, 41, 97, 103, 159, 161, 167, 170, 
i8r, 183, 189, 216,256,307,358. 

— of preceptor. See Preceptor. 
Wilkins, C, 2. 

Will of entities. See Free-will. 
Williams, M., Prof., 243, 344, 358. 
Willow, 346. See Bamboo. 
Wilson, H. H., Prof., 24, 50, 205, 
221, 222. 

Wind, 71, 9°, 97, 156, 192, 232, 237, 
238,239,257,261,337, 343, 349, 

— carries astray boat, 51. 

— carries away perfumes, 112. 

— does not dry up soul, 45. 

— life. See Life-winds. 

— restraint of, 71. 

— upward and downward. See 

Windless place, 69. 
Wing, 164, 188, 189, 192. 
Wink. See Eyelid. 
Winter, 332. 
Wisdom, 44, 49. 

Wise. See Learned, Life, and Un- 

Wish. See Desire. 
Wish-giving cow, 89. 

— stone. See Stone. 

Within all things, 104, 112, 180, 190, 

367, 369, 379- 

Without. See Within. 

Withstand, difficult to. See Re- 
straint and Unconquerable. 

Woe. See Home and Misery. 

Womb, 105, 107, 109, 116, 175, 
237,239,241,260, 321, 322,331, 
339, 353* See Foetus and Pre- 

Women. See Female. 

Wonder, 92, 93. 

— soul, subject of, 46. 
Wood. See Fuel and Staff. 
Word. See Speech. 

— divine, 59, 73. 

Words, 89, 103, 185, 209, 261, 262, 
263, 266, 338, 348, 353. 

— man of, 171. 

— of wisdom, 44. 
Work, divine, 29, 59. 

World, 52, 54, 55, 59, 60, 62, 63, 
66, 68, 72, 79, 84, 86, 100, 106, 
116,161, 163, 164, 170, 174, 179, 
180,190,230,231,233,234, 236, 
239,240, 243, 246, 249, 253, 255, 
256,258, 278, 281, 282, 283, 287, 
292,296, 307, 313, 314, 316, 325, 
331,332, 334, 343, 354, 356, 362, 
364, 367, 37o, 387, 388, 393. 

— affairs of, 55, 60, 304, 324. 

— agitation of and by, 101. 

— beginning of, 152. See Begin- 

ning, void of. 

— destroyer of, 95. 

— destruction of, 55, 96, 1 15. See 


— external and internal, 292, 337, 


— foes of, j 15. 

— future, 62, 63, 72, 115, 126, 165, 

167, 188, 308, 326, 378. 

— government of, 1 1 5. 

— higher, 354, 389. 

— holy. See Holy world. 

— human, 59, 84, 95, in. 

— knowledge of, 161. 

— master of, 67, 86, 97. 

— material, 65, 161, 163, 172, 175, 

186, 187, 189, 191, 335. 

— mortal, 82, 84, 100, 112, 153, 175, 

19 1 , 234, 34 3- 

— nether. See Hell. 

— of death, 100. See mortal, supra. 

— of meritorious men, 72, 84, 130, 

184, 321. 

— release from, 62, 159, 235. 

— spotless. See Untainted. 

— survey of, 234. 

— thought of, 323. 

— three, 40, 54, 94, 97, 113, 244, 

249, 334, 354, 388. 

— untainted, 108, 155, 317. See 

Current, Death, Destruction, 

Evil, Lord, and Transient. 
Worldliness, 51, 159, 314, 370. 
Worldly life. See Life, course of. 
Worms, 225, 321, 339, 364. 
Worship, 59, 7i, 73, 75, 76, 85, 86, 

87, 99, no, 117, 127, 156, 186, 

257, 286, 377. 

— complete, 114. 

438 bhagavadg{tA, sanatsugatiya, anuglta. 

Worship, exclusive, 73, 75, 78, 79, 

So, S3, S4, 85, 99, 100, 103, 1 10. 

— irregular. Sec Irregular, 
mode of, 83, 114, 127, 245, 353. 
of divinities, 59, 75, 1 18. 

Worshippers go to deity wor- 
shipped, 76, 84, 

— receive due fruit, 59. 
Woven. See Weaving. 

Wrath, 50, 57, 59, 66, 67, iot, 114, 
115, 116, 117, 128, 151, 154, 155, 
156, 160, 165, 166, 181, 183, 185, 
233, 241,246,284,289,294, 301, 
315,320, 322, 323, 325, 332, 343, 
357? 3 6 4- See Irascible. 

Wretched, 49. 

Wrong. See Modesty, Right and 

Yadava, 97. 
Ya#«a, 83. 

Ya^avalkya, 5,^37, 304, 344. 
Ya^wejvar Gastrin, 33, 224. 

Yagus, 18, 20, 83, 146, 162, 163, 

Yakshas, 88, 94, 118, 345, 347, 354. 
Yama, 89, 97, 15 3, 219, 233, 346. 
Yaska, 225. 
Years, 330. 
Yellow, 384. 

Yoga, 9, 10, it, 27, 47, 61, 63, 64, 
74, 297, 306. 

— Sutras, S, 9, 10, 74, 210, 211, 212, 

215,226, 234, 248, 250, 251,252, 
260,266, 271, 274, 285, 286, 300 
319,322, 324, 327, 343, 372, 373, 

— Vasish^a, 206, 24c. 
Yoga&iras, 213, 377. 
Yogin, 52, 293. 
Youth, 175. 

— compared to death, 44. 

— receiving senior, 139, 203. 
Yudhamanyu, 37. 
Yudhish^ira, 38, 394. 
Yuyudhana, 37. 


B. = Bhagavadgita ; S. = Sanatsu^atiya ; A. = Anugita. 

N.B. Only in some cases have references been given to all the passages in 
which a certain word occurs. In most cases, only the passages in which words 
are used in noteworthy senses are referred to. 

Akamabhuta, (A.) XXIII, 5. 

Akshara, (B.) Ill, 15 ; VIII, 3, 11, 21; 
X, 2, 5, 33; XI, 18, 37 ; XII, 
1, 3 ; XV, 16,18. (S.) Ill, 18, 
45; IV, 18. (A.) Ill, 27; IV, 14; 
V, 11 ; XIII, 22 ; XXXVI, 33. 

A/tetana, (A.) XXI, 15. 

AdhishvMna, (B.) Ill, 40; XVIII, 14. 

Adhyatma, (A.) XX, 40 ; LXI, 4. 

Anadiyoga, (S.) IV, 2c. 

Anamaya, (B.) II, 51 ; XIV, 6. 

Aniketa,(B.) XII, 19; (A.) XXVIII, 

Anukalpa, (S.) VI, 11. 

Anr/V&as, (S.) Ill, 37. 

Anta, (B.) II, 16. 

Antariksha, (S.) VI, 4. 

Apara, (B.) IV, 4; VII, 5. (A.) 
XXVII, 34; XXXV, 56. 

Aparaspara Sambhuta, (A.) XVI, 18. 

Aparyapta, (B.) I, 10. 

Apratishr^a. See PratisluM. 

Abhikrama, (B.) II, 40. 

Abhidhya, (S.) II, 11. 

Abhyasa, (B.) VI, 35, 44 ; XII, 9, 10, 
12 ; XVIII, 36. 

Ayana, (B.) I, 11. 

Alolutva, (B.) XVI, 2. 

Avyakta, (B.) II, 25, 28 ; VII, 24 ; 
VIII, 18, 20,21 ; IX, 4; XII, 1, 
3, 5; XIII, 5. (A.) I, 42 ; III, 
6 ; XII, 1, 3, 5; XIX, 8; XX, 
20,47 ; XXI, 1 ; XXIV, 22, 24, 
25 ; XXV, 1 ; XXVIII, 2s 35, 

37; xxix, 17; xxxi; 5 5; 

XXXII, 12; XXXIII, 1, 5; 

XXXV,i6, 33 ,34,55;XXXVII, 

7, 23 seq. 
Asarigraha, (S.) Ill, 27. 
Asiddhi, (S.) Ill, 25. 
Ahankara, (B.) II, 7r ; III, 27, 28 ; 

VII, 4; VIII, 1, 3; XII, 13; 

XIII, 5, 8; XVI, 18 ; XVII, 5; 

XVIII, 24, 53, 58, 59- (A.) XX, 

19, 20, 47 ; XXIII, 5 ; XXV, 
9; XXVI, 1, 2, 5 ; XXVII, 

I, 12, 30; XXIX, 22; XXX, 
6; XXXI, 45, 55; XXXII, 
9, 12, 15 ; XXXV, 33 seq., 54, 
55; XXXVI, 21. 

Ahankr/ta, (B.) XVIII. 17. (A.) 

XXXVI, 22. 
Ahahgata, (S.) II, 7. 

Atman, (B.) II, 41, 43, 44, 45, 55, 64; 
III, 6, 13, 17, 27, 43 ; IV, 6, 7, 
2i, 27, 35, 38, 40,41, 42 ; V, 7, 

II, 16, 17, 21, 25, 26 ; VI, 5, 6, 
25, 26, 28, 29, 32, 36, 47 ; VII, 
18, 19 ; VIII, 2, 12, 15, 19 ; IX, 

5, 26, 28, 31, 34 ; X, 11, 15, 16, 
18, 19, 20 ; XI, 3, 4, 24, 47, 50 ; 
XII, 11, 14; XIII, 7, 22, 24, 
28, 29, 31, 32 ; XIV, 24 ; XV, 

II, 11, 17 ; XVI, 9, 17, 18, 21, 
22; XVII, 16, 19 ; XVIII, 16, 

27, 37, 39, 49, 5i, 54- (S.) I, 

6, 7; II, 10, 15, 18, 30, 32; 

III, 8, 9, 41, 54 ; IV, 22 ; V, 
12 ; VI, 11, 16, 25, 26. (A.) I, 
39, 40 5 II, 3, 7, 8, 18, 36 ; III, 
3 seq., 30 ; IV, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 10, 
15 seq., 42, 46, 51, 56, 58 ; V, 5, 
9, 11 ; VIII, 23 ; X, 9, 15, 17 ; 
XI, 9; XII, 21, 22; XIII, 22,24 ; 
XV,2 9 ;XVI,3,i2;XVII,n, 
18 seq. ; XVIII, 8 ; XIX, 1, 7 ; 
XX, 16, 47 ; XXV, 1, 2, 3, 8 ; 
XXVI, 4; XXVII, 8, 9, 39,51, 
53,54,63,64,66; XXIX, 12,22; 
XXXI, 45, 46, 49; XXXII, 6, 
17; XXXIII, 2 , 3,5; xxw, 

20, 35 seq., 55, 56 ; XXXVI, 
„ 4, 23, 33 seq. 

Adadhriki, (S.) VI, 4. 
Apas, (S.) VI, 4. 
Apomaya, (A.) XIII, 19. 

440 bhagavadg{tA, sanats u gAtIya, anugita. 

Avasatha, (A.) IV, 3.,, 35. 

Avr/tti, (B.) V, 17 : VIII, 16, 23, 26. 

(A.) Ill, 39, 
Asya, (S.) 11, 7. 

Uta, (B.) I, j 9 ; XIV, 9, n. (S.) V, 
j. (A.) XI, 14; XIV, 21; XXV, 
8; XXXI, 3, 7; XXXV, 43; 
XX XVI, 28. 

Uttama, ( B.) XIV, r 4 ; XV, 17. 

Utsa,(S.) VI, 13. 
* Uddeja, (B.) X, 40. (A.) I, 3. And 
see (A.) XXVIII, 37. 

Upapatti, (A.) II, 2, 30, 42 ; III, 10. 

Ritvig, (S.) VI, 10. 

Karmayoga, (B.) Ill, 3, 7 ; V, 2 ; 

XIII, 24. 
kamakara, (B.) V, 12 ; XVI, 23. 
Kamayana, (A.) XIII, 4. 
Karyakarana, (B.) XIII, 20. 
Kufcira, (A.) XXIV, 13, 14. 
KG/astha, (B.) VI, 8 j XII, 3 ; XV, 


Kr/ta, (B.) XV, 11; XVIII, 16. 
Ketu, (S.) VI, 5. 

Kshara, (B.) VIII, 4 ; XIV, 16, 18. 

(A.) Ill, 27. See Akshara. 
Kshema, (B.) I, 46 ; II, 45 ; IX, 22. 

(A.) XXXI, 45; XXXII, 4. 

Gati, (B.) IV, 17; VIII, 26; XII, 5. 

(S.) I, 10. (A.) XXXIV, 1. 
Guwasankhyana, (B.) XVIII, 19. 
Grihita, (B.) VI, 25. And see VI, 35. 
Graha«anika, (A.) XXX, 6. 

Aakradhara, (S.) I, 23. 
tfara, (S.) Ill, 17. 

A"itta,(B.) XVI, 16. (A.) XXXVI, 27. 
tfodana, (B.) XVIII, 18. 
A'odya, (S.) Ill, 27. 

Gana, (S.) II, 27. 

Gati, (A.) 1,21 ; II, 18 ; III, 14, 33 ; 

Giva,(B.) VIl" 5 ; XV, 7. (A.) II, 

16, 17, 25, 28, 30, 33 ; III, 7, 9, 

10 5 IV, 43, 5o. 
Gwanayoga, (B.) Ill, 3 ; XV, 1. 

Tanu, (B.) VII, 21. (S.) I, 36. 
Tyaga,(B.) XVIII, r, 2, 4, 8, 9, 10, 

12. (A.) XXXIII, 7. 
Trivish/apa,(S.)II,26. (A.) XVIII, 4. 

Duranvaya, (A.) XXXVI, 17. 
Deva, (S.) II, 8; VI, 4. 
Daiva, (B.) XVIII, 14. 
Dhainawja, (S.) Ill, 41. 
Dhara»a,(B.)VIII, 12. (A.) XXVII, 

Dharayan, (B.) V, 9. (A.) IV, 50. 
DhishftMta, (B.) XIII, 17. 

NiyaX>X7*ati, (A.) V, 7. 

Nirvawa, (B.) VI, 15. See Brahma- 

nirvawa, (A.) IV, 12. 
Nirvijesha, (A.) XXI, 13. 
Nivr/'tti, (B.) XVI, 7 ; XVIII, 30. 
Nish^a, (B.)I1I,3J V,i2 17; XVII 

1; XVIII, 50. (A.) II 38 ; V 

27; VII, 12; XV, 24. 
Nyasta, (A.) V, 3. 

Pada, (B.) VIII, 11 ; XIII, 4. (A.) 

XX, 24; XXXV, 3. 
Para. See Apara. 
Parasu, (S.) V, 1. 
Pariwama, (A.) XXXVI, 37. 
Parita, (A.) 11,13. 
Paryaya, (A.) XXI, 9. 
Pavaka, (S.) VI, 16. 
Purusha, (B.) VIII, 4 ; XIII, 19, 20, 

21, 22, 23 ; XV, 16, 17, 18, 19; 

XVII, 3. 
Puga, (S.) VI, 7. 

PrakWti, (B.) Ill, 5,27, 28, 29, 33; 
IV, 6; VII, 4, 5, 20; IX, 7,8, 
10, 12, 13; XI, 51 ; XIII, 19,20, 
21, 2.3, 29, 34 ; XIV, 5 ; XV, 

7; XVIII, 40,59- (A.) II, 3; 

111,26; XXIII, i 3 ;XXIV,23. 
Pratish/>&a, (B.) Ill, 15; VI, 38; XIV, 

27 ; XV, 3. And see XVI, 8. 
Pradhana, (A.) Ill, 26, 33 ; IV, 47 ; 

XX, 19; XXIV, 23 ; XXXII, 

9 ; XXXV, 32 seq. 
Pramada, (S.) II, 5, 7. 
Prayatamana, (S.) II, 39. 
PravWtti, (B.) XI, 31 ; XIV, 12, 22 ; 

XV, 4; XVI, 7; XVII, 30,46; 

XVIII, 30, 46. (A.) XXI, 9; 
XXVIII, 26; XXXIU, 3; 
XXXVI, 37. 

Prasahga, (B.) XVIII, 34. 

Bala, (B.) X VI, 1 8 ; X VI 1, 5 ; X VI 1 1 , 

Bahu, (S.) Ill, 44. 
Buddhi, (B.) I, 23 ; II, 39, 41, 44, 49, 
50,51,52,53,63,65,66; III, r, 



2, 4, 26, 40, 42, 43 ; IV, 18 ; V, 
ii, 17, 20,28 ; VI, 9, 21, 23,25, 
43 ; VII, 4, 10, 24; VIII, 7 ; X, 
4, 10; XII, 4, 8, 14; XIII, 5, 
30; XV, 20; XVI, 9; XVIII, 
16, 17, 29 seq., 37, 49, 50, 51, 
57. (S.) II, 1, 31, 35, 37, 53, 
57; 111,2; IV, 11. (A.) I,io, 
14, 46; II, 7, 38; IV, 8, 12, 
64 ; V, 19, 24 ; VII, 2, 6seq.,22 ; 
IX, 10; X, 4; XIII, 26; XV, 
24; XVII, 14,16, 17; XVIII, 1, 
4, 6, 7 ; XIX, 6, 7, 12 ; XX, 
20; XXI, 2; XXIII, 7; XXV, 
2, 6, 13 ; XXVII, 9, 10, 15, 

16, 31 ; XXVIII, 24 seq., 35 ; 
XXX, 1 ; XXXI, 44, 50, 55 ; 
XXXII, 12, 17 ; XXXIV, 17 
seq. ; XXXV, 17, 22, 32, 55 ; 
XXXVI, 2, 30. 

Buddhiyoga, (B.) II, 49; X, 10; 
XVIII, 57. 

Brahman, (B.) Ill, 15 ; IV, 24, 25, 3 r, 
32 ; V, 6, 10, 19, 20, 21, 24 ; 
VI, i 4> 20, 27, 28, 38, 44; VII, 
29; VIII, 1, 3, 11, 13, 16, 17, 
24 ; X, 12 ; XI, 2 ; XIII, 4, 12, 
30: XIV, 3,4, 26,27; XVII, 
23, 24 ; XVIII, 42, 50, 53, 54. 
(S.) II, 5, 34, 36, 37 ; III, 44, 
47 5 IV, 2, 14 ; V, 7, 21 ; VI, 2. 
(A.) 1, 12, 13, 15, 42; II, 24 ; 
III, 6 ; IV, 14, 26, 47, 50, 60, 
62 ; V, 10, 17 ; VI, 22 ; IX, 17, 
XI, 8, 16, 17 ; XII, 20; XVII, 
26 ; XIX, 4 ; XX, t, 18, 22, 34, 
38;XXIII,io;XXVII,ii,i 4 , 
38, 49, 51 ; XXVIII, 12, 13; 
XXIX, 16 ; XXXII, 1, 2,4, 8, 
i 4 ;XXXIII,i;XXXIV,4,6; 
XXXVI, 3 seq., 9, 29, 35. 

Brahmanirva«a,(B.) 11,725 V, 24 seq. 

Bhakti, (B.) VII, 17; VIII, 10, 22 ; 
IX, 14, 26, 29; XI, 54 ; XII, 

17, 19 ; XIII, 10; XIV, 26 ; 
XVIII, 54, 55, 68. 

Bhagadeva, (A.) XXVIII, 15. 
Bhavana, (B.) II, 66. (A.) XXI, 14. 
Bhavayata, (B.) Ill, 11, 12. And see 

(B.) VIII, 6. (A.) VIII, 24; 

XXII, 15; XXVI, 4. 
Bhasha, (B.) II, 54. 
BhinnavWtti, (B.) XXI, 13. 
Bhuta,(B.)II,28, 3 o, 34,69; III, 14, 

18, 33 5 IV, 6, 35 ; V, 7, 25, 29; 

VI, 29, 31 ; VII, 6,9, 11,26,27; 
VIII, 3, 19,20,22 ; IX, 4, 5, 6, 
7,8,11, 13,25,29; X, 5 , 15,20, 

22, 39 ; XI, 2, 15, 55 ; XII, 4, 

13 ; XIII, 5, 15, 16, 27, 30, 34 ; 
XIV, 3 ; XV,i 3 ,i6;XVI,2,6; 

XVII, 4, 6; XVIII, 20, 21, 46, 
54, 61. (A.) I, 17 ; II, 22; III, 
7, 16, 28, 29, 33 ; IV, 3, 11, 27 ; 
V, 8; VII, 15 ; XIII, 18, 20, 24, 
XIV, 5 ;XVII,2 4 ;XX,7,8,i6, 
19,21,22,30, 32,34, 47,48,49; 
XXI, 9, 10, 18, 23 ; XXII, 8; 
XXIII, 1, 6 ; XXV, 9, 10, 11 ; 
XXVI, 2, 5 ; XXVII, 1 seq., 18 
seq., 32, 34, 37, 38, 41 seq., 46, 
48, 51, 64, 66, 67 ; XXV1II,8, 

II, 12 ; XXIX, 4, 5, 11, 15, 16; 
XXX, 1, 8, 1 1, 24 ; XXXI, 18, 
24. 27, 34, 40, 41, 49, 54; 
XXXII, 6,9, 13, 14 ; XXXIV, 
12 ; XXXV, 34, 36, 37, 39,54, 
56 ; XXXVI, 1, 2, 6, 9, 10, 12, 

13, 19, 39- 

Bhutatman, (B.) VI, 14 ; XIII, 3; 

XXXVI, 4. 
Bhutadr. See Bhuta. 

Matva, (S.) Ill, 17. (A.) XXXV, 32. 

Manasvin, (S.) Ill, 98. 

Mahat, (A.) XX, 47 5 XXVI, 1 ; 

XXVIII, 35; XXX, 9 ;XXXV, 

33 seq. ; XXXVI, 4. 
Matra,(B.)II, 14. (A.) XXX 1, 21, 40. 
Maya, (B.) IV, 6; VII, 14, 15,25; 

XVIII, 61. (A.) XXXVI, 20. 
Marga, (S.) Ill, 9. 

Mukta, (B.) IV, 23. (A.) Ill, 21. 
Mauna, (S.) II, 41 ; III, 1, 2, 20, 45. 

Yatra, (A.) XXXI, 23, 32 ; XLVI, 

23. And see (B.) Ill, 8. 
Yukta, (B.) II, 61, 66 ; III, 26 ; IV, 

18; V, 6, 7, 8, 12,21,23; VI, 8, 

14, i8,2 9 ,47;VII, 17,30; VIII, 

14 ; IX, 14; X, 4, 10 ; XII, 1, 
2 ; XIII, 2; XVIII, 28. (A.) 
IV, 18 seq., 26,66 ; V, 11 ; XI, 
1 ; XXXI, 8, 16, 30. 

Yoga, (B.) II, 39, 45, 48, 49, 50, 53 ; 

III, 3, 7 ; IV, 1, 2, 3, 27, 28, 38, 
41, 42 ;V, 1, 2, 4, 5,6, 7,21 ;VI, 
2, 3, 4, 12, 16, 17, 19, 20, 23, 29, 
33, 36, 37, 41, 445 VII, 1, 25 ; 
VIII, 8, 10, 12, 27 ; IX, 5, 22, 
28 ; X, 7; 10, 18; XI, 1,4,8,9, 


.s, , 7; XII, 1,6,9, [i; XIII, 

10, 24 ; XIV, 26; XVI, 1; 
XVIII, 33, 53, 57,75, 7«. (S.) 

11, 7, 9, 10, 20, 21 ; V, 18. (A.) 

1, 13, 29; in, 13 ; IV, 15, 17, 

[8, 33, 66 ; X, 14 ; XV, 28 scq., 
XX, J5 ; XXV, 6; XXVIII, 26; 

XXXV, 25 ; XXXVI, 22 scq. 
See Kshema. 

\rogin,(B.)III,3;IV,25;V,ii,2 4 ; 

\ I, 1, 2,8, 10, 15, 19,27,28,31, 

32, 42, 45, 46, 47 I VIII, 14, 

23, 25, 27, 28 ; X, 17 ; XII, 14 ; 

XV, ir. (S.) VI, 1 seq. (A.) 

Ill, 21 ; IV, 15, 22, 23. 
Voni, (S.) IV, 5. (A.) V, 24; XX, 

32 ; XXIV, 8; XXVII, 38; 

XXXII, 1. 

Rati, (S.) V, 19. (A.) XXVIII, 16. 
Rupa, (A.) IV, 9, 13 seq. 

Linga, (S.) VI, u. 

Vadanya, (S.) V, 2. 

Varga,(S.) Ill, 9, 18. 

Vikarman, (B.) IV, 17. 

Vikara, (S.) II, 21. (A.) XXIV, 23. 

Vi^ana, (B.) Ill, 41 ; VI, 8 ; VII, 

21 ; IX, 1 ; XVIII, 42. (A.) I, 

20; V, 2; VI, 11.; VII, 5; 

XXXI, 5. 
Vinir«aya, (A.) IV, 63. 
Vibhaga^wa, (A.) XXXV, 27, And 

see XXIV, 25. 
Vimarga, (S.) II, 7. 
Vijesha, (A.) XX, 21, 48; XXX, 

9 ; XXXII, 13 ; XXXV, 7 5 

XXXVI, 7, 28. 
Vijvarupa, (S.) IV, 1. 
Vishamedhamana, (S.) Ill, 18. 
Vishutf, (S.) VI, 4. 
Visarga, (A.) XXVII, 26. 
Vismaya, (A.) XXIII, 7. 
Vira, (A.) XIV, 17. 
VWgina, (S.) Ill, 5. 

Vega, (S.) II, 11. (A.) II, 11; 

XXVII, 62. 
Veda, (S.) Ill, 35, 38 seq. 
Vedya, (S.) Ill, 38 seq. 
Vaidya, (A.) XX, 36. 
Vyakara»a, (S.) Ill, 45. 

Vyutthana, ( A .) X X I X, 1 6; X X X I V, 
13, 14. 

Sastrakara, (S.) Ill, 5. 
Sukra, (S.) VI, 2. 

Sankhya, (A.) XXXII, 17. 
Sangraha, (B.) Ill, 20, 2s ; VIII, 12 ; 

XVIII, 18. (A.) XXXI, 39. 
Sahghata, (B.) XIII, 6. 
Sa%0a, (B.) 1,7. (S.) V, 2, 11. (A.) 



Sa%«ita, (B.) XI, 1. (A.) XXVII, 

Sattva, (B.) II, 45 ; X, 36, 41 ; XIII, 
26; XIV, 6 ; XVI, 1 ; XVII, 3, 
8 ; XVIII, 10, 40. (A.) II, 8, 
27 ; XIII, 23 ; XXVII, 58 ; 
XXVIII, 41 ; XXXII, 17 ; 
XXXIII, 6, 8 seq. ; XXXIV, 
16 ; XXXV, 7 seq. ; XXXVI, 

Samadhi, (B.) II, 44, 53, 54 ; IV, 24 ; 

VI, 7 ; XII, 9 ; XVII, 11. 
Samasita, (A.) XIV, 6. 
Samahvaya, (A.) VI, 13. 
Samudra, (S.) IV, 19. 
Sampratish/Aa. See Pratish^a. 
Samvid, (A.) XI, 6. 
Samstha, (B.) VI, 15. 
Salila, (S.) IV, 19 ; VI, 4, 11. 
SavitrT, (A.) XXIX, 6. 
Sutra, (B.) XIII, 4. 
Stabdha, (B.) XVI, 17 ; XVIII, 28. 

And see (A.) XXI, 12. 
Smr/ti, (A.) XXVI, 5. 
Srotas, (A.) II, 24; XXI, 3, 31. 

AndseeXXII, 16; XXIII, 13; 

XXIV, 7 seq. 
Svabhava,(B.)II, 7 ; V, 14 I VIII, 3; 

XVII, 2 ; XVIII, 41 seq., 47, 

60. (S.) 11,40. (A.) VII, 3; 

VIII, 3; XI, 10; XIII, 2,4,5, 

22 ; XXXIV, 12 ;XXXVI, 11. 
Svarga, (S.) II, 26. 

Ha, (B.) II, 9. (A.) VIII, 9, 15, iS, 
20; XIV, 4; XV, 4; XVIII, 
3; XX, 5; XXXI, 5. 

Hitakamya, (B.) X, 1. 

Hina, (S.) V, 21.